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Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia

Technical Inputs
National Standard of People’s Republic of China
GB 2715-2005
Hygienic standard for grains














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As at
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Text
Shenzhen Institute of Standards and Technology (SIST), Shenzhen, PR China

The findings and conclusions expressed in this documentation are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily repre-
sent the view of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) or further organising parties. The informa-
tion provided is without warranty of any kind.

On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)


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ICS 67.020
C 53


Nat|ona| Standard of the Þeop|e’s kepub||c of Ch|na
GB 2715 – 2005
Replaces GB 2715 – 1981




Hygienic standard for grains











Issue date: January 25, 2005 Implementation date: October 1, 2005

Issued by the M|n|stry of the nea|th of the Þeop|e’s kepub||c of China


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Foreword
This standard is mandatory in full text.
This standard will replace GB 2715 -- 1981: Hygienic standard for grains, which was
revoked.
The main changes in this standard compared with GB 2715 -- 1981 are as follows:
- Adding the scope of this stadard as “This standard is applicable to raw grain and
processed grain for human consumption including cereal, Legumes and tuber
crops. This standard is not applicable to raw materials for edible oil processing;
- Adding the hygiene requirements of packaging, marking, transportation and
storage;
- Adding the indexes of heat-damaged kernels and moldy kernels;
- Adding the index limits of ergot, lolium temulentum and stramonium seeds and
other seeds of poison plant;
- Adding the limits of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and ochratoxin A;
- Adding the maximum residue limits of methyl bromide, malathion,
chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, deltamethrin, lindane. Changing the
indexes of total arsenic into inorganic arsenic. Deleting the indexes of cyanide
and carbon disulfide.
This standard shall be effective on 1st October 2005; Transition period will be one
year. Those products manufactured before 1st October 2005 but meeting the
requirements of relevant standards are allowed to sell until 30th September, 2006.
Annex A of this standard is normative.
This stadard is proposed ad adiistered by the Miistry of Health of the People’s
Republic of China.
The main organizations that participated in the drafting of this standard are Jiangsu
Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for Health
Inspection and Supervision, Standards &Quality Center of the State Administration of
Grain, National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety of Chinese Center for Disease
Prevention and Control, Grain Monitoring Center of the Ministry of Agriculture,

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Liaoning Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, or Liaoning Entry-Exit Inspection and
Quarantine Bureau of People’s Republic of China in full (LNCIQ), Shanghai Entry-Exit
Inspection and Quarantine Bureau.
Main drafters of this standard are Baojun Yuan, Yunyan Zheng, Huamin Xie, Xiahui Li,
Tianliang Hou, Yuliang Guan, Ying Zhang, and Xuqing Wang.
The previous edition(s) replaced by this standard is (are) as follows:
- GB n1-1977
- GB 2715-1981


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Hygienic Standard for Grains
1. Scope
This standard defines the hygiene indexes of grains, testing methods and hygiene
requirements of packaging, marking, transportation and storage.
This standard is applicable to raw grains and processed grains for human
consumption including cereals, legumes and tuber crops. This standard is not
applicable to raw materials for edible oil processing.
2. Normative References
The terms of the following documents are by reference as the provisions of this
standard. All subsequent modification lists (excluding corrigendum content) or
revised editions of reference documents with date notes are not applicable to
this standard. However, all parties entering into an agreement based on this
standard are suggested to study whether the latest editions of these reference
documents are applicable. The latest editions of all reference documents without
date notes are applicable to this standard.
- GB 2760 Hygienic standard for uses of food additives
- GB 2763 Maximum residue limits for pesticides in Food
- GB/T 5009.11 Determination of total arsenic and abio-arsenic in foods
- GB/T 5009.12 Determination of lead in foods
- GB/T 5009.15 Determination of cadmium in foods
- GB/T 5009.17 Determination of total mercury and organic mercury in
foods
- GB/T 5009.19 Determination of HCH and DDT residues in foods
- GB/T 5009.20 Method for determination of organophosphorus pesticide
residues in foods
- GB/T 5009.22 Method for determination of aflatoxin B1 in foods
- GB/T 5009.36 Method for analysis of hygienic standard of grains
- GB/T 5009.96 Determination of ochratoxin A in cereals and soybeans
- GB/T 5009.110 Determination of cypermethrin,fenvalerate and

