ECO FRIENDLY MATERIALS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

 The materials that are obtained from Nature are the ones which do not harm the environment when they degrade, and they are designed in such a way that the temperature is maintained within the building made out of them.  Such materials are earth, wood, stone, thatch etc.  These materials are abundantly available on the face of the earth. They are all renewable sources. They do not cause any harm to the earth and their construction techniques are easy.  The main cause for not using materials like glass, cement, concrete, P.V.C, plastic etc is that they increase the surrounding temperature and when their debris is dumped in the earth they cause harm to Her. We could use materials which are climatically viable that do not cause rise in temperature in hot and dry climates of countries like India. Such materials are used in cold countries help in trapping heat and keeping the interiors warm.  On 11th September 2001, when world trade centre collapsed due to the terrorist plane attack, the major problem of the bodies helping in cleaning up was where to dump the debris.  Cement concrete roads which Surat boasts of today is surprisingly hotter than the interior parts despite of being on the seashore and a river flowing through its heart. Cement concrete roads become harder as timepasses. They have a smooth surface so the friction is also less. Hence the chances of vehicle skidding is more on cement roads than the tar roads. Tar roads, which are nothing but burnt rubber and of elastic nature provide more friction.  In Surat all the old buildings which have tarnished walls, have been replaced with glass panels today. These panels reflect light on the roads and increase the surrounding temperature.  As far as architecture is concerned, ancient Indian Architecture which used eco friendly materials and techniques and these techniques are used by other countries to improve their style of architecture today.  The techniques of using eco friendly materials like earth and wood(bamboo) are discussed below

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FREE SPANNING TECHNIQUE
ADOBE VAULT CONSTRUCTION
This technique combines the use of vertical courses as per the traditional style of building vaults. The structures are built depending upon the shape of the vaults either with horizontal, vertical or both the courses. The gist of the technique is that the equilibrium of the gravity forces of the various courses transfer onto the next courses and the masonry in general. It is the basic criteria • To study the location of the centre of the gravity so that the weight of the masonry never goes beyond the springers. • To develop a certain sense of how the forces behave in the masonry.  The transfer of loads always takes the shape of catenary curves, and assumes, and assumes the most direct way.  The vault being built with horizontal courses, rises like a corbel inclined as the radius of the curve.  It is here at the maximum height, and thus the limit of stability.  Four more courses can be built horizontally by steps, as a rampant arch creates itself in the masonry.  The 6m span semicircular vault cannot be built horizontally anymore, as no force can balance the gravity forces. The construction has to go on with vertical courses. The Free Spanning technique is advantageous over the traditional technique as the glue is sandier and the quantity of glue is also less as the blocks are bigger. Hence the vault tends to crack less because there is less shrinkage due to the glue. Therefore, the Free Spanning technique shows its full possibilities with a combination of horizontal and verticle courses. 2

FILLER SLAB CONSTRUCTION
HOLLOW ROOFING SYSTEM: ADVANTAGES
Floors and roofs using hollow clay filler bricks have been found to be advantageous over the conventional R.C.C. slab construction. This type of construction consists of placing joist (Made of clay channels, cement, mortar, steel) at suitable spacing and the gap between these joists are filled with hollow clay bricks. This type of construction is lighter in weight and helps rapid construction and elimination the use of shuttering. Specially cast to suit the construction -use less material and are light in weight -standard size of hurdi tile used for filler slab is 10”x14”x4” -grooved on two parallel sides -this helps in providing a key for concrete -nitches are provided at the sides to house the rib reinforcement Aesthetical quality This system is used for single and multi storeyed civil buildings schools, hospitals, hotels etc. It could also be efficiently used for restoration of existing old buildings made of wooden beam planks. This can also be used for low cost roofing construction. They are not only cost effective but also provide good thermal insulation as the blocks are hollow, so the air acts as insulation. But they are recommended up to 3 meters span only. The usual shuttering is provided before using these blocks. Care should be taken to soak the roofing blocks well in water before concreting so as to avoid the absorption of the water in the concrete by the block. The normal concrete mix of 1:2:4 is used for concreting. 3

