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FHSST Authors

The Free High School Science Texts:


Textbooks for High School Students
Studying the Sciences
Mathematics
Grades 10 - 12

Version 0
September 17, 2008
ii
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Copyright 2007 “Free High School Science Texts”


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FHSST Core Team
Mark Horner ; Samuel Halliday ; Sarah Blyth ; Rory Adams ; Spencer Wheaton

FHSST Editors
Jaynie Padayachee ; Joanne Boulle ; Diana Mulcahy ; Annette Nell ; René Toerien ; Donovan
Whitfield

FHSST Contributors
Rory Adams ; Prashant Arora ; Richard Baxter ; Dr. Sarah Blyth ; Sebastian Bodenstein ;
Graeme Broster ; Richard Case ; Brett Cocks ; Tim Crombie ; Dr. Anne Dabrowski ; Laura
Daniels ; Sean Dobbs ; Fernando Durrell ; Dr. Dan Dwyer ; Frans van Eeden ; Giovanni
Franzoni ; Ingrid von Glehn ; Tamara von Glehn ; Lindsay Glesener ; Dr. Vanessa Godfrey ; Dr.
Johan Gonzalez ; Hemant Gopal ; Umeshree Govender ; Heather Gray ; Lynn Greeff ; Dr. Tom

Gutierrez ; Brooke Haag ; Kate Hadley ; Dr. Sam Halliday ; Asheena Hanuman ; Neil Hart ;
Nicholas Hatcher ; Dr. Mark Horner ; Mfandaidza Hove ; Robert Hovden ; Jennifer Hsieh ;
Clare Johnson ; Luke Jordan ; Tana Joseph ; Dr. Jennifer Klay ; Lara Kruger ; Sihle Kubheka ;
Andrew Kubik ; Dr. Marco van Leeuwen ; Dr. Anton Machacek ; Dr. Komal Maheshwari ;
Kosma von Maltitz ; Nicole Masureik ; John Mathew ; JoEllen McBride ; Nikolai Meures ;
Riana Meyer ; Jenny Miller ; Abdul Mirza ; Asogan Moodaly ; Jothi Moodley ; Nolene Naidu ;
Tyrone Negus ; Thomas O’Donnell ; Dr. Markus Oldenburg ; Dr. Jaynie Padayachee ;
Nicolette Pekeur ; Sirika Pillay ; Jacques Plaut ; Andrea Prinsloo ; Joseph Raimondo ; Sanya
Rajani ; Prof. Sergey Rakityansky ; Alastair Ramlakan ; Razvan Remsing ; Max Richter ; Sean
Riddle ; Evan Robinson ; Dr. Andrew Rose ; Bianca Ruddy ; Katie Russell ; Duncan Scott ;
Helen Seals ; Ian Sherratt ; Roger Sieloff ; Bradley Smith ; Greg Solomon ; Mike Stringer ;
Shen Tian ; Robert Torregrosa ; Jimmy Tseng ; Helen Waugh ; Dr. Dawn Webber ; Michelle
Wen ; Dr. Alexander Wetzler ; Dr. Spencer Wheaton ; Vivian White ; Dr. Gerald Wigger ;

Harry Wiggins ; Wendy Williams ; Julie Wilson ; Andrew Wood ; Emma Wormauld ; Sahal
Yacoob ; Jean Youssef

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Contents

I Basics 1

1 Introduction to Book 3
1.1 The Language of Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

II Grade 10 5

2 Review of Past Work 7


2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2 What is a number? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.3 Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.4 Letters and Arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.5 Addition and Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.6 Multiplication and Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.7 Brackets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.8 Negative Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.8.1 What is a negative number? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.8.2 Working with Negative Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.8.3 Living Without the Number Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.9 Rearranging Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.10 Fractions and Decimal Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.11 Scientific Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.12 Real Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.12.1 Natural Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.12.2 Integers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.12.3 Rational Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.12.4 Irrational Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.13 Mathematical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.14 Infinity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.15 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

3 Rational Numbers - Grade 10 23


3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.2 The Big Picture of Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.3 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
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3.4 Forms of Rational Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24


3.5 Converting Terminating Decimals into Rational Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.6 Converting Repeating Decimals into Rational Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.8 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4 Exponentials - Grade 10 29
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.2 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.3 Laws of Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.3.1 Exponential Law 1: a0 = 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.3.2 Exponential Law 2: am × an = am+n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1
4.3.3 Exponential Law 3: a−n = an , a 6= 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.3.4 Exponential Law 4: a ÷ a = am−n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
m n

4.3.5 Exponential Law 5: (ab)n = an bn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32


4.3.6 Exponential Law 6: (am )n = amn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.4 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

5 Estimating Surds - Grade 10 37


5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.2 Drawing Surds on the Number Line (Optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.3 End of Chapter Excercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

6 Irrational Numbers and Rounding Off - Grade 10 41


6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
6.2 Irrational Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
6.3 Rounding Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
6.4 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

7 Number Patterns - Grade 10 45


7.1 Common Number Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.1.1 Special Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
7.2 Make your own Number Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
7.3 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
7.3.1 Patterns and Conjecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7.4 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

8 Finance - Grade 10 53
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
8.2 Foreign Exchange Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
8.2.1 How much is R1 really worth? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
8.2.2 Cross Currency Exchange Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
8.2.3 Enrichment: Fluctuating exchange rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
8.3 Being Interested in Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
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8.4 Simple Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59


8.4.1 Other Applications of the Simple Interest Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
8.5 Compound Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
8.5.1 Fractions add up to the Whole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
8.5.2 The Power of Compound Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
8.5.3 Other Applications of Compound Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
8.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
8.6.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
8.6.2 Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
8.7 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

9 Products and Factors - Grade 10 71


9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
9.2 Recap of Earlier Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
9.2.1 Parts of an Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
9.2.2 Product of Two Binomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
9.2.3 Factorisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
9.3 More Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
9.4 Factorising a Quadratic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
9.5 Factorisation by Grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
9.6 Simplification of Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
9.7 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

10 Equations and Inequalities - Grade 10 83


10.1 Strategy for Solving Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
10.2 Solving Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
10.3 Solving Quadratic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
10.4 Exponential Equations of the form ka(x+p) = m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
10.4.1 Algebraic Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
10.5 Linear Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
10.6 Linear Simultaneous Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
10.6.1 Finding solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
10.6.2 Graphical Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
10.6.3 Solution by Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
10.7 Mathematical Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
10.7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
10.7.2 Problem Solving Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
10.7.3 Application of Mathematical Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
10.7.4 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
10.8 Introduction to Functions and Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
10.9 Functions and Graphs in the Real-World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
10.10Recap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
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10.10.1 Variables and Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107


10.10.2 Relations and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
10.10.3 The Cartesian Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
10.10.4 Drawing Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
10.10.5 Notation used for Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
10.11Characteristics of Functions - All Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
10.11.1 Dependent and Independent Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
10.11.2 Domain and Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
10.11.3 Intercepts with the Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
10.11.4 Turning Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
10.11.5 Asymptotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
10.11.6 Lines of Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
10.11.7 Intervals on which the Function Increases/Decreases . . . . . . . . . . . 114
10.11.8 Discrete or Continuous Nature of the Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
10.12Graphs of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
10.12.1 Functions of the form y = ax + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
10.12.2 Functions of the Form y = ax2 + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
a
10.12.3 Functions of the Form y = x + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
10.12.4 Functions of the Form y = ab(x) + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
10.13End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