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deltamethrin residues in vegetable foods
- GB/T 5009.111 Determination of deoxynivalenol in cereal and cereal
products
- GB/T 5009.145 Determination of organophosphorus and carbamate
pesticide multiresidues in vegetable foods
- GB/T 5494 Inspection of grain and oilseeds; Methods for
determination of foreign matter and unsound kernels
- GB 7718 General standard for the labeling of prepackaged foods
- GB 13122 Hygienic specifications of flour milling factory
- SN 0649 Method for the determination of methyl bromide residues
in cereals for export
- SN/T 0080.7 Cereals and feedstuffs for import and export--Method for
the inspection of imperfect grains

3. Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions are applicable to this standard.
3.1 Heat damaged kernel
Kernel whose color is changed into an abnormal one due to heat produced by
microorganism or other reasons
3.2 Ergot
Sclerotium grown from fungi parasitizing in the ovary of gramineous plants
3.3 Lolium temulentum
Caryopsis of gramineae herb
3.4 Moldy kernel
Kernel with no edible value whose surface is clearly moldy and embryo and
endosperm (or cotyledon) are damaged

4.Requirements on indexes
4.1 Sensory requirements
The color, smell and hygiene requirements for grains should reach the ordinary levels

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and meet the requirements in Table 1.
Table 1 Sensory requirement for grains
Item Index
Heat damaged kernel/(%)
Wheat



0.5
Moldy kernel/(%) ≤ 2.0

4.2 Indexes of poisoned and harmful fungus and plant seeds
It should meet the requirements in Table 2.
Table 2 Indexes of poisoned and harmful fungus and plant seeds
Item Index
Ergot/(%)
Rice, corns and beans

Wheat, Barley





Not allowed to be
detected
0.01
Darnel/(seed/kg)
Wheat and barley



1
Mandala seeds and other
seeds of poisoned plants
(seed/kg)
Beans







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4.3 Physicochemical indexes
4.3.1 Index of fungaltoxin limit
It should meet the requirements in Table 3.
Table 3 Index of fungaltoxin limit
Item L|m|t](μg]kg)
Aflatoxin B
1

Corn



20

7

Rice
Other


10
5
Deoxynivalenol (DON)
Wheat, barley, corn and
processed grains





1000
Zearalenone

Wheat and corns





60
Ochratoxin A
Cereals and beans



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4.3.2 Index of pollutant limit
It should meet the requirements in Table 4.
Table 4 Index of pollutant limit
Item Limit/(mg/kg)
Lead (Pb) ≤ 0.2
Cadmium (Cd)
Paddy (including rice)
and beans
Wheat (including
wheatmeal), corns and
others




0.2
0.1
Mercury (Hg) ≤ 0.02
Inorganic arsenic (As)
Rice
Wheatmeal
Others





0.15
0.1
0.2

4.3.3 Maximum residue limit of pesticide

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It should meet the requirements in Table 5.
Table 5 Maximum residue limit of pesticide
Item Maximum residue limit
/(mg/kg)
Phosphide (PH
3
) ≤ 0.05
Methyl bromide ≤ 5
Malathion
Rice



0.1
Chlorpyrifos-methyl ≤ 5
Pirimiphos-methyl
Wheat and grains



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Deltamethrin ≤ 0.5
Benzex ≤ 0.05
Lindane
Wheat



0.05
DDT ≤ 0.05
Nitrochloromethane (raw
grains)
≤ 2
Heptachlor ≤ 0.02
Aldrin ≤ 0.02
Dieldrin ≤ 0.02
Other pesticides
See the requirements of
GB 2763

5. Food additives
5.1 The quality of food additives should meet the requirements of relevant standards
or certain regulations.
5.2 The kinds and usage amount of food additives should meet the requirements of
GB 2760.