Temperature reinforcement using 4 or 6 mm steel is used for the screed concrete over the bricks. Care should be taken to provide negative reinforcement.  Form the main reinforcement.  Place along the grooved side of the Hurdi tile.  Can be precast. (Steel rods are placed inside the hollow Hurdi Tile and the gap is filled with concrete).  On top of this 2” concreting is done.  Distribution steel is provided above the tiles.  In Mysore, mud centering is a common practice. This is ideal for filler slab. It is not possible to insure a perfect plane with any other centering.

BAMBOO

-SPECIALLY CAST TO SUIT THE CONSTRUCTION -USE LESS MATERIAL AND ARE LIGHT IN WEIGHT -STANDARD SIZE OF HURDI TILE USED FOR 4 FILLER SLAB IS 10”X14”X4” -GROOVED ON TWO PARALLEL SIDES HURDI -THIS HELPS IN PROVIDING A KEY FOR TILE

 Roofing is an essential ingredient of any house and in India several roof cladding materials are in use including burnt clay mangalore tiles, thatch, corrugated sheet of Galvanized Iron, aluminium and Asbestos Cement, etc. Of these, for semi permanent structures corrugated sheets are preferred. However, one of the major roofing materials, viz., ACS are being replaced with other alternative materials in many countries.  The main raw material for the production of Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheet (BMCS) is bamboo, which is the fastest growing plant and occurs naturally in the forests and is also suitable for plantation even over degraded lands. For manufacturing BMCS, bamboo is to be converted into mats that are hand woven by rural/tribal people, particularly women. Thus, the product is both environment and people friendly. The technology for manufacture of. has been transferred to an entrepreneur. A commercial plant has been set up at Burnihat, Meghalaya for production of 3000- 4000 sheets per month. A 6-day light hot press has been installed at Burnihat under the funding from Ministry of Enyironment & Forests and the cost of balance equipment has been met by the entrepreneur. Trial production has already been undertaken and products have been tested successfully.

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COMPARISON OF LOAD BEARING STRENGTH OF BMCS & OTHER SHEETS
TYPE THICKNESS mm WIDTH mm MAX. LOAD N LOAD BEARING CAPACITY N/mm WEIGHT OF SHEET (1.05 M x 1.8 m) Kgs.

Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheet

3.7

400

1907

4.77

7.2

6

(4-Layers)

G.I. Sheet Aluminium Sheet ACCS

0.6 0.6 6

400 405 330

1937 669 1800

4.84 1.67 5.45

7.7 2.9 15.85

BAMBOO
DETAIL OF BAMBOO ROOFING FLOORING PRODUCTS Why bamboo?

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Bamboo is a premium, pre-finished, engineered hardwood flooring product. Using state-of-the-art manufacturing equipment, bamboo strips are processed into multi-layered, tongue-and-groove floor planks. Bamboo flooring meets or exceeds the performance of traditional hardwood flooring, and can be specified as a direct replacement. The product is of the highest quality and hardest available on the market. Bamboo flooring is hardwood flooring made from bamboo stalks. It is an engineered product that utilizes state-of-the-art manufacturing equipment to process bamboo strips into multi-layered, tongue-and-groove pre-finished bamboo floor planks. The premium quality pre-finished product arrives to your job site directly from the factory in China, the recognized worldwide leader in bamboo flooring. This benefits the environment as there is less transportation and warehousing involved. The mission is to help preserve the environment by encouraging eco-friendly harvesting, processing, and finishing that are non-toxic and waste-free. Why bamboo flooring? Bamboo is an affordable, attractive, eco-friendly, and durable alternative to traditional hardwood flooring. According to the National Hardwood Flooring Association, natural bamboo flooring is 10% harder than red oak hardwood flooring. Why is bamboo flooring "eco-friendly"? The Moso bamboo utilized is actually a quick growing grass species (Phyllostachys Heterocycla Pubescens Ohwi). Harvested from government authorized locations within Hunan Province, China, the bamboo plants take only 5 - 6 years to reach maturity. Because it is a harvested grass that continually regenerates, bamboo is considered a renewable and sustainable resource. Bamboo is an environmentally responsible alternative to traditional hardwoods.

