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# C H A P T E R 1 2

## Functions of Several Variables

Section 12.1 Introduction to Functions of Several Variables . . . . . . . 76
Section 12.2 Limits and Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Section 12.3 Partial Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Section 12.4 Differentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Section 12.5 Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables . . . . . . . 92
Section 12.6 Directional Derivatives and Gradients . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Section 12.7 Tangent Planes and Normal Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Section 12.8 Extrema of Functions of Two Variables . . . . . . . . . . 109
Section 12.9 Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

. 113

## Section 12.10 Lagrange Multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

Review Exercises

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

## Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

C H A P T E R 1 2
Functions of Several Variables
Section 12.1

## Solutions to Odd-Numbered Exercises

1. x 2z  yz  xy  10

3.

zx 2  y  10  xy

x2 y2
  z2  1
4
9
No, z is not a function of x and y. For example,
x, y  0, 0 corresponds to both z  1.

10  xy
z 2
x y
Yes, z is a function of x and y.

5. f x, y 

x
y

(a) f 3, 2 

3
2

(b) f 1, 4  

(d) f 5, y 

5
y

(e) f x, 2 

(c) f 30, 5 

x
2

(f) f 5, t 

## (a) f 5, 0  5e0  5

(b) f 3, 2  3e 2
2
e

30
6
5

5
t

xy
z

9. hx, y, z 

7. f x, y  xe y

## (c) f 2, 1  2e1 

1
4

(a) h2, 3, 9 

23 2

9
3

(b) h1, 0, 1 

10
0
1

(d) f 5, y  5e y
(e) f x, 2  xe 2
(f) f t, t  tet

## 11. f x, y  x sin y

13. gx, y 

2t  3 dt

 4   2 sin 4  2




(a) f 2,

(a) g0, 4 

## (b) f 3, 1  3 sin 1

(b) g1, 4 

2t  3 dt  t 2  3t

2t  3 dt  t 2  3t

0
4
1

4
6

15. f x, y  x 2  2y
(a)

f x  x, y  f x, y
x  x2  2y  x2  2y

x
x


(b)
76

## x 2  2xx  x2  2y  x 2  2y x2x  x


 2x  x, x  0
x
x

## f x, y  y  f x, y

x 2  2 y  y  x 2  2y x 2  2y  2y  x 2  2y 2y



 2, y  0
y
y
y
y

Section 12.1
17. f x, y  4  x 2  y 2
Domain: 4 

x2

## 19. f x, y  arcsinx  y

y 0
2
2

Domain: 4  x  y > 0
xy < 4



Range:  z
2
2

x, y: x 2  y 2 4

Range: 0 z 2

23. z 

xy
xy

27. gx, y 

1
xy

Range: z > 0

29. f x, y 

77

## 21. f x, y  ln4  x  y

Domain:
x, y: 1 x  y 1

x y 4
2

4x
x2  y2  1

15, 10, 20

## (d) View from the line y  x in the xy-plane: 20, 20, 0

31. f x, y  5

33. f x, y  y 2

Plane: z  5

## Since the variable x is missing, the surface is a cylinder

with rulings parallel to the x-axis. The generating curve is
z  y 2. The domain is the entire xy-plane and the range is
z 0.

y
5

1
4

35. z  4  x 2  y 2

## 37. f x, y  ex

z
4

Paraboloid
Domain: entire xy-plane
Range: z 4
3

## Since the variable y is missing, the

surface is a cylinder with rulings
parallel to the y-axis. The generating
curve is z  ex. The domain is the
entire xy-plane and the range is z > 0.

8
6
4
2

x
4
x

39. z  y 2  x 2  1

## 41. f x, y  x 2exy2

Hyperbolic paraboloid

Range:   < z <

y
x

78

Chapter 12

## Functions of Several Variables

43. f x, y  x 2  y 2
(a)

## (c) g is a horizontal translation of f two units to the right.

The vertex moves from 0, 0, 0 to 0, 2, 0.

z
5
4

(e)

2
1

## (b) g is a vertical translation of f two units upward

z = f (x, 1)

z = f (1, y)

2
2

45. z  e1x

2 y 2

47. z  ln y  x 2

Level curves:

49. z  x  y
Level curves are parallel lines of
the form x  y  c.

Level curves:

c

2
2
e1x y

c  ln y 

ln c  1  x 2  y 2

x2

ec  y  x2

x 2  y 2  1  ln c

y  x2 e c

## Circles centered at 0, 0

Parabolas

Matches (c)

Matches (b)

x
4 c=4

c=2
c = 1

53. f x, y  xy

## The level curves are of the form

c  25  x 2  y 2,
x2

y2

 25 

c=0

c 2.

## Thus, the level curves are circles of radius 5 or less,

y
centered at the origin.
6

c=5
c=4
c=3
c=2

2
6

1
1

c=6
c=5
c=4
c=3
c=2
c=1
x
c = 1
c = 2
c = 3
c = 4
c = 5
c = 6

c=1
c=0

55. f x, y 

x
x2  y2

57. f x, y  x2  y2  2

x
c 2
x  y2
x
x   y2  0
c

c=
c=

3
2

1
2
2

c=2
x

 y2 

2c1 

c = 2
c = 1

c=

1
c=
2

## Thus, the level curves are circles passing through the

origin and centered at 12c, 0.

c=1

x  2c1 

3
2

Section 12.1
59. gx, y 

8
1  x2  y2

## 63. No, The following graphs are not

hemispheres.
z  ex

2 y 2

z  x2  y2

1  R
 1  0.10

1I

Inflation Rate

f x, y  x 2  y 2.

