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GUIDELINES FOR SEISMIC
EVALUATION AND DESIGN OF
PETROCHEMICAL FACILITIES
Second Edition

PREPARED BY

Task Committee on Seismic Evaluation and Design of the
Petrochemical Committee of the
Energy Division of the
American Society of Civil Engineers

1801 ALEXANDER BELL DRIVE
RESTON, VIRGINIA 20191–4400

Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petrochemical Facilities

whether express or implied. For personal use only. apparatus. contracts. Virginia. concerning the accuracy. Includes bibliographical references and index. Patent and Trademark Office.G85 2010 665. Copyright ASCE. which takes no responsibility for any statement made herein. or warranty thereof by ASCE. product.org) and using the “Permission to Reuse” link. Earthquake engineering.226. or process discussed in this publication. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Guidelines for seismic evaluation and design of petrochemical facilities / prepared by Task Committee on Seismic Evaluation and Design of the Petrochemical Committee of the Energy Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers. nor are they intended as a reference in purchase specifications.org or by locating a title in ASCE’s online database (http://cedb. ISBN 978-0-7844-1140-7 1. or any other legal document. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Civil Engineers.5'3--dc22 2010048902 American Society of Civil Engineers 1801 Alexander Bell Drive Reston. regulations. This information should not be used without first securing competent advice with respect to its suitability for any general or specific application.189.S. statutes. Anyone utilizing this information assumes all liability arising from such use. and assumes no liability therefore.org/reprints.org by 59. Photocopies and permissions. ASCE and American Society of Civil Engineers—Registered in U. suitability. all rights reserved.asce. -. Permission to photocopy or reproduce material from ASCE publications can be obtained by sending an e-mail to permissions@asce. cm. No reference made in this publication to any specific method. American Society of Civil Engineers. ASCE makes no representation or warranty of any kind. process.2nd ed. I. ISBN 13: 978-0-7844-1140-7 Manufactured in the United States of America. Petroleum refineries--Design and construction. Bulk reprints. Information regarding reprints of 100 or more copies is available at http://www. p.org/pubs Any statements expressed in these materials are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent the views of ASCE. Task Committee on Seismic Evaluation and Design.asce. including but not limited to infringement of any patent or patents.239 on 09/05/14. product. The materials are for general information only and do not represent a standard of ASCE. or service constitutes or implies an endorsement. TH4571. completeness. or utility of any information. 20191-4400 www. All Rights Reserved. 16 15 14 13 12 11 1234567 Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petrochemical Facilities . recommendation.Downloaded from ascelibrary. 2.asce.

239 on 09/05/14. Hanna Jacobs Engineering .189.org by 59. Copyright ASCE.226. to date. For personal use only. (Greg) Soules CB&I iii Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petrochemical Facilities . They represent a consensus opinion of task committee members active in their development. Levitan Louisiana State University J. These five ASCE engineering reports are: 1) Design of Anchor Bolts in Petrochemical Facilities 2) Design of Blast Resistant Buildings in Petrochemical Facilities 3) Design of Secondary Containment in Petrochemical Facilities 4) Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petrochemical Facilities 5) Wind Loads for Petrochemical and Other Industrial Facilities The ASCE Petrochemical Energy Committee was organized by A. by the ASCE Petrochemical Energy Committee. all rights reserved. G. Hsiu.Chairman William Bounds Fluor Corporation John Falcon Jacobs Engineering Marc L. Gupta in 1991 and initially chaired by Curley Turner. ASCE Petrochemical Energy Committee This publication is one of five state-of-the-practice engineering reports produced. These engineering reports are intended to be a summary of current engineering knowledge and design practice. and present guidelines for the design of petrochemical facilities. More recently. K. Bohinsky and Frank J. The ASCE has determined the need to update four of the original reports and publish new editions. the Committee has been chaired by Joseph A. Buildings codes and standards have changed significantly since the publication of these five reports. new research in these areas and in blast resistant design has provided opportunities for improvement of the recommended guidelines. The ASCE Petrochemical Energy Committee was reorganized by Magdy H. Under their leadership the five task committees were formed. specifically in the calculation of wind and seismic loads and analysis procedures for anchorage design. based on the latest research and for consistency with current building codes and standards. Hanna in 2005 and the following four task committees were formed to update their respective reports: • Task Committee on Anchor Bolt Design for Petrochemical Facilities • Task Committee on Blast Design for Petrochemical Facilities • Task Committee on Seismic Evaluation and Design for Petrochemical Facilities • Task Committee for Wind Load Design for Petrochemical Facilities Current ASCE Petrochemical Energy Committee Magdy H. Additionally.Downloaded from ascelibrary. The five reports were initially published in 1997.

