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# Set Theory

Preparatory Quantitative Methods

Sirish Kumar Gouda and Vinu CT

May 26, 2014

Agenda

I Some basic Notations
I Basics of Set theory
I
I
I
I

Denition
Set Representation
Set Operations
Venn diagrams

Set of integer numbers I Q .Set of natural numbers I N I N0 - I Z .Set of complex numbers .Set of rational numbers Set of natural numbers inclusive of zero (Whole numbers) I R+ .Notations Some notations that you will come across in the next few weeks .Set of non-negative real numbers I C .

i.(n − 1).n factorial. b} ..Minimum of the numbers a I max{a..Maximum of the numbers I |x| I [x]- .Absolute value of the real number Greatest integer y such that y ≤x and a x b and b .Sum of the numbers xi : x1 + x2 + · · · + xn i=1 xi .Notations Pn xi I Qni=1 I n! .1 I min{a.(n − 2).Product of the numbers xi : x1 ∗ x2 ∗ · · · ∗ xn n... I .e. b} .

For all I ∃ ´ .there exists I .Binomial coecient or Number of combinations k I of k from n .Partial dierential I (n ) or n Ck . b]- Closed interval such that I (a. b)- Open interval such that I ∀ .Denite Integral ∂ d dx .Dierential and ∂x .Notations I [a.Indenite Integral and a≤x ≤b a<x <b ´b a .

Set theory No one shall expel us from the paradise that Cantor has created for us .David Hilbert .

e there are no repeats I Order of the elements is irrelevant . so that any given object is either I I in the set or not in the set I Elements of a set are known as its members I All elements are picked from a Universal set usually represented by U I Elements of a set are unique i.Denition I A set is collection of objects(elements) dened in a precise way.

via a dening property I I I A = {2k | k is a positive integer } B=? C=? .via explicit enumeration I I I A = {2...Representation I Extension .} I Intension . 9.. 8.. 4. . 6. 24.} B = {1. 120. 4. . 16} C = {1. 6. 2.

com/sets/number-types.mathsisfun.html .Sets of numbers Figure : Relationship between numbers Source: http://www.

Is this a set? I A is the collection of all the scores in IPL 7 .

Is this a set? I A is the collection of all the scores in IPL 7 I B is the collection of percentiles of all students of IIMB PGP 2014-16 Batch .

Rahul G. Sonia G. 2G. Manmohan ji} .Is this a set? I A is the collection of all the scores in IPL 7 I B is the collection of percentiles of all students of IIMB PGP 2014-16 Batch I Scams = { A Raja. CWG.

CWG.Is this a set? I A is the collection of all the scores in IPL 7 I B is the collection of percentiles of all students of IIMB PGP 2014-16 Batch I Scams = { A Raja. 2G. Rahul G. Sonia G. Manmohan ji} I F = {k!| kN0 } .

Set Notations and Operations I A is a subset of B (written A⊆B) if every element of A is an element of B .

Ganguly} and B is a collection of all cricketers who scored 10. Dravid.Set Notations and Operations I A is a subset of B (written A⊆B) if every element of A is an element of B I Example: A = {Sachin.000 or more runs in ODIs I Sets A and B are disjoint if no element of A is an element of B and vice-versa .

Set Notations and Operations I A is a subset of B (written A⊆B) if every element of A is an element of B I Example: A = {Sachin.000 or more runs in ODIs I Sets A and B are disjoint if no element of A is an element of B and vice-versa I Sets A and B are equal if every element of A is an element of B and vice-versa . Dravid. Ganguly} and B is a collection of all cricketers who scored 10.

Dravid.000 or more runs in ODIs I Sets A and B are disjoint if no element of A is an element of B and vice-versa I Sets A and B are equal if every element of A is an element of B and vice-versa I Exercise: A = {2k | k is a positive integer } and B is set containing the pair wise sum of all prime numbers ( ________ conjecture !!!) . Ganguly} and B is a collection of all cricketers who scored 10.Set Notations and Operations I A is a subset of B (written A⊆B) if every element of A is an element of B I Example: A = {Sachin.

. 3.} I The union of sets A and B (denoted by A∪B) is the set of elements of A and B . 7. 11. 13.Set Notations and Operations I The complement of a set of all elements not in I A (denoted as Ac ) is the collection A Exercise: What is the complement of the set A = {2. 5.. .

. 3. 7.. 13.Set Notations and Operations I The complement of a set of all elements not in I A (denoted as Ac ) is the collection A Exercise: What is the complement of the set A = {2.} I The union of sets A and B (denoted by A∪B) is the set of elements of A and B I The intersection of A and B (denoted A∩B) is the set of elements common to A and B . . 11. 5.

11.Set Notations and Operations I The complement of a set of all elements not in I A (denoted as Ac ) is the collection A Exercise: What is the complement of the set A = {2.. 5.} I The union of sets A and B (denoted by A∪B) is the set of elements of A and B I The intersection of A and B (denoted A∩B) is the set of elements common to A and B I The dierence of A and B (denoted by A\B or A-B) is the set of elements of A but not in B .. 3. . 7. 13.

} I The union of sets A and B (denoted by A∪B) is the set of elements of A and B I The intersection of A and B (denoted A∩B) is the set of elements common to A and B I The dierence of A and B (denoted by A\B or A-B) is the set of elements of A but not in B I The Cartesian product of A and B is the exhaustive set of ordered pairs shown below .. 13. 3.Set Notations and Operations I The complement of a set of all elements not in I A (denoted as Ac ) is the collection A Exercise: What is the complement of the set A = {2. 7.. . 5. 11.

. . 7.. 13.Set Notations and Operations I The complement of a set of all elements not in I A (denoted as Ac ) is the collection A Exercise: What is the complement of the set A = {2. 11. 5. b B} . 3. b) | a A.} I The union of sets A and B (denoted by A∪B) is the set of elements of A and B I The intersection of A and B (denoted A∩B) is the set of elements common to A and B I The dierence of A and B (denoted by A\B or A-B) is the set of elements of A but not in B I The Cartesian product of A and B is the exhaustive set of ordered pairs shown below I A x B = {(a.

Venn Diagrams I Geometric interpretation tool I Represent the universal set as a rectangle I Represent each set as a circle I Combine the circles to depict the result of unary and binary operations .

Venn Diagrams .Examples .

) I I Trivia: Did you know that the set of natural numbers is countably innite ? Exercise: I I Try to prove using Venn diagrams n(A∪B) = n(A) + n(B) .n(A∩B) If A ⊆ B. . If A is the set used.Cardinality I A set's cardinality is a measure of its size. if we can exhaustively count the elements of a set. it is nite I If a set is innite we use ellipsis (. it's cardinality is represented by n(A) I Intuitively. . n(B) = n(A) + n(B\A) .

Thank You .