69. f x, y, z  x  2y  3z

10

## 65. The surface is sloped like a saddle. The graph is not

unique. Any vertical translation would have the same level
curves.
One possible function is

Tax Rate

0.03

0.05

2593.74

1929.99

1592.33

0.28

2004.23

1491.34

1230.42

0.35

1877.14

1396.77

1152.40

71. f x, y, z  x 2  y 2  z 2

73. f x, y, z  4x 2  4y 2  z 2

c6

c9

c0

6  x  2y  3z

9  x2  y2  z2

0  4x 2  4y 2  z 2

Plane

Sphere

Elliptic cone

z
4

x
6

75. Nd, L 

d 4 4

2

c  600 
x2  y 2 

600  c
.
0.75

0.75y 2

## 30 4 4 12  507 board-feet

2

20.40xz  20.40yz

79. C  0.75xy 

0.75x 2

## base  front & back  two ends

 0.75xy  0.80xz  yz

c = 600
c = 500
c = 400

y
30

c = 300
c = 200
c = 100
c=0

30

30

30

79

x
z
y

80

Chapter 12

(a) k 

202600 520

300
3

(b) P 

kT 520 T

V
3 V

 

## The level curves are of the form: c 

V

T
520
3  V 
520
T
3c

Thus, the level curves are lines through the origin with slope

520
.
3c

## (b) No, the colors represent intervals of different lengths,

as indicated in the box

## (c) You could use more colors, which means using

smaller intervals
87. False. Let

f x, y  2xy

f x, y  5.

Section 12.2

## Limits and Continuity

 

1. Let  > 0 be given. We need to find  > 0 such that f x, y  L  y  b < 
whenever 0 < x  a2   y  b2 < . Take   .
Then if 0 < x  a2   y  b2 <   , we have
 y  b2 < 

y  b < .
3.

5.

7.

lim

 f x, y  gx, y 

lim

 f x, ygx, y 

lim

x  3y 2  2  312  5

x, y a, b

x, y a, b

lim

x, y a, b

lim

x, y a, b

f x, y 

f x, y

x, y 2, 1

lim

x, y a, b

lim

x, y a, b

gx, y  5  3  2

gx, y  53  15

9.

lim

x, y 0, 1

arcsinx y
 arcsin 0  0
1  xy

13.

 

## Continuous for xy  1, y  0, x y 1

15.

lim

x, y, z 1, 2, 5

x  y  z  8  22

Continuous for x  y  z 0

xy 24

 3
xy 24

Continuous for x  y

Continuous everywhere

11.

lim

x, y 2, 4

lim

x, y 1, 2

e xy  e2 

Continuous everywhere
17.

lim

x, y 0, 0

e xy  1

Continuous everywhere

1
e2

Section 12.2
19.

lim

x, y 0, 0

81

## The limit does not exist.

Continuous except at 0, 0

21. f x, y 

xy
x2  y2

## Continuous except at 0, 0

Path: y  0

Path: y  x

x, y

1, 0

0.5, 0

0.1, 0

0.01, 0

0.001, 0

f x, y

x, y

1, 1

0.5, 0.5

0.1, 0.1

0.01, 0.01

0.001, 0.001

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

f x, y

The limit does not exist because along the path y  0 the function equals 0, whereas along the path y  x
the function equals 12 .

23. f x, y  

x2

xy 2
 y4

## Continuous except at 0, 0

Path: x  y 2

Path: x  y 2

x, y

1, 1

0.25, 0.5

0.01, 0.1

0.0001, 0.01

0.000001, 0.001

f x, y

 12

 12

 12

 12

 12

x, y

1, 1

0.25, 0.5

0.01, 0.1

0.0001, 0.01

0.000001, 0.001

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

f x, y

The limit does not exist because along the path x  y 2 the function equals  12 , whereas along the path x  y 2
the function equals 12 .

25.

lim

x, y 0, 0

f x, y 


 2xy2  y2
x2  y2

lim

x

lim

1  x 2xy y   1

x, y 0, 0

27.

lim

x, y 0, 0

x, y 0, 0

sin x  sin y  0

at 0, 0.

29.

lim

x, y 0, 0

x2y
x 4  4y 2

31. f x, y 

10xy
2x2  3y2

y
x

82

Chapter 12

## Functions of Several Variables

33.

sinx 2  y 2
sin r 2
2r cos r 2
 lim 2  lim
 lim cos r 2  1
2
2
r0
r0
r0
x, y 0, 0
x y
r
2r

35.

x3  y 3
r 3 cos3  sin3 
 lim
 lim rcos3  sin3   0
2
2
r0
r0
x, y 0, 0 x  y
r2

lim

lim

37. f x, y, z 

39. f x, y, z 

x 2  y 2  z 2

## Continuous except at 0, 0, 0

41.

sin z
ex  ey

Continuous everywhere

f t  t 2

f t 

43.

gx, y  3x  2y

1
t

gx, y  3x  2y

## f  gx, y  f 3x  2y 

 3x  2y2
 9x 2  12xy  4y 2

Continuous for y 

Continuous everywhere

1
3x  2y

3x
2

45. f x, y  x 2  4y
(a) lim

x0

f x 
x, y  f x, y
x 
x 2  4y  x 2  4y
 lim

x0

x
2x
x  
x2
 lim 2x 
x  2x

x0

x0

 lim
(b) lim

y0

f x, y 
y  f x, y
x 2  4 y 
y  x 2  4y
 lim

y0

y
 lim

y0

4
y
 lim 4  4

y0

47. f x, y  2x  xy  3y
(a) lim

x0

f x 
x, y  f x, y
2x 
x  x 
xy  3y  2x  xy  3y
 lim

x0

x
 lim

x0

(b) lim

y0

2
x 
xy
 lim 2  y  2  y

x0

f x, y 
y  f x, y
2x  x y 
y  3 y 
y  2x  xy  3y
 lim

y0

y
 lim

y0

x
y  3
y
 lim x  3  x  3

y0

51. No.

## 49. See the definition on page 851.

Show that the value of

lim

x, y x0 , y0 

## The existence of f 2, 3 has no bearing on the existence of

the limit as x, y 2, 3.