contingency planning. and it is recognized that it would be prohibitively expensive to retrofit existing facilities to meet current standards. Another primary purpose was to address the need for consistent evaluation methodologies and standards for existing facilities. these guidelines emphasize interpretations of the intent of building codes as applied to petrochemical facilities. iv Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petrochemical Facilities . Though the makeup of the committee and the writing of this document are directed at petrochemical facilities. The ASCE Task Committee on Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petrochemical Facilities This revised document was prepared to provide guidance in the seismic design of new petrochemical facilities and the seismic evaluation of existing facilities. operating company personnel responsible for establishing seismic design and construction standards. For personal use only. The task committee was established because of a significant interest in the petrochemical industry in addressing the wide variation of design and construction practices and standards that are applied throughout the country with regards to the petrochemical industry. These guidelines are intended to provide practical recommendations on several areas which affect the safety of a petrochemical facility during and following an earthquake. In the area of new design. Most governing building codes and design standards address only new design. these guidelines are applicable to similar situations in other industries.226.189. but which can be identified by experienced engineers.org by 59.Downloaded from ascelibrary. This document also provides background information and recommendations in several areas related to seismic safety where the structural engineer may be interacting with other disciplines and with plant operations. For existing facilities. and practical guidance on design details and considerations which are not included in building codes. It is also recognized that standards for new design do not address all of the conditions that may be found in existing facilities. coupled with focused analyses. and post-earthquake damage assessment. These areas include seismic hazards. The intended audience for this document includes structural design engineers.239 on 09/05/14. these guidelines provide evaluation methodologies which rely heavily on experience from past earthquakes. all rights reserved. The guidelines emphasize methods to address seismic vulnerabilities which are not covered by building codes. Copyright ASCE. and local building authorities.

D.E. Lenox. David Kerins. Hoang Gayle S. Johnson.E. Dario Rosidi. P. P.189.. Eskijian. Jr.239 on 09/05/14. Summers.E.E. Thomas E. James Lee Benny E. Ph. Richard T. P.E.. P.E. Martin L. G. Rudy Mulia. S.Downloaded from ascelibrary. S. S. Mustang Engineering v Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petrochemical Facilities .E. Inc.org by 59. For personal use only. The ASCE Task Committee on Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petrochemical Facilities J. P. Consulting Structural Engineer California State Lands Commission ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co. (Dick) Gilbert. Inc.E. Chairman Robert E. Rosinski. P. Mustang Engineering CH2M Hill. Fluor Enterprises. Inc. S. writing. P. Stokes.E.. Willis. Clay H.E.E. and reviewing in detail specific sections of this document. Wey. P. Kim T.E. Jacobs Engineering DuPont Engineering MMI Engineering Inc. Bachman. Martin. SECB CB&I. KBR Jacobs Engineering Mustang Engineering MMI Engineering Inc. P. In helping to create a consensus set of guidelines. Those members are identified below. Press. P. Bachman.E. Inc.E. Don S. Ahmed Nisar. all rights reserved.E.. Paul B. Halcrow.E. Jeffrey A.E. P.E. P. Eric H. a number of key individuals dedicated significant amounts of time to formulating.E. Chevron Energy and Technology Co. P.226.E.E.E. (Greg) Soules. ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co. P. P.. Copyright ASCE. Vice-Chairman R. S. James W. Chevron Energy and Technology Co. G.