11 Average Gradient - Grade 10 Extension 135


11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
11.2 Straight-Line Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
11.3 Parabolic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
11.4 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

12 Geometry Basics 139


12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
12.2 Points and Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
12.3 Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
12.3.1 Measuring angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
12.3.2 Special Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
12.3.3 Special Angle Pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
12.3.4 Parallel Lines intersected by Transversal Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
12.4 Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
12.4.1 Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
12.4.2 Quadrilaterals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
12.4.3 Other polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
12.4.4 Extra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
12.5 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
12.5.1 Challenge Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
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13 Geometry - Grade 10 161


13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
13.2 Right Prisms and Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
13.2.1 Surface Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
13.2.2 Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
13.3 Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
13.3.1 Similarity of Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
13.4 Co-ordinate Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
13.4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
13.4.2 Distance between Two Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
13.4.3 Calculation of the Gradient of a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
13.4.4 Midpoint of a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
13.5 Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
13.5.1 Translation of a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
13.5.2 Reflection of a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
13.6 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

14 Trigonometry - Grade 10 189


14.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
14.2 Where Trigonometry is Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
14.3 Similarity of Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
14.4 Definition of the Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
14.5 Simple Applications of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
14.5.1 Height and Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
14.5.2 Maps and Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
14.6 Graphs of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
14.6.1 Graph of sin θ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
14.6.2 Functions of the form y = a sin(x) + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
14.6.3 Graph of cos θ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
14.6.4 Functions of the form y = a cos(x) + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
14.6.5 Comparison of Graphs of sin θ and cos θ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
14.6.6 Graph of tan θ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
14.6.7 Functions of the form y = a tan(x) + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
14.7 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

15 Statistics - Grade 10 211


15.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
15.2 Recap of Earlier Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
15.2.1 Data and Data Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
15.2.2 Methods of Data Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
15.2.3 Samples and Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
15.3 Example Data Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
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15.3.1 Data Set 1: Tossing a Coin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213


15.3.2 Data Set 2: Casting a die . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
15.3.3 Data Set 3: Mass of a Loaf of Bread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
15.3.4 Data Set 4: Global Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
15.3.5 Data Set 5: Price of Petrol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
15.4 Grouping Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
15.4.1 Exercises - Grouping Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
15.5 Graphical Representation of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
15.5.1 Bar and Compound Bar Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
15.5.2 Histograms and Frequency Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
15.5.3 Pie Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
15.5.4 Line and Broken Line Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
15.5.5 Exercises - Graphical Representation of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
15.6 Summarising Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
15.6.1 Measures of Central Tendency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
15.6.2 Measures of Dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
15.6.3 Exercises - Summarising Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
15.7 Misuse of Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
15.7.1 Exercises - Misuse of Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
15.8 Summary of Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
15.9 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

16 Probability - Grade 10 235


16.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
16.2 Random Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
16.2.1 Sample Space of a Random Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
16.3 Probability Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
16.3.1 Classical Theory of Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
16.4 Relative Frequency vs. Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
16.5 Project Idea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
16.6 Probability Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
16.7 Mutually Exclusive Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
16.8 Complementary Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
16.9 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

III Grade 11 249

17 Exponents - Grade 11 251


17.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
17.2 Laws of Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
m √
17.2.1 Exponential Law 7: a n = n am . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
17.3 Exponentials in the Real-World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
17.4 End of chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
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18 Surds - Grade 11 255


18.1 Surd Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
√ √ √
18.1.1 Surd Law 1: n a n b = n ab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

n
a
18.1.2 Surd Law 2: n ab = √
p
n
b
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
√ m
18.1.3 Surd Law 3: n am = a n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
18.1.4 Like and Unlike Surds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
18.1.5 Simplest Surd form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
18.1.6 Rationalising Denominators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
18.2 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

19 Error Margins - Grade 11 261

20 Quadratic Sequences - Grade 11 265


20.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
20.2 What is a quadratic sequence? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
20.3 End of chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

21 Finance - Grade 11 271


21.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
21.2 Depreciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
21.3 Simple Depreciation (it really is simple!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
21.4 Compound Depreciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
21.5 Present Values or Future Values of an Investment or Loan . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
21.5.1 Now or Later . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
21.6 Finding i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
21.7 Finding n - Trial and Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
21.8 Nominal and Effective Interest Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
21.8.1 The General Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
21.8.2 De-coding the Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
21.9 Formulae Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
21.9.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
21.9.2 Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
21.10End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

22 Solving Quadratic Equations - Grade 11 287


22.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
22.2 Solution by Factorisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
22.3 Solution by Completing the Square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
22.4 Solution by the Quadratic Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
22.5 Finding an equation when you know its roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
22.6 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
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23 Solving Quadratic Inequalities - Grade 11 301


23.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
23.2 Quadratic Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
23.3 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

24 Solving Simultaneous Equations - Grade 11 307


24.1 Graphical Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
24.2 Algebraic Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

25 Mathematical Models - Grade 11 313


25.1 Real-World Applications: Mathematical Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
25.2 End of Chatpter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

26 Quadratic Functions and Graphs - Grade 11 321


26.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
26.2 Functions of the Form y = a(x + p)2 + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
26.2.1 Domain and Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
26.2.2 Intercepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
26.2.3 Turning Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
26.2.4 Axes of Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
26.2.5 Sketching Graphs of the Form f (x) = a(x + p)2 + q . . . . . . . . . . . 325
26.2.6 Writing an equation of a shifted parabola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
26.3 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

27 Hyperbolic Functions and Graphs - Grade 11 329


27.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
a
27.2 Functions of the Form y = x+p +q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
27.2.1 Domain and Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
27.2.2 Intercepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
27.2.3 Asymptotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
a
27.2.4 Sketching Graphs of the Form f (x) = x+p + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
27.3 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

28 Exponential Functions and Graphs - Grade 11 335


28.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
28.2 Functions of the Form y = ab(x+p) + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
28.2.1 Domain and Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
28.2.2 Intercepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
28.2.3 Asymptotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
28.2.4 Sketching Graphs of the Form f (x) = ab(x+p) + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
28.3 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

29 Gradient at a Point - Grade 11 341


29.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
29.2 Average Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
29.3 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
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30 Linear Programming - Grade 11 345


30.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
30.2 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
30.2.1 Decision Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
30.2.2 Objective Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
30.2.3 Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
30.2.4 Feasible Region and Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
30.2.5 The Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
30.3 Example of a Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
30.4 Method of Linear Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
30.5 Skills you will need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
30.5.1 Writing Constraint Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
30.5.2 Writing the Objective Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
30.5.3 Solving the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
30.6 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

31 Geometry - Grade 11 357


31.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
31.2 Right Pyramids, Right Cones and Spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
31.3 Similarity of Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
31.4 Triangle Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
31.4.1 Proportion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
31.5 Co-ordinate Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
31.5.1 Equation of a Line between Two Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
31.5.2 Equation of a Line through One Point and Parallel or Perpendicular to
Another Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
31.5.3 Inclination of a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
31.6 Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
31.6.1 Rotation of a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
31.6.2 Enlargement of a Polygon 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