Section 12.3
53. Since

lim

x, y a, b

Partial Derivatives

f x, y  L1, then for 2 > 0, there corresponds 1 > 0 such that f x, y  L1 < 2 whenever

## 0 < x  a2   y  b2 < 1.

Since

lim

x, y a, b

gx, y  L2, then for 2 > 0, there corresponds  2 > 0 such that gx, y  L 2 < 2 whenever

## 0 < x  a2   y  b2 < 2.

Let  be the smaller of  1 and 2. By the triangle inequality, whenever x  a2   y  b2 < , we have

f x, y  gx, y  L 1  L 2 

 f x, y  L 1  gx, y  L 2 

f x, y  L 1

gx, y  L 2
< 2  2  .
Therefore,

lim

x, y a, b

 f x, y  gx, y  L 1  L 2.

55. True

f x, y 

nx2  y2,

0,l

x, y  0, 0
x  0, y  0

## See Exercise 19.

Section 12.3

Partial Derivatives

1. fx 4, 1 < 0

3. fy 4, 1 > 0

5. f x, y  2x  3y  5
fx x, y  2
fy x, y  3

7.

13.

z  xy
z
 y
x

z
 2x  5y
x

z
 2xe 2y
x

x
z

y 2y

z
 5x  6y
y

z
 2x 2e 2y
y

z  lnx 2  y 2

15.

z
2x

x x 2  y 2

z

4y 2
x2

2y
x

z  ln

## xx  yy  lnx  y  lnx  y

z
1
1
2y


 2
x x  y x  y
x  y2

2y
z

y x 2  y 2

17.

11. z  x 2e 2y

9. z  x2  5xy  3y2

z
1
1
2x



y x  y x  y x 2  y 2

## 19. hx, y  ex

z
2x 4y 2 x 3  4y 3

 2 
x 2y
x
x2y

2 y 2

hx x, y  2xex

2 y 2

hy x, y  2yex

2 y 2

z
8y x 3  16y 3
x2
 2

y
2y
x
2xy 2
21. f x, y  x 2  y 2

23.

z  tan2x  y

fx x, y 

1 2
x
x  y 212 2x 
2
x 2  y 2

z
 2 sec22x  y
x

fy x, y 

1 2
y
x  y 212 2y 
2
x 2  y 2

z
 sec 22x  y
y

83

84

Chapter 12

25.

z  e y sin xy

## Functions of Several Variables

27. f x, y 

t 2  1 dt

z
 ye y cos xy
x

z
 ey sin xy  xey cos xy
y

t3  t
3

y3  y  x3  x
3

fx x, y  x  1  1  x 2
2

fy x, y  y 2  1

## [You could also use the Second Fundamental Theorem of

Calculus.]
29. f x, y  2x  3y
f x  x, y  f x, y
2x  x  3y  2x  3y
2 x
f
 lim
 lim
 lim
2
x0
x0 x
x x0
x
x
f x, y  y  f x, y
2x  3 y  y  2x  3y
3 y
f
 lim
 lim
 lim
3
y0
y0 y
y y0
y
y
31. f x, y  x  y
x  x  y  x  y
f
f x  x, y  f x, y
 lim
 lim
x0
x x0
x
x

 lim

x0

 lim

x0

x  x  y  x  y x  x  y  x  y 
xx  x  y  x  y 
1
x  x  y  x  y

1
2x  y

x  y  y  x  y
f
f x, y  y  f x, y
 lim
 lim
y0
y y0
y
y

 lim

y0

 lim

y0

33. gx, y  4  x 2  y 2

gy x, y  2y
At 1, 1: gy 1, 1  2

1
2x  y

z
 ex sin y
y
z
0
At 0, 0:
y

y
x

39. f x, y 

1
y
y
 2  2
1   y 2x 2
x
x  y2
1
At 2, 2: fx 2, 2 
4

 



1
1
x
 2
1   y 2x 2 x
x  y2
1
At 2, 2: fy 2, 2 
4
fy x, y 

z
 ex cos y
x
z
At 0, 0:
 1
x

## At 1, 1: gx 1, 1  2

fx x, y 

1
x  y  y  x  y

gxx, y  2x

## 37. f x, y  arctan

x  y  y  x  y x  y  y  x  y 
yx  y  y  x  y

xy
xy

yx  y  xy
y 2

2
x  y
x  y2
1
At 2, 2: fx 2, 2  
4
fx x, y 

xx  y  xy
x2

2
x  y
x  y2
1
At 2, 2: fy 2, 2 
4
fy x, y 

Section 12.3

## 41. z  49  x2  y2, x  2,

2, 3, 6
Intersecting curve: z  45  y

Partial Derivatives

Intersecting curve: z  9x 2  9
2

z
 18x
x

y
z

y 45  y 2

z
 181  18
x

At 1, 3, 0:

z
3
1


At 2, 3, 6:
y 45  9
2

y=3
z

x=2
10

160

2
4

x
8
x

## 45. fx x, y  2x  4y  4, fyx, y  4x  2y  16

47. fx x, y  

1
1
 y, fyx, y   2  x
x2
y

fx  fy  0: 2x  4y  4
fx  fy  0: 

4x  2y  16
Solving for x and y,

1
1
 y  0 and  2  x  0
x2
y
y

x  6 and y  4.