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6 Testing methods
6.1 Sensory testing
Follow the testing method in GB/T 5009.36.
6.2 Heat damaged kernel
Follow the testing method in SN/T 0080.7.
6.3 Moldy kernel
Follow the testing method in GB/T 5494.
6.4 Ergot, darnel, mandala seed and other seeds of poisoned plants
Follow the testing method in GB/T 5009.36.
6.5 Aflatoxin B1
Follow the testing method in GB/T 5009.22.
6.6 Deoxynivalenol
Follow the testing method in GB/T 5009.111.
6.7 Zearalenone
Follow the testing method in Annex A.
6.8 Ochratoxin A
Follow the testing method in GB/T 5009.96.
6.9 Inorganic arsenic
Follow the testing method in GB/T 5009.11.
6.10 Lead
Follow the testing method in GB/T 5009.12.
6.11 Cadmium
Follow the testing method in GB/T 5009.15.
6.12 Mercury
Follow the testing method in GB/T 5009.17.
6.13 Phosphide, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and nitrochloroform
Follow the testing method in GB/T 5009.36.
6.14 Methyl bromide
Follow the testing method in SN 0649.
6.15 Malathion

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Follow the testing method in GB/T 5009.110.
6.16 Chlorpyrifos-methyl and pirimiphos-methyl
Follow the testing method in GB/T 5009.145.
6.17 Deltamethrin
Follow the testing method in GB/T 5009.110.
6.18 Benzex, DDT and Lindane
Follow the testing method in GB/T 5009.19.
7 Processing procedure of processed grains
Follow the testing method in GB 13122.
8 Packaging
Packaging of grains shall use materials or containers which meet certain hygiene
requirements. Packaging should be intact, undamaged and unpolluted.
9. Labelling
Labels of packaged grains should meet the requirements of GB 7718. Labels of
genetically modified food (GMF) should meet the relevant national rules and
regulations.
10. Transportation and Storage
Grain should be stored in a clean and dry environment to prevent moisture, rain and
pollution. There should be no mingling with poisoned, harmful, smelly substances or
substances with high moisture.
The tools and containers for transportation should meet certain hygiene
requirements. They should prevent from raining and pollution during the
transportation.


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Annex A
(Normative)
Determination of Zearalenone-Thin Layer
Chromatography (TLC)
A.1 Scope
This standard defines the zearalenone determined by TLC method.
This standard is applicable to the determination of zearalenone in grains.
The detection limit of this standard is 0.03 μg.
A.2 Principle
After being extracted, cleansed, concentrated, thin-layer chromatography of silica-gel
G, zearalenone in the sample will allow the visualization of blue-fluorescence spots
under 254 nm UV-light. Determine the amount of zearalenone according to the
fluorescence amount on the thin layer, compared with the standard.
A.3 Reagents
Unless otherwise noted, only analytical reagents, distilled water or water with a
certain pure level are applied in analysis.
A 3.1 Absolute ethyl alcohol
A 3.2 Ethyl acetate and cool
A 3.3 Trichloromethane
A 3.4 1 mol /L sodium hydroxide
A 3.5 Phosphoric acid
A 3.6 Acetone
A 3.7 Silica-gel G
A 3.8 Anhydrous sodium sulfate
A 3.9 Zearalenone standard solution
Preparation of zearalenone standard solution: Dissolve 3 mg zearalenone in 100 ml
absolute ethyl alcohol to make standard solution of 0.03 g/L zearalenone. Extract 1
ml standard solution and dilute it with absolute ethyl alcohol to 10 ml to make

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stadard solutio of 3 μg/ml zearalenone. Reserve this solution in a refrigerator of
4ºC.

A 4 Apparatus
A 4.1 Micromill
A 4.2 Electric agitator
A 4.3 Ultraviolet lamp
A 4.4 Glass plate: 5 cm × 20 cm
A 4.5 Thin layer spreader
A 4.6 Microsyringe