SIZES
Code PF-HG-A PF-HG-B PF-VG-B Type Horizontal Grain Horizontal Grain Vertical Grain Length 36-1/2" 36" 36" Width 4-3/4" 3-5/8" 3-5/8" Thick 5/8" 5/8" 5/8"

COLOURS
Bamboo is produced in a range of attractive colours. A natural darkening process known as "carbonization" is used, where steam is applied during manufacturing. The resulting heat carbonizes the sugar components of the bamboo stalks, altering their colour as desired. The quality of pre-finished flooring is available in 3 unique colours; Natural Blonde, Tahitian Tan, and Gingersnap Brown. What type of adhesive is used during the lamination process? 8

The unique proprietary non-toxic adhesive has been officially certified* by the National Research Center of Testing Techniques for Building Materials in China. The independent examination concluded that the practically formaldehyde-free adhesive is six times better than the strict European Building Standard, for chemical off-gassing. According to the stringent standard, the maximum allowable formaldehyde off-gas component is 1.50 milligrams/liter. The N.R.C. independent test indicated that the adhesive off-gassed less than 0.25 milligrams/liter. The adhesive has an extremely high tolerance to climatic and humidity changes. * (ref: National Research Center of Testing Techniques for Building Materials - File #200251526, Jan-2003) How is bamboo flooring installed? Bamboo flooring installs just like traditional tongue-and-groove solid hardwood flooring. Any professional flooring installer can easily install with excellent results. Horizontal Grain Construction - features a distinct traditional bamboo "knuckle" characteristic that repeats naturally throughout the planks. Horizontal Grain Vertical Grain Construction - features a clean, contemporary characteristic with the appearance of long, flowing, linear hardwood grain. Vertical Grain What type of floor finish (pre-finish) is used? The solid planks are pre-finished with a 6 stage, water-based, UV-cured acrylic urethane. Manufactured in Germany by Treffert, this is a high quality product that will perform well for many years. Is it possible to re-finish bamboo? Yes, the bamboo flooring can be refinished at some time in the future. Solid bamboo flooring planks can typically be re-finished up to 3 times. Can bamboo flooring be installed over "in-floor" radiant heating? 9

Yes, because of its natural dimensional stability, it is perfectly suited for installation over "in-floor" radiant heating.

FINISH
Bamboo solid flooring planks are pre-finished with a 6 stage UV-cured, water-based, German-manufactured aluminum oxide coating. This premium product is extremely durable, non-off-gassing, and features a contemporary matte finish. How does one maintain? After the installation, clean with a no wax, non alkaline floor cleaner. Avoid using water, sand and also avoid using shoes. Quickly remove the stains. Use rugs in high traffic areas.

ACCESSORIES
In addition to standard tongue-and-groove floor planks, colour-matched, pre-finished accessories are available including: • stair treads • risers • nosing • reducers • t-mold • quarter rounds

CONCLUSION
Hence we can see here how the different techniques that are used to save energy should become mandatory for our future generations to survive. Ultimately the more sustainable approach we have towards the creation of buildings, the more we will be able to sustain ourselves. We can also use all the other eco friendly or renewable sources of energy. Other renewable sources are solar energy, greenery, wind energy, water. Countries like Germany get 2 months of sunlight and can make th3e maximum use of it then think of how much we could utilize the solar energy and progress. We could use the non renewable sources of energy optimally so that they sustain for a longer period of time and also cause less pollution to the Mother Nature.

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