1
1
and x  2
x2
y

y  y4 y  1  x
Points: 1, 1
49. (a) The graph is that of fy.

51.

## 55. Hx, y, z  sinx  2y  3z

Hxx, y, z  cosx  2y  3z
Hy x, y, z  2 cosx  2y  3z
Hzx, y, z  3 cosx  2y  3z

57.

w  x 2  y 2  z 2

53. Fx, y, z  ln x 2  y 2  z 2

w
x

x
x 2  y 2  z 2

w
y

y
x 2  y 2  z 2

Fx x, y, z 

x
x2  y2  z2

w
z

z
x 2  y 2  z 2

Fy x, y, z 

y
x2  y2  z2

Fz x, y, z 

z
x2  y2  z2

z  x 2  2xy  3y 2
z
 2x  2y
x

59.

1
lnx 2  y 2  z 2
2

z  x 2  y 2
z
x

x x 2  y 2

2z
2
x2

2z
y2

x2 x 2  y 2 32

2z
 2
yx

xy
 2z

yx x 2  y 2 32

z
 2x  6y
y

z
y

y x 2  y 2

2z
6
y2

2z
x2
 2
2
y
x  y 2 32

 2z
 2
xy

 2z
xy

xy x 2  y 2 32

85

86

61.

Chapter 12

## Functions of Several Variables

z  e x tan y

z  arctan

63.

z
 e x tan y
x

1
z
y
y

 2  2
x 1   y 2x 2
x
x  y2

 


 e x tan y
x2
2z

2z
2xy

x2 x 2  y 2 2

2z
 e x sec2 y
yx

##  x2  y2  y2y

 2z
y2  x2

 2
2
2
2
yx
x  y 
x  y 22

z
 e x sec2 y
y

1
1
z
x

 2
y 1   y 2x 2 x
x  y2




 2e x sec2 y tan y
y2
2z

2z
2xy

y2 x 2  y 2 2

2z
 e x sec2 y
xy

65.

x 2  y 2  x2x
y 2  x2
2z

 2
2
2
2
xy
x  y 
x  y 22

z  x sec y

z  ln

67.

z
 sec y
x

x

x
 ln x  lnx 2  y 2
 y2

z
y2  x2
1
2x
  2

x
x
x  y 2 xx 2  y 2

2z
0
x2

2z
x 4  4x 2y 2  y 4

2
x
x 2x 2  y 2 2

2z
 sec y tan y
yx

 2z
4xy

yx x2  y 2 2

z
 x sec y tan y
y

z
2y
 2
y
x  y2

2z
 x sec ysec2 y  tan2 y
y2

2z
2 y 2  x 2
 2
y2
x  y 22

2z
 sec y tan y
xy
Therefore,

y
x

2z
4xy

xy x 2  y 2 2

2z
2z

.
yx xy

## There are no points for which zx  0  zy, because

z
 sec y  0.
x
69.

f x, y, z  xyz

71.

fxx, y, z  yz

## fxx, y, z  ex sin yz

fy x, y, z  xz

fyyx, y, z  0

fxyx, y, z  z

fyxx, y, z  z

## fyxx, y, z  zex cos yz

73.

z  5xy
z
 5y
x
 2z
0
x 2
z
 5x
y

fyyxx, y, z  0

## fyyxx, y, z  z2ex sin yz

fxyyx, y, z  0

## fxyyx, y, z  z2ex sin yz

 2z
0
y 2

fyxyx, y, z  0

Therefore,

## Therefore, fxyy  fyxy  fyyx.

 2z  2z

 0  0  0.
x 2 y 2

Section 12.3
z  e x sin y

75.

z  sinx  ct

77.

z
 e x sin y
x

z
 c cosx  ct
t

 2z
 e x sin y
x 2

 2z
 c 2 sinx  ct
t 2

z
 e x cos y
y

z
 cosx  ct
x

 2z
 e x sin y
y 2

 2z
 sinx  ct
x 2

Therefore,

 2z
 2z
 2  e x sin y  e x sin y  0.
2
x
y

z  et cos

79.

Therefore,

x
c

Partial Derivatives

 2z
 2z
 c 2 2.
t 2
x

x
z
 et cos
t
c
x
1
z
  et sin
x
c
c
1
x
 2z
  2 et cos
x 2
c
c
Therefore,

83.

 2z
z
 c 2 2.
t
x

(x0, y0, z 0 )

## 85. The plane z  x  y  f x, y satisfies

(x0, y0, z 0 )

f
f
> 0 and
> 0.
x
y
z
6

Plane: y = y0

Plane: x = x0

8
x

f
denotes the slope of the surface in the x-direction.
x

f
denotes the slope of the surface in the y-direction.
y
87. (a) C  32xy  175x  205y  1050

yx  175
1
C
 16  175  183
x
4
x
C
 16  205
y
y
C
 16
x

80, 20

C
y

80, 20

## (b) The fireplace-insert stove results in the cost

increasing at a faster rate because
C
C
>
.
y
x

87

88

Chapter 12

91.

demand.

## T  500  0.6x 2  1.5y 2

T
T
 1.2x, 2, 3  2.4m
x
x
T
T
 3y  2, 3  9m
y
y

PV  mRT

93.