32 Trigonometry - Grade 11 381


32.1 History of Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
32.2 Graphs of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
32.2.1 Functions of the form y = sin(kθ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
32.2.2 Functions of the form y = cos(kθ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
32.2.3 Functions of the form y = tan(kθ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
32.2.4 Functions of the form y = sin(θ + p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
32.2.5 Functions of the form y = cos(θ + p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
32.2.6 Functions of the form y = tan(θ + p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
32.3 Trigonometric Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
32.3.1 Deriving Values of Trigonometric Functions for 30◦ , 45◦ and 60◦ . . . . . 389
32.3.2 Alternate Definition for tan θ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
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32.3.3 A Trigonometric Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392


32.3.4 Reduction Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
32.4 Solving Trigonometric Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
32.4.1 Graphical Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
32.4.2 Algebraic Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
32.4.3 Solution using CAST diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
32.4.4 General Solution Using Periodicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
32.4.5 Linear Trigonometric Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
32.4.6 Quadratic and Higher Order Trigonometric Equations . . . . . . . . . . . 406
32.4.7 More Complex Trigonometric Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
32.5 Sine and Cosine Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
32.5.1 The Sine Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
32.5.2 The Cosine Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
32.5.3 The Area Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
32.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416

33 Statistics - Grade 11 419


33.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
33.2 Standard Deviation and Variance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
33.2.1 Variance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
33.2.2 Standard Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
33.2.3 Interpretation and Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
33.2.4 Relationship between Standard Deviation and the Mean . . . . . . . . . . 424
33.3 Graphical Representation of Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion . . . . 424
33.3.1 Five Number Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
33.3.2 Box and Whisker Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
33.3.3 Cumulative Histograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
33.4 Distribution of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
33.4.1 Symmetric and Skewed Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
33.4.2 Relationship of the Mean, Median, and Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
33.5 Scatter Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
33.6 Misuse of Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
33.7 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

34 Independent and Dependent Events - Grade 11 437


34.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
34.2 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
34.2.1 Identification of Independent and Dependent Events . . . . . . . . . . . 438
34.3 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441

IV Grade 12 443

35 Logarithms - Grade 12 445


35.1 Definition of Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
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35.2 Logarithm Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446


35.3 Laws of Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
35.4 Logarithm Law 1: loga 1 = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
35.5 Logarithm Law 2: loga (a) = 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
35.6 Logarithm Law 3: loga (x · y) = loga (x) + loga (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
 
35.7 Logarithm Law 4: loga xy = loga (x) − loga (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449

35.8 Logarithm Law 5: loga (xb ) = b loga (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450



35.9 Logarithm Law 6: loga ( b x) = logab(x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
35.10Solving simple log equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
35.10.1 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
35.11Logarithmic applications in the Real World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
35.11.1 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
35.12End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455

36 Sequences and Series - Grade 12 457


36.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
36.2 Arithmetic Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
36.2.1 General Equation for the nth -term of an Arithmetic Sequence . . . . . . 458
36.3 Geometric Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
36.3.1 Example - A Flu Epidemic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
36.3.2 General Equation for the nth -term of a Geometric Sequence . . . . . . . 461
36.3.3 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
36.4 Recursive Formulae for Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
36.5 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
36.5.1 Some Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
36.5.2 Sigma Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
36.6 Finite Arithmetic Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
36.6.1 General Formula for a Finite Arithmetic Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
36.6.2 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
36.7 Finite Squared Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
36.8 Finite Geometric Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
36.8.1 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
36.9 Infinite Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
36.9.1 Infinite Geometric Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
36.9.2 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
36.10End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472

37 Finance - Grade 12 477


37.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
37.2 Finding the Length of the Investment or Loan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
37.3 A Series of Payments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
37.3.1 Sequences and Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
xvii
CONTENTS CONTENTS

37.3.2 Present Values of a series of Payments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479


37.3.3 Future Value of a series of Payments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
37.3.4 Exercises - Present and Future Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
37.4 Investments and Loans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
37.4.1 Loan Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
37.4.2 Exercises - Investments and Loans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
37.4.3 Calculating Capital Outstanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
37.5 Formulae Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
37.5.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
37.5.2 Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
37.6 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490

38 Factorising Cubic Polynomials - Grade 12 493


38.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
38.2 The Factor Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
38.3 Factorisation of Cubic Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
38.4 Exercises - Using Factor Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
38.5 Solving Cubic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
38.5.1 Exercises - Solving of Cubic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
38.6 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498

39 Functions and Graphs - Grade 12 501


39.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
39.2 Definition of a Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
39.2.1 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
39.3 Notation used for Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
39.4 Graphs of Inverse Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
39.4.1 Inverse Function of y = ax + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
39.4.2 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
39.4.3 Inverse Function of y = ax2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
39.4.4 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
39.4.5 Inverse Function of y = ax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
39.4.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
39.5 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507

40 Differential Calculus - Grade 12 509


40.1 Why do I have to learn this stuff? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509
40.2 Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
40.2.1 A Tale of Achilles and the Tortoise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
40.2.2 Sequences, Series and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
40.2.3 Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
40.2.4 Average Gradient and Gradient at a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516
40.3 Differentiation from First Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
xviii
CONTENTS CONTENTS

40.4 Rules of Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521


40.4.1 Summary of Differentiation Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
40.5 Applying Differentiation to Draw Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
40.5.1 Finding Equations of Tangents to Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
40.5.2 Curve Sketching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
40.5.3 Local minimum, Local maximum and Point of Inflextion . . . . . . . . . 529
40.6 Using Differential Calculus to Solve Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
40.6.1 Rate of Change problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
40.7 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535

41 Linear Programming - Grade 12 539


41.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
41.2 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
41.2.1 Feasible Region and Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
41.3 Linear Programming and the Feasible Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
41.4 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546

42 Geometry - Grade 12 549


42.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
42.2 Circle Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
42.2.1 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
42.2.2 Axioms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550
42.2.3 Theorems of the Geometry of Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550
42.3 Co-ordinate Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
42.3.1 Equation of a Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
42.3.2 Equation of a Tangent to a Circle at a Point on the Circle . . . . . . . . 569
42.4 Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571
42.4.1 Rotation of a Point about an angle θ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571
42.4.2 Characteristics of Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573
42.4.3 Characteristics of Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573
42.5 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574

43 Trigonometry - Grade 12 577


43.1 Compound Angle Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
43.1.1 Derivation of sin(α + β) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
43.1.2 Derivation of sin(α − β) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
43.1.3 Derivation of cos(α + β) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
43.1.4 Derivation of cos(α − β) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
43.1.5 Derivation of sin 2α . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
43.1.6 Derivation of cos 2α . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
43.1.7 Problem-solving Strategy for Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580
43.2 Applications of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
43.2.1 Problems in Two Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
xix
CONTENTS CONTENTS

43.2.2 Problems in 3 dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584


43.3 Other Geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586
43.3.1 Taxicab Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586
43.3.2 Manhattan distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586
43.3.3 Spherical Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587
43.3.4 Fractal Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588
43.4 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589

