Chapter 1: Characterization of Distributed Systems • • • • • Introduction Examples of distributed systems Resource sharing and the eb Challenges Summary

!bi"uitous net or#s • • • • • • • Internet $obile phone net or#s Corporation net or#s %actory net or#s Campus net or#s &ome net or#s ''

Distributed System Definition • ( distributed system is one in hich hard are or soft are components located at net or#ed computers communicate and coordinate their actions only by passing messages)

Characteristics of Distributed System • Concurrency
• concurrent programs execution * share resource

• +o global cloc#
• programs coordinate actions by exchanging messages

• Independent failures
• hen some systems fail, others may not #no

ideo frames and the audio connection) .Share resources • It characterizes the range of the things that can usefully be shared in a net or#ed computer • It extends from hard are components to soft are-defined entities) • It includes the stream of .

Chapter 1: Characterization of Distributed Systems • • • • • Introduction Examples of distributed systems Resource sharing and the eb Challenges Summary .

%amiliar and idely used computer net or#s • /he Internet • Intranet • $obile computing .

Internet • It is a .ement) .ery large distributed system that allo s users throughout the orld to ma#e use of its ser.ices) • Internet protocols is a ma0or technical achie.

/he Internet intranet ISP backbone satellite link desktop computer: server: network link: .

ia a router .Intranet • 1hat is Intranet2 * ( portion of the Internet that is separately administered and has a boundary that can be configured to enforce local security policies * Composed of se.eral 3(+s lin#ed by bac#bone connections * 4e connected to the Internet .

( typical Intranet email server print and other servers Local area network Des#top computers Web server email server File server print other servers the rest of the Internet router/firewall .

ices • %ire all • /he cost of soft are installation and support ./hree main issues in the design of components for the use in intranet • %ile ser.

mobile phone. digital camera * 1earable de.ideo camera. hi-fi systems.ices • e)g) smart atches. . pager. digital glasses * +et or# appliances • e)g) ashing machines.$obile and ubi"uitous computing • $obile de. cars and refrigerators .ices • 5D(.ices * 3aptop computers * &andheld de.

$obile and ubi"uitous computing ' continued • $obile computing 6nomadic computing7 * (ccess resources hile on the mo.ices . cheap computational de.e or in an unusual en.asi.ironment * Location-aware computing: utilize resources that are con.e computing7 * /he harnessing of many small.eniently nearby • !bi"uitous computing 6per.

5ortable and handheld de.ices in a distributed system Internet ost intranet Wireless L!" W!P #atew a$ ome intranet Printer Camera Mobile phone Laptop ost site .

ity as they tra.acy and other security guarantees .Issues in the design of components for the use in $obile and ubi"uitous computing • Disco.ide pri.el • 5ro.ices • /o cope ith limited connecti.ery of resources • Eliminating the need for users to reconfigure their mobile de.

Chapter 1: Characterization of Distributed Systems • • • • • Introduction Examples of distributed systems Resource sharing and the eb Challenges Summary .

eb page * $ore specific functionality. e)g) search engine .ation of distributed computing • Resources types * &ard are. database. e)g) file. camera * Data.Resource sharing • Is the primary moti. scanner. e)g) printer.

Some definitions • Service * manage a collection of related resources and present their functionalities to users and applications • Server * a process on net or#ed computer that accepts re"uests from processes on other computers to perform a service and responds appropriately • Client * the re"uesting process • Remote invocation * ( complete interaction bet een client and the ser.er8s response . from the point hen the client sends its re"uest to hen it recei.

Case study: the 1orld 1ide 1eb • $oti.ation of 111 * Documents sharing bet een physicists of CER+ • 1eb is an open system: it can be extended and implemented in ne ays ithout disturbing its existing functionality) – Its operation is based on communication standards and document standards * Respect to the types of 9resource8 that can be published and shared on it) .

ers ./hree main components of the 1eb • &yper/ext $ar#up 3anguage * ( language for specifying the contents and layout of pages as they are displayed by eb bro sers • !niform Resource 3ocators – Identify documents and other resources stored as part of the 1eb • ( architecture ith &//5 – 4y ith bro sers and other clients fetch documents and other resources from eb ser.

er) -/he bro ser interprets the &/$3 text -/he the contents of this file from a eb ser.html>Moon</A>.er can infer the content type from the filename extension) . <P> (etcetera)   &/$3 text is stored in a file of a eb ser.jpg> <P> Welcome to Earth! Visitors may also be interested in taking a look at the <A HREF = “$3 <IMG SRC = ( bro ser retrie.

p k u .!R3 S c h e m e : sc h e m e -sp e c ific -lo c atio n e .er maintains the resource .n e t ftp ://ftp ./o identify hich eb ser.d o w n lo ad It.   &//5 !R3s are the most idely used (n &//5 !R3 has t o main 0obs to do: .e d u .c n / ….e x e h ttp ://n e t.c o m /so ftw ar e /aP r o g.g: m ailto :jo e @ an IS P ./o identify hich of the resources at that . Protocols File system o www.ers and eb bro sers http://e.html Internet e.html .org/Protocols/ Web servers www.1eb Browsers Activity. D+S name )cd#>)net ) >c)org e)p#u)edu)cn 5athname on<.ity)html http:::e)p#u)cn:cgi-bin:allsearch2 ord?distributed@system -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ser.:port< 6default7 5rotocols:(cti.ity)html cgi-bin:allsearch (rguments 6none7 6none7 ord?distributed@system -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- • 5ublish a resource remains un ieldy .&//5 !R3s • http:::ser.2arguments< • e)g) http::: )cd#>)net: http::: ) >c)org:5rotocols:(cti.