T
P

P

95. (a)

T

V
PV
T


mR
P mR

P

mRT
P
mRT
 2

V
V
V

V

mRT
V mR


P
T
P

V

 V  T   mR 
V



97. f x, y 

mRT
V2

z
 1.83
x
z
 1.09
x

## (b) As the consumption of skim milk x increases,

the consumption of whole milk z decreases.
Similarly, as the consumption of reduced-fat milk
 y increases, the consumption of whole milk z
decreases.

mRP

mRT
mRT

 1
VP
mRT

xyx 2  y 2
,
x2  y2
0,

x, y 0, 0
x, y  0, 0

(a) fxx, y 


x 2  y 22
x 2  y 22

fyx, y 


x 2  y 22
x 2  y 22

## (b) fx0, 0  lim

x0

f x, 0  f 0, 0
0x 2  0
 lim
0
x0
x
x

0y 2  0
f 0, y  f 0, 0
 lim
0
y0
y0
y
y

fy0, 0  lim


 

(c) fxy0, 0 

 f
y x

0, 0

fyx0, 0 

 f
x y

0, 0

 

 lim

y0

 lim

## fx0, y  fx0, 0

y  y4
 lim
 lim 1  1
y0 y22y
y0
y
fyx, 0  fy0, 0

x0

x

 lim

x0

x x4
 lim 1  1
x22x x0

## (d) fyx or fxy or both are not continuous at 0, 0.

99. True

Section 12.4
1.

101. True

Differentials

z  3x 2y 3

3. z 

dz  6xy 3 dx  9x 2 y 2 dy
dz 


1
x2  y2
2x
2y
dx  2
dy
x 2  y 2 2
x  y 2 2
2
x dx  y dy
x 2  y 22

Section 12.4

Differentials

89

5. z  x cos y  y cos x
dz  cos y  y sin x dx  x sin y  cos x dy  cos y  y sin x dx  x sin y  cos x dy
7. z  e x sin y

w  2z 3 y sin x

9.

dz  e x sin y dx  e x cos y dy

## z  f 1.05, 2.1  f 1, 2 0.00293

(b) dz  2x dx  2y dy

## 15. (a) f 1, 2  5

f 1.05, 2.1  5.25
z  0.25
(b) dz  3 dx  4 dy
 30.05  40.1 0.25

## 17. Let z  x 2  y 2, x  5, y  3, dx  0.05, dy  0.1. Then: dz 

5.052  3.12  52  32

5
52  32

0.05 

x
x 2  y 2

3
52  32

0.1 

## 19. Let z  1  x 2y 2, x  3, y  6, dx  0.05, dy  0.05. Then: dz  

dx 
0.55

34

y
x 2  y 2

dy

0.094

21  x 2
2x
dx 
dy
y2
y3

1  3.052 1  32
23
21  32

 2 0.05 
0.05 0.012
2
2
5.95
6
6
63
21. See the definition on page 869.

25.

## 23. The tangent plane to the surface z  f x, y at the point P

is a linear approximation of z.

A  lh
dA  l dh  h dl
h

dA

dA

dA
l

r 2h
3

r

h

r3

0.1

0.1

4.7124

4.8391

0.1267

h6

0.1

0.1

2.8274

2.8264

0.0010

0.0565

0.0566

0.0001

0.0019

0.0019

0.0000

27. V 

dV 

r2

r
2
rh
dr 
dh 
2h dr  r dh
3
3
3

0.001

0.002

0.0001

0.0002

dV

V

V  dV

90

Chapter 12

z
z
dx 
dy
x
y

(b) dz 

##  1.83 0.25  1.09 0.25

 0.73
Maximum propagated error: 0.73
Relative error:

31.

0.73
0.73
dz


0.1166  11.67%
z
1.837.2  1.098.5  28.7
6.259

V 
r 2h  dV  2
rh dr  
r 2 dh
dr dh
dV
2 
V
r
h
 20.04  0.02  0.10  10%

1
33. A  2 ab sin C

## dA  12 b sin C da  a sin C db  ab cos C dC

1
 12 4sin 45 16
  3sin 45 161   12cos 45 0.02 0.24 in.2

35. (a) V 

1
bhl
2

 18 sin

b
2

18

##  31,104 sin in.3

18

 18 sin ft3
V is maximum when sin  1 or 
2.
(b) V 

s2
sin l
2

dV  ssin l ds 

 18 sin

s2
s2
l cos  d  sin  dl
2
2

1
182

1612

1612 cos
2
2
2
2



##  1809 in3 1.047 ft3

37.

P
dP 

E2
R
E2
2E
dE  2 dR
R
R

dP
dE dR
2

 20.02  0.03  0.07  7%
P
E
R

90
  182 sin
2 12
2

Section 12.4

39. L  0.00021 ln

dL  0.00021

dh

2h
 0.75
r


dr
 1100  116
 0.00021

 6.6 106
r
100
2

L  0.00021ln 100  0.75 8.096 104 dL  8.096 104 6.6 106 microhenrys
41.

z  f x, y  x2  2x  y
z  f x  x, y  y  f x, y
 x2  2xx  x2  2x  2x  y  y  x2  2x  y
 2xx  x2  2x  y
 2x  2 x  y  xx  0y
 fxx, y x  fyx, y y  1x  2y where 1  x and 2  0.
As x, y 0, 0, 1 0 and 2 0.

43.

z  f x, y  x2y
z  f x  x, y  y  f x, y
 x2  2xx  x2 y  y  x2y
 2xyx  yx2  x2y  2xxy  x2 y
 2xyx  x2y   yx x  2xx  x2 y
 fxx, y x  fyx, y y  1x  2y where 1  yx and 2  2xx  x2.
As x, y 0, 0, 1 0 and 2 0.