Finally.E. Fluor Enterprises.E. CH2M Hill. S. Anderson Vincent Borov.Downloaded from ascelibrary. Donald G. Inc. Rick Drake.189. James passed away during the preparation of this report update.E. For personal use only. Chevron Energy and Technology Co. Reviewers and Other Contributors Eric Abrahamson.239 on 09/05/14. Fluor Enterprises. Hendrickson Thomas Hunt.E. the task committee would like to acknowledge the numerous contributions made to this task committee by James Lee...226. all rights reserved. vi Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petrochemical Facilities . Rory M. P. Ph. Jacobs Engineering Jacobs Engineering Chevron Energy and Technology Co.D.E.org by 59.E. P. S. Ai Nguyen Mike Rookstool ExxonMobil Development Co. The committee would like to thank the following individuals for their reviews and other contributions. S. SECB Donovan Harnly Perry C. Copyright ASCE. Inc. McGruer. Jacobs Engineering Exxon Mobil Research & Engineering Co. P. Inc.

..............................17 Quality Assurance ..... all rights reserved.....................51 vii Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petrochemical Facilities ..9 Performance Objectives and Occupancy Categories..............................1 1...... Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction....................................................Downloaded from ascelibrary...................................................................................................7 Considerations for the Evaluation of Existing Facilities ..........................................19 Earthquake Basics ............................1 2...............39 Appendix 3......3 2.............................................A Ground Shaking ....................21 Design Ground Motions.......11 2..........7 2......4 2....10 2.5 Chapter 2: Design and Evaluation Philosophy ....3 Organization of the Document.....................................3 Objective ........14 Considerations for Regulatory Requirements ...............4 3.....6 2.............................................................................19 Ground Shaking........................................................................................................................................................5 2...........................17 Structural Observation and Inspection ...........9 2......239 on 09/05/14.........................................................1 Related Industry Codes........... Copyright ASCE.................2 1..10 Design Approaches for New Facilities..................................7 2.......19 3.................................5 3......226.............................8 2....................2 3..............................................................189........................ For personal use only......................................24 Ground Failure..8 Cautions Regarding Design & Evaluation .............................. Standards and Specifications............................................................13 Evaluation of Existing Structure / Replacement in Kind...........................37 Appendix 3...............................................15 Considerations for Temporary Facilities ...........................7 Considerations for New Design...........18 Peer Review ....................................2 2............................18 Chapter 3: Seismic Hazards..............................................34 Tsunami and Seiche....................12 Introduction....................................................................................................1 1........B Earthquake Related Coastal Inundation....................................................................................................6 Introduction..............................................................3 3.............................................................org by 59..................................................................................................................1 3...........................

....................................................................................................250 6..250 Basis for Performing Walkdowns......... For personal use only......111 Appendix 4.....................................................G Examples of Configurations of Petrochemical Structures where Dynamic Analysis Is Recommended................................139 Appendix 4........257 Limitations ...............................5 4........................................................ all rights reserved..............................................247 Chapter 6: Walkdown Evaluations of Existing Facilities.........................................251 System Considerations .........................143 Appendix 4........................123 Appendix 4.....245 Geotechnical Considerations..2 5...........................................................................B Guidelines for Determination of Base Shear for Combination Structures ............org by 59........................................................84 Appendix 4...................61 Selection of Analysis Procedures ....................2 4..................................................................................284 viii Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petrochemical Facilities ....1 4.........................................4 4...........................................213 Structural Details ....60 Structural Systems in a Petrochemical Facility.............................189...255 Evaluation of Components.....3 6.................C Determination of Base Shear for Selected Structures .......................................203 5..........5 5.............................................................................64 Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure ......................................232 Physical Interaction of Structures and Components ..................A Typical Period (T) Computations for Nonbuilding Structures .......D Stability Check Using Energy Balance Approach .........................60 4.............................6 Introduction....................................................Downloaded from ascelibrary...........................................................................4 5..5 6..............................................................65 Dynamic Analysis Methods..........F Guidance for California Accidental Release Prevention (CalARP) Program Seismic Assessments ...................1 6..................1 5............4 6...........................................6 Introduction.............226.................................................250 General Methodology....................................................191 Chapter 5: Primary Structural Design.......203 Design Considerations.........................239 on 09/05/14.. Copyright ASCE...3 4....3 5.............6 Introduction................................................................................................................89 Appendix 4..............................................203 Design Criteria.....79 Considerations for Existing Facilities...................103 Appendix 4...................E Methodology for Determination of Sliding Displacements............................................................. Chapter 4: Seismic Analysis...........2 6........................