ACDB7 * =ne resource per re"uest) &//5 .&//5 • Defines the ays in hich bro sers and any other types of client interact ith eb ser.ers 6R%CAB1B7 • $ain features * Re"uest-replay interaction * Content types) /he strings that denote the type of content are called $I$E 6R%CACDE.ersion 1)C * Simple access control .

ers run to generate content for their clients • Do nloaded code * Ga.$ore features-ser.aScript * (pplet .ices and dynamic pages • Dynamic content * Common Fate ay Interface: a program that eb ser.

y load on popular eb ser.ed.ers $ore applets or many images in pages increase in the do nload time . but lin#s to it may still remain %ind information easily: e)g) Resource Description %rame or# hich standardize the format of metadata about eb resources Exchange information easily: e)g) H$3 * a self describing language Scalability: hea.Discussion of 1eb      Dangling: a resource is deleted or mo.

Chapter 1: Characterization of Distributed Systems • • • • • Introduction Examples of distributed systems Resource sharing and the eb Challenges Summary .

&eterogeneity • +et or#s * Ethernet.elopers * no application standards . etc • Computer hard are * big endian : little endian • =perating systems * different (5I of !nix and 1indo s • 5rogramming languages * different representations for data structures • Implementations from different de. to#en ring.

ides a programming abstraction as ell as mas#ing the heterogeneity of the underlying net or#s. hard are.&eterogeneity' continued • $iddle are * applies to a soft are layer that pro. =Ss and programming languages • $obile code * is used to refer to code that can be sent from one computer to another and run at the destination .

is the characteristic that determines hether the system can be extended and re-implemented in .#ey interfaces are published.ariety of client programs.g. e)g) R%C .ices can be added and be made a.ailable for use by a .=penness • =penness of a computer system determined by the degree to hich ne resource sharing ser.arious ay) e)g) !nix • =penness of distributed systems -. e. Web • &o to deal ith openness2 -.

ailability .ice • Integrity • (. e)g) chec#sum – protection against interference ith the means to access the resources. e)g) Denial of ser. e)g) (C3 in !nix %ile System – protection against alteration or corruption.Security • Confidentiality – protection against disclosure to unauthorized indi.iduals.

A1K. e)g).AC>. Guly 1IIE.JJB.CIB B.BIJ Percentage C)CCK C)D B 1A .CCC Web servers 1>C A>.oid performance bottlenec#s.CCC B.ers support users at most =6n7 /he performance loss. I5 address (.ent soft are resources running out. e)g). e)g). e)g).EDC.CCC 1I. Guly 1IIJ.EIK. Guly 1III.BDA.Scalability • ( system is described as scalable * if ill remain effecti. ser. cache and replication Computers 1.e hen there is a significant increase in the number of resources and the number of users • ( scalable example system: the Internet • design challenges % % % % Date 1II>. Guly /he cost of physical resources.ECC 1. partitioning name table of D+S. D+S no orse than =6logn7 5re.CCC EB.

e)g) a remote crashed ser. standby ser. replicated name table of D+S .%ailure handling • Detecting * e)g) chec#sum for corrupted data * Sometimes impossible so • Recovery * e)g) Roll bac# • Redundancy * e)g) I5 in the Internet • Masking * e)g) Retransmit • Tolerating * e)g) a eb bro ser cannot contact a eb ser.

Concurrency • Correctness * ensure the operations on shared resource correct in a concurrent en.ironment e)g) records bids for an auction • 5erformance * Ensure the high performance of concurrent operations .

grids. e)g) a graphical user interface ith folders resources to be accessed ithout #no ledge of their location.eral processed operate concurrently using shared resources ithout interference ith bet een them multiple instances of resources to be used to increase reliability and performance ithout #no ledge of the replicas by users or application programmers. e)g) realcourse6http ://re a lc ou rse ./ransparency • Access transparency * using identical operations to access local and remote resources.c n/ 7 • Location transparency * • Concurrency transparency * • Replication transparency * . e)g) !R3 se.

mobile phone allo s the system to be reconfigured to impro. email mo. e)g). e)g).ary allo s the system and applications to expand in scale ithout change to the system structure or the application algorithms • Mobility transparency * • Performance transparency * • Scaling transparency * .e performance as loads .ement of resources and clients ithin a system ithout affecting the operation of users and programs./ransparency ' continued • Failure transparency * users and applications to complete their tas#s despite the failure of hard are and soft are components.

Chapter 1: Characterization of Distributed Systems • • • • • Introduction Examples of distributed systems Resource sharing and the eb Challenges Summary .

asi.Summary • Distributed systems are per.e • Resource sharing is the primary moti.ation for constructing distributed systems • Characterization of Distributed System * * * * * * * * * * Concurrency +o global cloc# Independent failures &eterogeneity =penness Security Scalability %ailure handling Concurrency /ransparency • Challenges to construct distributed system .