45. f x, y 

## 3x2y , x, y 0, 0

 y2
0,
x, y  0, 0

x4

0
0
f x, 0  f 0, 0
x4
(a) fx0, 0  lim
 lim
0
x0
x0
x
x
0
0
f 0, y  f 0, 0
y2
fy0, 0  lim
 lim
0
y0
y0
y
y
Thus, the partial derivatives exist at 0, 0.
(b) Along the line y  x:

lim

x, y 0, 0

## Along the curve y  x2:

lim

f x, y  lim

x, y 0, 0

x 0 x 4

f x, y 

3x3
3x
 lim
0
 x2 x 0 x2  1

3x 4 3

2x 4 2

f is not continuous at 0, 0. Therefore, f is not differentiable at 0, 0. (See Theroem 12.5)
47. Essay. For example, we can use the equation F  ma:
dF 

F
F
dm 
da  a dm  m da.
m
a

Differentials

91

92

Chapter 12

Section 12.5
1.

## Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables

w  x2  y2

w  x sec y

3.

x  et

x  et

y  et

yt

dw
 2xet  2yet   2e2t  e2t 
dt

dw
 sec yet   x sec y tan y1
dt
 et sec  t1  tan  t
 et sec t  sec t tan t

## 5. w  xy, x  2 sin t, y  cos t

(a)

dw
 2y cos t  xsin t  2y cos t  x sin t
dt
 2cos2 t  sin2 t  2 cos 2t

## (b) w  2 sin t cos t  sin 2t,

dw
 2 cos 2t
dt

7. w  x2  y2  z2
x  et cos t
y  et sin t
z  et
(a)

dw
 2xet sin t  et cos t  2yet cos t  et sin t  2zet  4e2t
dt

(b) w  2e2t,

dw
 4e2t
dt

9. w  xy  xz  yz, x  t  1, y  t 2  1, z  t
(a)

dw
 y  z  x  z2t  x  y
dt
 t 2  1  t  t  1  12t  t  1  t 2  1  32t 2  1

(b)

## w  t  1t 2  1  t  1t  t 2  1t

dw
 2tt  1  t 2  1  2t  1  3t 2  1  32t 2  1
dt

11. Distance  f t  x1  x22   y1  y2 2  10 cos 2t  7 cos t2  6 sin 2t  4 sin t2
1
ft  10 cos 2t  7 cos t2  6 sin 2t  4 sin t212
2

210 cos 2t  7 cos t20 sin 2t  7 sin t  26 sin 2t  4 sin t12 cos 2t  4 cos t
f

2
 21 10

 42122107  2412

22
1129
1

 1161244 
 2.04
2
229
20

Section 12.5

## 13. w  arctan2xy, x  cos t, y  sin t, t  0

dw w dx w dy


dt
x dt
y dt


2y
2x
sin t 
cos t
1  4x2y2
1  4x2y2

2 cos t
2 sin t
sin t 
cos t
1  4 cos2 t sin2 t
1  4 cos2 t sin2 t

2 cos2 t  2 sin2 t
1  4 cos2 t sin2 t

d 2w 1  4 cos2 t sin2 t8 cos t sin t  2 cos2 t  2 sin2 t8 cos3 t sin t  8 sin3 t cos t

dt 2
1  4 cos2 t sin2 t2

At t  0,

15.

## 8 cos t sin t1  2 sin4 t  2 cos 4 t

1  4 cos2 t sin2 t2

d 2w
 0.
dt 2

w  x2  y2

17. w  x2  y2

xst

x  s cos t

yst

y  s sin t

w
 2x  2y  2x  y  4s
s
w
 2x  2y1  2x  y  4t
t
When s  2 and t  1,
w
w
 8 and
 4.
s
t
19. w  x2  2xy  y2, x  r  , y  r  
(a)

w
 2x  2y1  2x  2y1  0
r
w
 2x  2y1  2x  2y1

 4x  4y  4x  y
 4r    r    8

(b)

## w  r  2  2r  r    r  2

 r 2  2r  2  2r 2  2  r 2  2r  2
 4 2
w
0
r
w
 8


w
 2x cos t  2y sin t
s
 2s cos2 t  2s sin2 t  2s cos 2t
w
 2xs sin t  2ys cos t  2s2 sin 2t
t
When s  3 and t 

w
 w
,
 0 and
 18.
4 s
t

93

94

Chapter 12

## Functions of Several Variables

y
21. w  arctan , x  r cos , y  r sin 
x
(a)

y
x
r sin  cos  r cos  sin 
w
 2
cos   2
sin  

0
r
x  y2
x  y2
r2
r2
w
y
x
 r sin r sin  r cos r cos 
 2
r sin   2
r cos  

1

x  y2
x  y2
r2
r2

(b)

w  arctan

r sin 
 arctantan   
r cos 

w
0
r
w
1

23. w  xyz, x  s  t, y  s  t, z  st2
w
 yz1  xz1  xyt2
s
 s  tst2  s  tst2  s  ts  tt2
 2s2t2  s2t2  t4  3s2t2  t4  t23s2  t2
w
 yz1  xz1  xy2st
t
 s  tst2  s  tst2  s  ts  t2st
 2st3  2s3t  2st3  2s3t  4st3  2sts2  2t2