A 5 Analysis procedure
A 5.1 Extracting and purifying
Weigh 20 g sample in powder and put the powder into 250 ml flask with stopper. Add
6 ml water and 100 ml ethyl acetate. Vibrate the flask for 1 hour. Filter the solution
with folded filter paper. Weigh 25 ml filtrate into 75 ml evaporating dish and place
the dish on a container with hot water to make it concentrate into dryness. Dissolve
the residue with 25 ml trichloromethane in three times and transfer the solution into
separating funnel of 100ml. Add 10 ml 1 mol/l sodium hydroxide solution in the
previous evaporating dish, drop 1 mol/l sodium hydroxide solution along the funnel
wall 1cm-2cm from the surface of trichloromethane layer, and rotate five times
slightly incase emulsification. Still the funnel until the solution is separated into layers.
Transfer the trichloromethane layer into second separating funnel of 100ml and add
10 ml 1 mol/l sodium hydroxide solution slowly, rotate five times slightly, remove
trichloromethane layer, blend the sodium hydroxide solution in second
separating funnel into the first funnel and cleanse the second funnel with few
distilled water. Then transfer the cleansing liquid into the first funnel, add 5 ml
trichloromethane, rotate and vibrate slightly, remove trichloromethane layer, add 5
ml trichloromethane and rotate for layer separation again, remove trichloromethane
layer. Add 6ml 1.33 mol/l phosphoric acid into sodium hydroxide solution in first

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funnel, neutralize the PH value of sodium hydroxide solution to 9.5 with 0.67 mol/l
phosphoric acid, add 15 ml trichloromethane, rotate 20-30 times, filter the
trichloromethane layer through quantitative filter paper at a slow speed with 5 g
anhydrous sodium sulfate into 75 ml evaporating dish. Cleanse the funnel with few
trichloromethane and blend cleansing liquid into evaporating dish. Evaporate the
dish on a container with hot water into dryness, put the dish on a container with icy
water and dissolve the residue with 1 ml acetone. Transfer the solution with dropper
to flask with stopper as sample solution for TLC spotting.
A 5.2 Thin-layer chromatography (TLC)
A 5.2.1 Preparation of thin layer plate: Grind 3 g silica gel G with 7–8 ml distilled
water to thick slurry. Move the slurry into a thin layer spreader and spread the slurry
on three glass plates of 5 cm × 20 cm. Still the plates at room temperature into
dryness and activate it by heating in an oven for 60 minutes at 105°C. Reserve the
plates in the dryer for next steps.
A 5.2.2 Developing agent: Choose 15 ml mixture of chloroform and
methanol (95:5) or 15 ml mixture of toluene, acetic acid, formic acid (6:3:1) as
developing agent.
A 5.2.3 Spotting: Drop three spots of sample liquid on the baseline 2.5 cm up from
botto edge of plate with μg microsyringe: 1 spot of 10 μl zearalenone standard
solution, 1 spot of 30 μl of extraction solution for sample and 1 spot of 30 μl of
extraction solution for sample and 10 μl zearalenone standard solution. When
dropping, a cold air blower can be used to speed up the drying of plate. Drop a new
spot after the previous spot is dried.
A 5.2.4 Developing: Add developing agent into a developing tank and dip the plate in
agent. Remove the plate from the tank and dry when it is developed to 10 cm.
A 5.2.5 Observation and determination: Observe the plate under UVC 254 nm. If
there are no blue green fluorescence spots on the spot of sample solution at the
same location of spot of standard solution, the amount of zearalenone in sample
determined at the method of sensibility is below 50 μg/kg; if the intensity of
fluorescence spots in spot of sample solution is the same with the minimum

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detectable quantity of fluorescence intensity in spot of standard solution and the
locations of two fluorescence spots overlap, the amount of zearalenone in sample
determined at the method of sensibility equals to 50 μg/kg; if the intensity of
fluorescence spots in spot of sample solution is higher than the minimum detectable
quantity of fluorescence intensity in spot of standard solution, based on the
fluorescence intensity, reduce the amount of solution or add different amount of
sample solution after being diluted, until the intensity of fluorescence spots in spot
of sample solution is the same with the one of minimum detectable quantity.
A 6 Calculations of results
Calculate the amount of zearalenone according to the following formula (A.1):
= 0.03 ×

× D ×

…………………… (A.1)
Where,
: amount of zearalenone, in the unit of μg/kg;
0.03: minimum detectable quantity of zearalenone, in the unit of μg;
V
1
: volume of acetone, in the unit of ml;
V
2
: volume of sample solution to drop when minimum quantity of fluorescence spots
appears, in the unit of ml;
D: total dilution ratio of sample solution;
m: weight of sample when residue of acetone solution is added, in the unit of g.














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