44 Statistics - Grade 12 591


44.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
44.2 A Normal Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
44.3 Extracting a Sample Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593
44.4 Function Fitting and Regression Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594
44.4.1 The Method of Least Squares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596
44.4.2 Using a calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597
44.4.3 Correlation coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599
44.5 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600

45 Combinations and Permutations - Grade 12 603


45.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603
45.2 Counting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603
45.2.1 Making a List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603
45.2.2 Tree Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604
45.3 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604
45.3.1 The Factorial Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604
45.4 The Fundamental Counting Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604
45.5 Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605
45.5.1 Counting Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605
45.5.2 Combinatorics and Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606
45.6 Permutations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606
45.6.1 Counting Permutations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607
45.7 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608
45.8 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610

V Exercises 613

46 General Exercises 615

47 Exercises - Not covered in Syllabus 617

A GNU Free Documentation License 619

xx
Chapter 36

Sequences and Series - Grade 12

36.1 Introduction
In this chapter we extend the arithmetic and quadratic sequences studied in earlier grades, to
geometric sequences. We also look at series, which is the summing of the terms in a sequence.

36.2 Arithmetic Sequences


The simplest type of numerical sequence is an arithmetic sequence.

Definition: Arithmetic Sequence


An arithmetic (or linear ) sequence is a sequence of numbers in which each new term is
calculated by adding a constant value to the previous term

For example,
1,2,3,4,5,6, . . .
is an arithmetic sequence because you add 1 to the current term to get the next term:

first term: 1
second term: 2=1+1
third term: 3=2+1
..
.
nth term: n = (n − 1) + 1

Activity :: Common Difference : Find the constant value that is added to


get the following sequences and write out the next 5 terms.
1. 2,6,10,14,18,22, . . .
2. −5, − 3, − 1,1,3, . . .
3. 1,4,7,10,13,16, . . .
4. −1,10,21,32,43,54, . . .
5. 3,0, − 3, − 6, − 9, − 12, . . .

457
36.2 CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12

36.2.1 General Equation for the nth -term of an Arithmetic Sequence

More formally, the number we start out with is called a1 (the first term), and the difference
between each successive term is denoted d, called the common difference.

The general arithmetic sequence looks like:

a1 = a1
a2 = a1 + d
a3 = a2 + d = (a1 + d) + d = a1 + 2d
a4 = a3 + d = (a1 + 2d) + d = a1 + 3d
...
an = a1 + d · (n − 1)

Thus, the equation for the nth -term will be:

an = a1 + d · (n − 1) (36.1)

Given a1 and the common difference, d, the entire set of numbers belonging to an arithmetic
sequence can be generated.

Definition: Arithmetic Sequence


An arithmetic (or linear ) sequence is a sequence of numbers in which each new term is
calculated by adding a constant value to the previous term:

an = an−1 + d (36.2)

where
• an represents the new term, the nth -term, that is calculated;
• an−1 represents the previous term, the (n − 1)th -term;
• d represents some constant.

Important: Arithmetic Sequences

A simple test for an arithmetic sequence is to check that the difference between consecutive
terms is constant:
a2 − a1 = a3 − a2 = an − an−1 = d (36.3)
This is quite an important equation, and is the definitive test for an arithmetic sequence. If this
condition does not hold, the sequence is not an arithmetic sequence.

Extension: Plotting a graph of terms in an arithmetic sequence


Plotting a graph of the terms of sequence sometimes helps in determining the type
of sequence involved. For an arithmetic sequence, plotting an vs. n results in:
458
CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12 36.3

a9 an = a1 + d(n − 1)
a8 b

a7 b

a6 b

Term, an a5 b gradient d

a4 b

a3 b

a2 b

a1 b y-intercept, a1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Index, n

36.3 Geometric Sequences

Definition: Geometric Sequences


A geometric sequence is a sequence in which every number in the sequence is equal to the
previous number in the sequence, multiplied by a constant number.

This means that the ratio between consecutive numbers in the geometric sequence is a constant.
We will explain what we mean by ratio after looking at the following example.

36.3.1 Example - A Flu Epidemic

Extension: What is influenza?


Influenza (commonly called “the flu”) is caused by the influenza virus, which infects
the respiratory tract (nose, throat, lungs). It can cause mild to severe illness that
most of us get during winter time. The main way that the influenza virus is spread
is from person to person in respiratory droplets of coughs and sneezes. (This is
called “droplet spread”.) This can happen when droplets from a cough or sneeze
of an infected person are propelled (generally, up to a metre) through the air and
deposited on the mouth or nose of people nearby. It is good practise to cover your
mouth when you cough or sneeze so as not to infect others around you when you
have the flu.

Assume that you have the flu virus, and you forgot to cover your mouth when two friends came
to visit while you were sick in bed. They leave, and the next day they also have the flu. Let’s
assume that they in turn spread the virus to two of their friends by the same droplet spread the
following day. Assuming this pattern continues and each sick person infects 2 other friends, we
can represent these events in the following manner:
Again we can tabulate the events and formulate an equation for the general case:
459
36.3 CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12

Figure 36.1: Each person infects two more people with the flu virus.

Day, n Number of newly-infected people


1 2 =2
2 4 = 2 × 2 = 2 × 21
3 8 = 2 × 4 = 2 × 2 × 2 = 2 × 22
4 16 = 2 × 8 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 2 × 23
5 32 = 2 × 16 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 2 × 24
.. ..
. .
n = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × . . . × 2 = 2 × 2n−1

The above table represents the number of newly-infected people after n days since you first
infected your 2 friends.
You sneeze and the virus is carried over to 2 people who start the chain (a1 = 2). The next day,
each one then infects 2 of their friends. Now 4 people are newly-infected. Each of them infects
2 people the third day, and 8 people are infected, and so on. These events can be written as a
geometric sequence:

2; 4; 8; 16; 32; . . .

Note the common factor (2) between the events. Recall from the linear arithmetic sequence
how the common difference between terms were established. In the geometric sequence we can
determine the common ratio, r, by

a2 a3
= =r (36.4)
a1 a2

Or, more general,


an
=r (36.5)
an−1

Activity :: Common Factor of Geometric Sequence : Determine the com-


mon factor for the following geometric sequences:
1. 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, . . .
1 1 1
2. 2,4,8, . . .
3. 7, 28, 112, 448, . . .
4. 2, 6, 18, 54, . . .
460
CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12 36.3

5. −3, 30, −300, 3000, . . .

36.3.2 General Equation for the nth -term of a Geometric Sequence

From the above example we know a1 = 2 and r = 2, and we have seen from the table that the
nth -term is given by an = 2 × 2n−1 . Thus, in general,

an = a1 · rn−1 (36.6)

where a1 is the first term and r is called the common ratio.


So, if we want to know how many people are newly-infected after 10 days, we need to work out
a10 :

an = a1 · rn−1
a10 = 2 × 210−1
= 2 × 29
= 2 × 512
= 1024

That is, after 10 days, there are 1 024 newly-infected people.