25. w  ze xy, x  s  t, y  s  t, z  st
w
zx
z
 e xy1   2 e xy1  e xyt
s
y
y

 estst

## sts  t  sst  tst

2

 estst
 estst

 estst
 estst

3y  2x  2
2y  3x  1

31. Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z2  25

w
zx
z
 e xy1   2 e xy1  e xys
t
y
y

Fxx, y
2x  3y  2
dy


dx
Fyx, y
3x  2y  1

 ts  t2

## ts2  4st  t2

s  t2

 estst 

27. x2  3xy  y2  2x  y  5  0

st
sts  t

s
st
s  t2

## sts  t  sts  t  ss  t2

s  t2

ss2  t2
s  t2

29. ln x2  y2  xy  4
1
lnx2  y2  xy  4  0
2
x
y
Fxx, y
x  x2y  y3
dy
x2  y2



dx
Fyx, y
y
y  xy2  x3
x
2
2
x y
33. Fx, y, z  tanx  y  tan y  z  1

Fx  2x

Fx  sec2x  y

Fy  2y

Fy  sec2x  y  sec2 y  z

Fz  2z

Fz  sec2 y  z

Fx
x
z
 
x
Fz
z

Fx
z
sec2x  y
  2
x
Fz
sec  y  z

Fy
z
y
 
y
Fz
z

Fy
sec2x  y  sec2 y  z
z
 
y
Fz
sec2 y  z


sec x  y
 1

sec
 y  z
2

Section 12.5

37. exz  xy  0

35. x 2  2yz  z2  1  0
(i) 2x  2y
(ii) 2y

## Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables

Fxx, y, z
z
zexz  y


x
Fzx, y, z
xexz

z
z
x
z
 2z
 0 implies

.
x
x
x
yz

Fyx, y, z
z
x
1

 xz  xz  exz
y
Fzx, y, z
xe
e

z
z
z
z
 2z  2z
 0 implies

.
y
y
y
yz

Fx  yz  zw

w Fx y sin xy


x
Fw
z

Fy  xz  zw

## w Fy x sin xy  z cos yz



y
Fw
z

Fz  xy  xw  yw
Fw  xz  yz  2w

w Fz
y cos zy  w


z
Fw
z

Fx
zy  w
w
 
x
Fw
xz  yz  2w
Fy
zx  w
w
 
y
Fw
xz  yz  2w
Fz
xy  xw  yw
w
 
z
Fw
xz  yz  2w

43. f x, y 
f tx, ty 

xy
x2  y2

txty

t

tx2  ty2

xy
x2  y2

 tf x, y

Degree: 1
x fxx, y  y fyx, y  x


45.

x

y3
x3
y 2
 y232
x  y232

xy
x2  y2

 1 f x, y

f x, y  exy

47.

## f tx, ty  etxty  exy  f x, y

dw w dx w dy
(Page 876)


dt
x dt
y dt

Degree: 0
x fxx, y  y fyx, y  x

1y e
 y  yx e
 0
xy

xy

## 49. w  f x, y is the explicit form of a function of two variables, as in z  x2  y2.

The implicit form is of the form F x, y, z  0, as in z  x2  y2  0.

51.

1

A  bh  x sin
2
2

x cos 2
 x2 sin 
2

b
2

dx x2
d
dA
 x sin 
 cos 
dt
dt
2
dt


 6 sin
4

1
62


cos
2
2
4


32 2 2


m hr
90
2
10

95

96

Chapter 12

## Functions of Several Variables

1
V   r 2h
3

53. (a)

dr
1
dV 1
dh
  212366  1224  1536 in.3min
  2rh  r 2
dt
3
dt
dt
3
S   rr 2  h2   r 2 (Surface area includes base.)

(b)

144
3612
  12  36 
 212
6 
4
12  36
12  36
12
36
  12 10 
6  144 
4
10

10

dS

dt

r 2  h2 


55.

I

r2
rh
dh
dr
 2r

dt
r 2  h2
r 2  h2 dt
2

36
648
 144 in.2min 
 20  910  in.2min
5
10

1
mr12  r22
2

dr1
dr2
dI 1
 m 2r1
 2r2
 m62  82  28m cm2sec
dt
2
dt
dt

tan 

2
x

tan   

4
x

57. (a)

8
6
4

tan   tan
4

1  tan  tan
x

tan   2x
4

1  2xtan 
x
x tan   2  4 

8
tan 
x

x2 tan   2x  8 tan   0
(b) Fx,   x2  8tan   2x  0
Fx
d
2x tan   2
2 cos2   2x sin  cos 
  2

2
dx
F
sec x  8
x2  8
(c)

d
1
 0 2 cos2   2x sin  cos  cos   x sin  tan  
dx
x
Thus, x2

59.

1x
 2x  8 1x
 0 8x  x x  22 ft.

w  f x, y
xuv
yvu
w dy
w w
w w dx




u
x du
y du
x
y
w w
w w dx w dy




v
x dv
y dv
x
y
w w

0
u
v

Section 12.5
61.

## w  f x, y, x  r cos , y  r sin 

w w
w

cos  
sin 
r
x
y
w
w w

r sin  
r cos 

x
y
(a)

r cos 

r cos 

w w
w

r cos2  
r sin  cos 
r
x
y

sin 

w w
w

r sin2  
r sin  cos 

x
x

w
w w
 sin 

r cos2   r sin2 
r

x
r

w
w w

r cos  
sin 
x
r

w w
w sin 

cos  
x
r
 r

r sin 
cos 
r sin 

w w
w

r sin  cos  
r sin2 
r
x
y
w w
w

r sin  cos  
r cos2 

x
y

w
w w
 cos 

r sin2   r cos2 
r

y
r

w
w w

r sin  
cos 
y
r

w cos 
w w

sin  
y
r
 r

(b)

w
r

1 w
r 2 

cos

 w
x

63. Given

2

w w
w
sin  cos  
x y
y

w w
w
sin  cos  
x y
y

cos
2



u u
u
v
v

cos  
sin  
cos  
sin 
r
x
y
y
x

Therefore,

u 1 v

.
r
r 

v v
v
u
u

cos  
sin    cos  
sin 
r
x
y
y
x
u
u
u
u u
 r sin   r cos   r  cos  
sin 

x
y
y
x

Therefore,

1 u
v

.
r
r 

sin2  

w
x

w


w
x

y

u v
u
v

and
  , x  r cos  and y  r sin .
x
y
y
x

v
v
v
v
v
 r sin  
r cos   r
cos  
sin 
 x
y
y
x

sin2  

97

98

Chapter 12

## Functions of Several Variables

Section 12.6
1.