.....326 ix Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petrochemical Facilities ....................326 Seismic Retrofit Considerations for Plant Structures and Buildings ..................323 Recommended Equipment .......4 8.............................................................................................................................................................................................................5 7.....8 Introduction.......3 10....8 8.......................2 9........................Downloaded from ascelibrary..............................315 Assembling of Inspection Data / Reporting Results ..................................312 Purpose......189.............................314 Command & Control / Mobilization System ...........7 Introduction....................................... all rights reserved...............................7 9..........3 7...............................315 Chapter 9: Post-Earthquake Damage Assessment ........................4 Introduction.......................................................................................1 9.........2 8..........317 Pre-Investigation Activities.......................325 Upgrade Situations .....309 Chapter 8: Earthquake Contingency Planning.5 9........................................2 7..................................................................9 Introduction........................................3 8........312 Pre-Earthquake Preparation ..............4 9..........324 Chapter 10: Retrofit Design ..................................................................317 9......7 8.........................................................................2 10..................................................................308 Considerations for Future Investigation ..........3 9. Chapter 7: Design and Evaluation of Tanks at Grade.....................................................287 Walkthrough Inspection ......................286 7.........................322 Documentation.............1 7...............6 8........226......1 8........................................1 10....................................org by 59..............239 on 09/05/14........286 Past Earthquake Performance of Flat-Bottomed Tanks.............................................................313 Incident Recognition ......................321 Identification of Damaged Structures......................................325 10......................5 8................4 7...................................6 9............................................................................300 Mitigation of Seismic Effects ...............................................................................................................................................319 Performing Field Inspections ....................290 Analytical Evaluation ......................................309 Design of New Tanks................................322 Inspection Team ...315 Inspection Methodology........................................................................... Copyright ASCE...........................................................................................................................................314 Roles and Responsibilities of Team Personnel .......................................................312 8...............................................312 Scope of Response Plan .... For personal use only....................320 Evaluation of Load-Carrying Systems ....................325 Criteria for Voluntary Seismic Upgrading ........................................6 7........................................

.....335 Code Conformance..................................... Chapter 11: New and Existing Marine Oil Terminals .............330 11......336 Vendor Issues..............6 Introduction...336 Cautions when Performing Code Comparisons......................................335 Multiple Code Conformance.........................................333 Chapter 12: International Codes......................................................239 on 09/05/14.......... all rights reserved.226.......................340 Glossary........................339 Language Issues.6 Introduction..................................................................................5 11.............331 Overall Approach ......................2 11.................330 MOT Descriptions...................................359 x Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petrochemical Facilities ...............332 Existing Marine Oil Terminals ...................................4 12.........................................................................................1 11.......................................................................1 12..............................................330 Historical Performance....................................2 12.......................................Downloaded from ascelibrary................org by 59...................................................................................................................................................................................4 11.......5 12.................3 12..............................................................................................348 Index....................................... For personal use only...................................................................................................189..........................................................................................................................................330 State of Practice ....335 12........................339 Nomenclature................................................ Copyright ASCE............................................................................................................................................................................344 References............3 11.....................