Or, how many days would pass before 16 384 people become newly infected with the flu virus?

an = a1 · rn−1
16 384 = 2 × 2n−1
16 384 ÷ 2 = 2n−1
8 192 = 2n−1
213 = 2n−1
13 = n − 1
n = 14

That is, 14 days pass before 16 384 people are newly-infected.

Activity :: General Equation of Geometric Sequence : Determine the


formula for the following geometric sequences:
1. 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, . . .
1 1 1
2. 2,4,8, . . .
3. 7, 28, 112, 448, . . .
4. 2, 6, 18, 54, . . .
5. −3, 30, −300, 3000, . . .

36.3.3 Exercises
1. What is the important characteristic of an arithmetic sequence?
461
36.4 CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12

2. Write down how you would go about finding the formula for the nth term of an arithmetic
sequence?

3. A single square is made from 4 matchsticks. Two squares in a row needs 7 matchsticks
and 3 squares in a row needs 10 matchsticks. Determine:

A the first term


B the common difference
C the formula for the general term
D how many matchsticks are in a row of 25 squares

4. 5; x; y is an arithmetic sequence and 81; x; y is a geometric sequence. All terms in the


sequences are integers. Calculate the values of x and y.

36.4 Recursive Formulae for Sequences


When discussing arithmetic and quadratic sequences, we noticed that the difference between two
consecutive terms in the sequence could be written in a general way.
For an arithmetic sequence, where a new term is calculated by taking the previous term and
adding a constant value, d:

an = an−1 + d

The above equation is an example of a recursive equation since we can calculate the nth -term
only by considering the previous term in the sequence. Compare this with equation (36.1),

an = a1 + d · (n − 1) (36.7)

where one can directly calculate the nth -term of an arithmetic sequence without knowing previous
terms.
For quadratic sequences, we noticed the difference between consecutive terms is given by (??):

an − an−1 = D · (n − 2) + d

Therefore, we re-write the equation as

an = an−1 + D · (n − 2) + d (36.8)

which is then a recursive equation for a quadratic sequence with common second difference, D.
Using (36.5), the recursive equation for a geometric sequence is:

an = r · an−1 (36.9)

Recursive equations are extremely powerful: you can work out every term in the series just by
knowing previous terms. As you can see from the examples above, working out an using the
previous term an−1 can be a much simpler computation than working out an from scratch using
a general formula. This means that using a recursive formula when using a computer to work
out a sequence would mean the computer would finish its calculations significantly quicker.

462
CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12 36.5

Activity :: Recursive Formula : Write the first 5 terms of the following


sequences, given their recursive formulae:
1. an = 2an−1 + 3, a1 = 1
2. an = an−1 , a1 = 11
3. an = 2a2n−1 , a1 = 2

Extension: The Fibonacci Sequence


Consider the following sequence:

0; 1; 1; 2; 3; 5; 8; 13; 21; 34; . . . (36.10)

The above sequence is called the Fibonacci sequence. Each new term is calculated
by adding the previous two terms. Hence, we can write down the recursive equation:

an = an−1 + an−2 (36.11)

36.5 Series
In this section we simply work on the concept of adding up the numbers belonging to arithmetic
and geometric sequences. We call the sum of any sequence of numbers a series.

36.5.1 Some Basics

If we add up the terms of a sequence, we obtain what is called a series. If we only sum a finite
amount of terms, we get a finite series. We use the symbol Sn to mean the sum of the first n
terms of a sequence {a1 ; a2 ; a3 ; . . . ; an }:

S n = a1 + a2 + a3 + . . . + an (36.12)

For example, if we have the following sequence of numbers

1; 4; 9; 25; 36; 49; . . .

and we wish to find the sum of the first 4 terms, then we write

S4 = 1 + 4 + 9 + 25 = 39

The above is an example of a finite series since we are only summing 4 terms.
If we sum infinitely many terms of a sequence, we get an infinite series:

S ∞ = a1 + a2 + a3 + . . . (36.13)

In the case of an infinite series, the number of terms is unknown and simply increases to ∞.

36.5.2 Sigma Notation

In this section we introduce a notation that will make our lives a little easier.
463
36.5 CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12

P
A sum may be written out using the summation symbol . This symbol is sigma, which is the
capital letter “S” in the Greek alphabet. It indicates that you must sum the expression to the
right of it:
Xn
ai = am + am+1 + . . . + an−1 + an (36.14)
i=m

where

• i is the index of the sum;

• m is the lower bound (or start index), shown below the summation symbol;

• n is the upper bound (or end index), shown above the summation symbol;

• ai are the terms of a sequence.

The index i is increased from m to n in steps of 1.


If we are summing from nP = 1 (which implies summing from the first term in a sequence), then
we can use either Sn - or -notation since they mean the same thing:
n
X
Sn = ai = a1 + a2 + . . . + an (36.15)
i=1

For example, in the following sum,


5
X
i
i=1

we have to add together all the terms in the sequence ai = i from i = 1 up until i = 5:
5
X
i = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15
i=1

Examples

1.
6
X
2i = 21 + 22 + 23 + 24 + 25 + 26
i=1
= 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + 64
= 126

2.
10
X
(3xi ) = 3x3 + 3x4 + . . . + 3x9 + 3x10
i=3

for any value x.

Some Basic Rules for Sigma Notation

1. Given two sequences, ai and bi ,


n
X n
X n
X
(ai + bi ) = ai + bi (36.16)
i=1 i=1 i=1

464
CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12 36.6

2. For any constant c, which is any variable not dependent on the index i,
n
X
c · ai = c · a1 + c · a2 + c · a3 + . . . + c · an
i=1
= c (a1 + a2 + a3 + . . . + an )
Xn
= c ai (36.17)
i=1

Exercises

4
P
1. What is 2?
k=1

3
P
2. Determine i.
i=−1

5
P
3. Expand i.
k=0

4. Calculate the value of a if:


3
X
a · 2k−1 = 28
k=1

36.6 Finite Arithmetic Series

Remember that an arithmetic sequence is a set of numbers, such that the difference between
any term and the previous term is a constant number, d, called the constant difference:

an = a1 + d (n − 1) (36.18)

where

• n is the index of the sequence;

• an is the nth -term of the sequence;

• a1 is the first term;

• d is the common difference.

When we sum a finite number of terms in an arithmetic sequence, we get a finite arithmetic
series.
The simplest arithmetic sequence is when a1 = 1 and d = 0 in the general form (36.18); in other
words all the terms in the sequence are 1:

ai = a1 + d (i − 1)
= 1 + 0 · (i − 1)
= 1
{ai } = {1; 1; 1; 1; 1; . . .}

If we wish to sum this sequence from i = 1 to any positive integer n, we would write
n
X n
X
ai = 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + ...+ 1 (n times)
i=1 i=1
465
36.6 CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12

Since all the terms are equal to 1, it means that if we sum to n we will be adding n-number of
1’s together, which is simply equal to n:

n
X
1=n (36.19)
i=1

Another simple arithmetic sequence is when a1 = 1 and d = 1, which is the sequence of positive
integers:

ai = a1 + d (i − 1)
= 1 + 1 · (i − 1)
= i
{ai } = {1; 2; 3; 4; 5; . . .}

If we wish to sum this sequence from i = 1 to any positive integer n, we would write
n
X
i = 1 + 2 + 3 + ...+ n (36.20)
i=1

This is an equation with a very important solution as it gives the answer to the sum of positive
integers.

teresting Mathematician, Karl Friedrich Gauss, discovered this proof when he was only
Interesting
Fact
Fact 8 years old. His teacher had decided to give his class a problem which would
distract them for the entire day by asking them to add all the numbers from 1
to 100. Young Karl realised how to do this almost instantaneously and shocked
the teacher with the correct answer, 5050.

We first write Sn as a sum of terms in ascending order:

Sn = 1 + 2 + . . . + (n − 1) + n (36.21)

We then write the same sum but with the terms in descending order:

Sn = n + (n − 1) + . . . + 2 + 1 (36.22)

We then add corresponding pairs of terms from equations (36.21) and (36.22), and we find that
the sum for each pair is the same, (n + 1):

2 Sn = (n + 1) + (n + 1) + . . . + (n + 1) + (n + 1) (36.23)

We then have n-number of (n + 1)-terms, and by simplifying we arrive at the final result:

2 Sn = n (n + 1)
n
Sn = (n + 1)
2
n
X n
Sn = i= (n + 1) (36.24)
i=1
2

36.6.1 General Formula for a Finite Arithmetic Series


If we wish to sum any arithmetic sequence, there is no need to work it out term-for-term. We
will now determine the general formula to evaluate a finite arithmetic series. We start with the
466
CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12 36.6

general formula for an arithmetic sequence and sum it from i = 1 to any positive integer n:
n
X n
X
ai = [a1 + d (i − 1)]
i=1 i=1
Xn
= (a1 + di − d)
i=1
Xn
= [(a1 − d) + di]
i=1
Xn n
X
= (a1 − d) + (di)
i=1 i=1
Xn n
X
= (a1 − d) + d i
i=1 i=1
dn
= (a1 − d) n + (n + 1)
2
n
= (2a1 − 2d + dn + d)
2
n
= (2a1 + dn − d)
2
n
= [ 2a1 + d (n − 1) ]
2
So, the general formula for determining an arithmetic series is given by

n
X n
Sn = [ a1 + d (i − 1) ] = [ 2a1 + d (n − 1) ] (36.25)
i=1
2

For example, if we wish to know the series S20 for the arithmetic sequence ai = 3 + 7 (i − 1),
we could either calculate each term individually and sum them:
20
X
S20 = [3 + 7 (i − 1)]
i=1
= 3 + 10 + 17 + 24 + 31 + 38 + 45 + 52 +
59 + 66 + 73 + 80 + 87 + 94 + 101 +
108 + 115 + 122 + 129 + 136
= 1390

or, more sensibly, we could use equation (36.25) noting that a1 = 3, d = 7 and n = 20 so that
20
X
S20 = [3 + 7 (i − 1)]
i=1
20
= 2 [2 · 3 + 7 (20 − 1)]
= 1390

In this example, it is clear that using equation (36.25) is beneficial.

36.6.2 Exercises
n
1. The sum to n terms of an arithmetic series is Sn = (7n + 15).
2
A How many terms of the series must be added to give a sum of 425?
B Determine the 6th term of the series.

2. The sum of an arithmetic series is 100 times its first term, while the last term is 9 times
the first term. Calculate the number of terms in the series if the first term is not equal to
zero.
467
36.7 CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12

3. The common difference of an arithmetic series is 3. Calculate the values of n for which
the nth term of the series is 93, and the sum of the first n terms is 975.

4. The sum of n terms of an arithmetic series is 5n2 − 11n for all values of n. Determine the
common difference.

5. The sum of an arithmetic series is 100 times the value of its first term, while the last term
is 9 times the first term. Calculate the number of terms in the series if the first term is
not equal to zero.

6. The third term of an arithmetic sequence is -7 and the 7t h term is 9. Determine the sum
of the first 51 terms of the sequence.

7. Calculate the sum of the arithmetic series 4 + 7 + 10 + · · · + 901.

8. The common difference of an arithmetic series is 3. Calculate the values of n for which
the nth term of the series is 93 and the sum of the first n terms is 975.

36.7 Finite Squared Series

When we sum a finite number of terms in a quadratic sequence, we get a finite quadratic series.
The general form of a quadratic series is quite complicated, so we will only look at the simple
case when D = 2 and d = (a2 − a1 ) = 3 in the general form (???). This is the sequence of
squares of the integers:

ai = i2
{ai } = {12 ; 22 ; 32 ; 42 ; 52 ; 62 ; . . .}
= {1; 4; 9; 16; 25; 36; . . .}

If we wish to sum this sequence and create a series, then we write


n
X
Sn = i 2 = 1 + 4 + 9 + . . . + n2
i=1

which can be written, in general, as

n
X n
Sn = i2 = (2n + 1)(n + 1) (36.26)
i=1
6

The proof for equation (36.26) can be found under the Advanced block that follows:

Extension: Derivation of the Finite Squared Series


We will now prove the formula for the finite squared series:
n
X
Sn = i 2 = 1 + 4 + 9 + . . . + n2
i=1

3
We start off with the expansion of (k + 1) .

(k + 1)3 = k 3 + 3k 2 + 3k + 1
(k + 1)3 − k 3 = 3k 2 + 3k + 1
468
CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12 36.8

k=1 : 23 − 13 = 3(1)2 + 3(1) + 1

k=2 : 33 − 23 = 3(2)2 + 3(2) + 1

k=3 : 43 − 33 = 3(3)2 + 3(3) + 1


..
.
k=n : (n + 1)3 − n3 = 3n2 + 3n + 1

If we add all the terms on the right and left, we arrive at


n
3
X
(n + 1) − 1 = (3i2 + 3i + 1)
i=1
n
X n
X n
X
n3 + 3n2 + 3n + 1 − 1 = 3 i2 + 3 i+ 1
i=1 i=1 i=1
n
X 3n
n3 + 3n2 + 3n = 3 i2 + (n + 1) + n
i=1
2
n
X 1 3 3n
i2 = [n + 3n2 + 3n − (n + 1) − n]
i=1
3 2

1 3 3 3
= (n + 3n2 + 3n − n2 − n − n)
3 2 2
1 3 3 2 1
= (n + n + n)
3 2 2
n
= (2n2 + 3n + 1)
6
Therefore,
n
X n
i2 = (2n + 1)(n + 1)
i=1
6

36.8 Finite Geometric Series


When we sum a known number of terms in a geometric sequence, we get a finite geometric
series. We know from (??) that we can write out each term of a geometric sequence in the
general form:
an = a1 · rn−1 (36.27)
where

• n is the index of the sequence;


• an is the nth -term of the sequence;
• a1 is the first term;
• r is the common ratio (the ratio of any term to the previous term).

By simply adding together the first n terms, we are actually writing out the series

Sn = a1 + a1 r + a1 r2 + . . . + a1 rn−2 + a1 rn−1 (36.28)

We may multiply the above equation by r on both sides, giving us

rSn = a1 r + a1 r2 + a1 r3 + . . . + a1 rn−1 + a1 rn (36.29)


469
36.8 CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12

You may notice that all the terms on the right side of (36.28) and (36.29) are the same, except
the first and last terms. If we subtract (36.28) from (36.29), we are left with just

rSn − Sn = a1 rn − a1
Sn (r − 1) = a1 (rn − 1)

Dividing by (r − 1) on both sides, we arrive at the general form of a geometric series:

n
X a1 (rn − 1)
Sn = a1 · ri−1 = (36.30)
i=1
r−1

36.8.1 Exercises

1. Prove that
a (1 − rn )
a + ar + ar2 + ... + arn−1 =
(1 − r)

3 3
2. Find the sum of the first 11 terms of the geometric series 6 + 3 + 2 + 4 + ...

3. Show that the sum of the first n terms of the geometric series

54 + 18 + 6 + ... + 5 ( 31 )n−1

is given by 81 − 34−n .

4. The eighth term of a geometric sequence is 640. The third term is 20. Find the sum of
the first 7 terms.
n
8 ( 21 )t = 15 43 .
P
5. Solve for n:
t=1

6. The ratio between the sum of the first three terms of a geometric series and the sum of
the 4th -, 5th − and 6th -terms of the same series is 8 : 27. Determine the common ratio
and the first 2 terms if the third term is 8.

7. Given the geometric series:

2 · (5)5 + 2 · (5)4 + 2 · (5)3 + . . .

A Show that the series converges


B Calculate the sum to infinity of the series
C Calculate the sum of the first 8 terms of the series, correct to two decimal places.
D Determine

X
2 · 56−n
n=9

correct to two decimal places using previously calculated results.

8. Given the geometric sequence 1; −3; 9; . . . determine:

A The 8th term of the sequence


B The sum of the first 8 terms of the sequence.

9. Determine:
4
X
3 · 2n−1
n=1

470
CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12 36.9

36.9 Infinite Series

Thus far we have been working only with finite sums, meaning that whenever we determined the
sum of a series, we only considered the sum of the first n terms. In this section, we consider
what happens when we add infinitely many terms together. You might think that this is a silly
question - surely the answer will be ∞ when one sums infinitely many numbers, no matter how
small they are? The surprising answer is that in some cases one will reach ∞ (like when you
try to add all the positive integers together), but in some cases one will get a finite answer.
If you don’t believe this, try doing the following sum, a geometric series, on your calculator or
computer:
1 1 1 1 1
2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + . . .

You might think that if you keep adding more and more terms you will eventually get larger and
larger numbers, but in fact you won’t even get past 1 - try it and see for yourself!
We denote the sum of an infinite number of terms of a sequence by

X
S∞ = ai
i=1

When we sum the terms of a series, and the answer we get after each summation gets closer
and closer to some number, we say that the series converges. If a series does not converge, then
we say that it diverges.

36.9.1 Infinite Geometric Series

There is a simple test for knowing instantly which geometric series converges and which diverges.
When r, the common ratio, is strictly between -1 and 1, i.e. −1 < r < 1, the infinite series
will converge, otherwise it will diverge. There is also a formula for working out what the series
converges to.
Let’s start off with formula (36.30) for the finite geometric series:
n
X a1 (rn − 1)
Sn = a1 · ri−1 =
i=1
r−1

Now we will investigate the value of rn for −1


Take r = 21 :

n = 1 : rn = r1 = ( 12 )1 = 1
2
n = 2 : rn = r2 = ( 12 )2 = 1
2 · 1
2 = 1
4 < 1
2
n = 3 : rn = r3 = ( 12 )3 = 1
2 · 1
2 · 1
2 = 1
8 < 1
4

Since r is a fractional value in the range −1


Therefore,
a1 (rn − 1)
Sn =
r−1
a1 (0 − 1)
S∞ = for − 1 < r < 1
r−1
−a1
=
r−1
a1
=
1−r
471
36.10 CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12

The sum of an infinite geometric series is given by the formula


X a1
S∞ = a1 .ri−1 = for −1 (36.31)
i=1
1−r

where a1 is the first term of the series and r is the common ratio.

36.9.2 Exercises
1. What does ( 52 )n approach as n tends towards ∞?
1 1
2. Find the sum to infinity of the geometric series 3 + 1 + 3 + 9 + ...
3. Determine for which values of x, the geometric series

2+ 2
3 (x + 1) + 2
9 (x + 1)2 + . . .

will converge.
4. The sum to infinity of a geometric series with positive terms is 4 61 and the sum of the first
two terms is 2 32 . Find a, the first term, and r, the common ratio between consecutive
terms.

36.10 End of Chapter Exercises


1. Is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ... an example of a finite series or an infinite series?
2. Calculate
6
X k+2
3 ( 31 )
k=2

3. If x + 1; x − 1; 2x − 5 are the first 3 terms of a convergent geometric series, calculate the:


A Value of x.
B Sum to infinity of the series.
3 3
P
4. Write the sum of the first 20 terms of the series 6 + 3 + 2 + 4 + ... in -notation.
5. Given the geometric series: 2 · 55 + 2 · 54 + 2 · 53 + . . .
A Show that the series converges.
B Calculate the sum of the first 8 terms of the series, correct to TWO decimal places.
C Calculate the sum to infinity of the series.
D Use your answer to 5c above to determine

X
2 · 5(6−n)
n=9

correct to TWO decimal places.


6. For the geometric series,
54 + 18 + 6 + ... + 5 ( 31 )n−1
calculate the smallest value of n for which the sum of the first n terms is greater than
80.99.

12( 51 )k−1 .
P
7. Determine the value of
k=1

8. A new soccer competition requires each of 8 teams to play every other team once.
A Calculate the total number of matches to be played in the competition.
472
CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12 36.10

B If each of n teams played each other once, determine a formula for the total number
of matches in terms of n.
9. The midpoints of the sides of square with length equal to 4 units are joined to form a
new square. The process is repeated indefinitely. Calculate the sum of the areas of all the
squares so formed.
10. Thembi worked part-time to buy a Mathematics book which cost R29,50. On 1 February
she saved R1,60, and saves everyday 30 cents more than she saved the previous day. (So,
on the second day, she saved R1,90, and so on.) After how many days did she have enough
money to buy the book?
11. Consider the geometric series:
5 + 2 12 + 1 14 + . . .
A If A is the sum to infinity and B is the sum of the first n terms, write down the value
of:
i. A
ii. B in terms of n.
1
B For which values of n is (A − B) < 24 ?

12. A certain plant reaches a height of 118 mm after one year under ideal conditions in a
greenhouse. During the next year, the height increases by 12 mm. In each successive year,
the height increases by 85 of the previous year’s growth. Show that the plant will never
reach a height of more than 150 mm.
n
P
13. Calculate the value of n if (20 − 4a) = −20.
a=1

14. Michael saved R400 during the first month of his working life. In each subsequent month,
he saved 10% more than what he had saved in the previous month.
A How much did he save in the 7th working month?
B How much did he save all together in his first 12 working months?
C In which month of his working life did he save more than R1,500 for the first time?
15. A man was injured in an accident at work. He receives a disability grant of R4,800 in the
first year. This grant increases with a fixed amount each year.
A What is the annual increase if, over 20 years, he would have received a total of
R143,500?
B His initial annual expenditure is R2,600 and increases at a rate of R400 per year.
After how many years does his expenses exceed his income?
16. The Cape Town High School wants to build a school hall and is busy with fundraising. Mr.
Manuel, an ex-learner of the school and a successful politician, offers to donate money to
the school. Having enjoyed mathematics at school, he decides to donate an amount of
money on the following basis. He sets a mathematical quiz with 20 questions. For the
correct answer to the first question (any learner may answer), the school will receive 1
cent, for a correct answer to the second question, the school will receive 2 cents, and so
on. The donations 1, 2, 4, ... form a geometric sequence. Calculate (Give your answer to
the nearest Rand)
A The amount of money that the school will receive for the correct answer to the 20th
question.
B The total amount of money that the school will receive if all 20 questions are answered
correctly.
17. The first term of a geometric sequence is 9, and the ratio of the sum of the first eight terms
to the sum of the first four terms is 97 : 81. Find the first three terms of the sequence, if
it is given that all the terms are positive.
18. (k − 4); (k + 1); m; 5k is a set of numbers, the first three of which form an arithmetic
sequence, and the last three a geometric sequence. Find k and m if both are positive.
473
36.10 CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12

19. Given: The sequence 6 + p ; 10 + p ; 15 + p is geometric.

A Determine p.

B Show that the common ratio is 45 .

C Determine the 10th term of this sequence correct to one decimal place.

20. The second and fourth terms of a convergent geometric series are 36 and 16, respectively.
Find the sum to infinity of this series, if all its terms are positive.

P5 k(k + 1)
21. Evaluate:
k=2 2

22. Sn = 4n2 + 1 represents the sum of the first n terms of a particular series. Find the second
term.

∞ 12
27pk =
P P
23. Find p if: (24 − 3t)
k=1 t=1

24. Find the integer that is the closest approximation to:

102001 + 102003
102002 + 102002

25. Find the pattern and hence calculate:

1 − 2 + 3 − 4 + 5 − 6 . . . + 677 − 678 + . . . − 1000


(x + 2)p , if it exists, when
P
26. Determine
p=1

5
A x=−
2
B x = −5


P
27. Calculate: 5 · 4−i
i=1

28. The sum of the first p terms of a sequence is p (p + 1). Find the 10th term.

29. he powers of 2 are removed from the set of positive integers

1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; . . . ; 1998; 1999; 2000

Find the sum of remaining integers.

30. Observe the pattern below:


474
CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12 36.10

D E

C D E

B C D E

A B C D E

B C D E

C D E

D E

A If the pattern continues, find the number of letters in the column containing M’s.
B If the total number of letters in the pattern is 361, which letter will the last column
consist of.

31. The following question was asked in a test:

Find the value of 22005 + 22005 .

Here are some of the students’ answers:

A Megansaid the answer is 42005 .


B Stefan wrote down 24010 .
C Nina thinks it is 22006 .
D Annatte gave the answer 22005×2005 .

Who is correct? (“None of them” is also a possibility.)

32. Find the pattern and hence calculate:

1 − 2 + 3 − 4 + 5 − 6 . . . + 677 − 678 + . . . − 1000


(x + 2)p , if it exists, when
P
33. Determine
p=1

5
A x=−
2
B x = −5

P
34. Calculate: 5 · 4−i
i=1
475
36.10 CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES - GRADE 12

35. The sum of the first p terms of a sequence is p (p + 1). Find the 10th term.
36. The powers of 2 are removed from the set of positive integers

1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; . . . ; 1998; 1999; 2000

Find the sum of remaining integers.


37. A shrub of height 110 cm is planted. At the end of the first year, the shrub is 120 cm tall.
Thereafter, the growth of the shrub each year is half of its growth in the previous year.
Show that the height of the shrub will never exceed 130 cm.

476
Appendix A

GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.2, November 2002


Copyright c 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but
changing it is not allowed.

PREAMBLE
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful doc-
ument “free” in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and
redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or non-commercially. Secondar-
ily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while
not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.
This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must
themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which
is a copyleft license designed for free software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free
software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the
same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it
can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a
printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or
reference.

APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS


This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed
by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a
notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under
the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any
member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you
copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.
A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion
of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.
A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals
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ethical or political position regarding them.
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APPENDIX A. GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE

The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being
those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this
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The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or
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A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format
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works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the
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A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely
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(Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as “Acknowledgements”,
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The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this
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VERBATIM COPYING
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or non-commercially,
provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever
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or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation
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You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display
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COPYING IN QUANTITY
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the
Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts,
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APPENDIX A. GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE

you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-
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clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the
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If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first
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If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must
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edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before
redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
version of the Document.

MODIFICATIONS
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of
sections A and A above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this
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and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you
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1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document,
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2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship
of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal
authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they
release you from this requirement.
3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright
notices.
6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permis-
sion to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the
Addendum below.
7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts
given in the Document’s license notice.
8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
9. Preserve the section Entitled “History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating
at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the
Title Page. If there is no section Entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating
the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then
add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
621
APPENDIX A. GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE

10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Trans-
parent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document
for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You
may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the
Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.

11. For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the
section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their
titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.

13. Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the
Modified Version.

14. Do not re-title any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in title
with any Invariant Section.

15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary
Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate
some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant
Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other
section titles.
You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements
of your Modified Version by various parties–for example, statements of peer review or that the
text has been approved by an organisation as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25
words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only
one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through
arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the
same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting
on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission
from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use
their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the
terms defined in section A above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combi-
nation all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them
all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant
Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the
same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the
end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known,
or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant
Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original
documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Ac-
knowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled
“Endorsements”.
622
APPENDIX A. GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE

COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under
this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a
single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License
for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under
this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS


A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents
or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the
copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s
users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included an aggregate,
this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative
works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section A is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if
the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be
placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent
of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers
that bracket the whole aggregate.

TRANSLATION
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Doc-
ument under the terms of section A. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires
special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or
all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may
include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any War-
ranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and
the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the
translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version
will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the
requirement (section A) to Preserve its Title (section A) will typically require changing the actual
title.

TERMINATION
You may not copy, modify, sub-license, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided
for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sub-license or distribute the Document
is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who
have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated
so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE


The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation
License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but
may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
623
APPENDIX A. GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies
that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the
option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version
that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does
not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as
a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents


To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document
and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

Copyright c YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or


modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the
license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with...Texts.”
line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST,
and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three,
merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these
examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public
License, to permit their use in free software.

624