f x, y  3x  4xy  5y
v

3.

vij

1
 i  3 j
2

f x, y  yi  xj

## f x, y  3  4yi  4x  5j

f 2, 3  3i  2j

f 1, 2  5i  j

u

3
1
v
 i
j
u
v 2
2

gx, y  x2  y2

7.

g3, 4 

v  i
h  e x sin yi  e x cos yj

y
x
i
j
2
2
2
x  y
x  y2

 2   ei

h 1,

3
4
i j
5
5

u

3
4
v
 i j
u
v 5
5

 2   h1, 2   u  e

f x, y, z  xy  yz  xz

11.

hx, y, z  x arctan yz
v 
1, 2, 1

v  2i  j  k
f x, y, z   y  zi  x  zj  x  yk
f 1, 1, 1  2i  2j  2k
u

v
 i
v

Duh 1,

7
Du g3, 4  g3, 4  u  
25
9.

52
2

hx, y  e x sin y

v  3i  4j
g 

2
2
v

i
j
v
2
2

Du f 2, 3  f 2, 3  u 

1
 5  3 
2

Du f 1, 2  f 1, 2  u 

5.

f x, y  xy

6
6
6
v

i
j
k
v
3
6
6

Du f 1, 1, 1  f 1, 1, 1  u 

hx, y, z  arctan yz i 
h4, 1, 1 

26
3

u

xz
xy
j
k
1   yz2
1   yz2


i  2j  2k
4

v
2
1
1

,
,
v
6 6
6

Du h4, 1, 1  h4, 1, 1  u 

1
2

i

  8   86

24
46

## 15. f x, y  sin2x  y

13. f x, y  x2  y2
u

1
2

u

f  2 cos2x  y i  cos2x  y j

f  2x i  2y j
Du f  f  u 

3
1
i
j
2
2

2
2

x

2
2

y  2 x  y

Du f  f  u  cos2x  y 


2 2 3 cos2x  y


3

cos2x  y

Section 12.6

v  3i  3j  k

v  2i  2j
f  2x i  8yj

h 

v
1
1
i
j

v
2
2

Du f  

2
2

x

8
2

y   2x  4y

u

w  3x2y  5yz  z2

27.

5

i

Du g  g  u 

1
5

31.

1
5

i

2
5

2
8
10


 25
5
5
5

hx, y  x tan y
hx, y  tan yi  x sec2 yj

## f x, y  ex cos yi  ex sin yj

 4   i  4j

f 0, 0  i

h 2,

Du f  f  u  

37.

PQ  2i  4j, u 

2
5



3 x2  y2 
gx, y  ln 

25
5

1
lnx2  y2
3

gx, y 

1
2x
2y
i 2
j
3 x2  y2
x  y2

g1, 2 

1 2
4
2
i j 
i  2j
3 5
5
15

g1, 2 

719
19

33.

## zx, y  2x sinx2  y2i  2y sinx2  y2j

f 2, 1  3i  10j

PQ  2i  j, u 

7
19

z  cosx2  y2

23.

f x, y  3i  10yj

29.

v
1
3i  3j  k

v 19

Du h  h  u 

f x, y  3x  5y2  10

25.

1
i  j  k
xyz

At 1, 0, 0, h  i  j  k.

21.

99

## 17. f x, y  x2  4y2

u

25
15

f x, y, z  xeyz
f x, y, z  eyz i  xzeyz j  xyeyz k
f 2, 0, 4  i  8j
f 2, 0, 4  65

 h2, 4   
35.

17

f x, y, z  x2  y2  z2
f x, y, z 
f 1, 4, 2 

1
x2  y2  z2

1
21

xi  yj  zk

i  4j  2k

100

Chapter 12

## For Exercises 3945, f x, y  3 

39. f x, y  3 





x
y
1
1
 and D f x, y  
cos  
sin .
3 2
3
2

x
y

3 2

(3, 2, 1)


6



2  33
12

## (b) D6 f 3, 2  

9
x

v  3i  4j

43. (a)

(b)

v  9  16  5

## 13 23   12 21



3  23
12

v  i  3j
v  10

3
4
u i j
5
5
1 2
1
Du f  f  u    
5 5
5

u

1
10

i

Du f  f  u 

3
10

11
1110

60

6 10

## 45. f   19  14  1613

For Exercises 47 and 49, f x, y  9  x2  y2 and D f x, y  2x cos   2y sin   2x cos   y sin .
47. f x, y  9  x2  y2

49.

z
9

(1, 2, 4)

## 51. (a) In the direction of the vector 4i  j.

1
1
(b) f  10 2x  3yi  10 3x  2yj
1
1
1
f 1, 2  10
4i  10
1j   25 i  10
j

2

## (c) f  5 i  10 j, the direction opposite that of the gradient.

53. f x, y  x2  y2, 4, 3, 7
z

(a)

f 1, 2  2i  4j

x
y

CONTINUED

Section 12.6

101

53. CONTINUED
(b) Du f x, y  f x, y  u  2x cos  2y sin
Du f 4, 3  8 cos  6 sin
y
12
8
4

8
12

Generated by Mathematica

## (c) Zeros: 2.21, 5.36

These are the angles for which Du f 4, 3 equals zero.
(d) g   Du f 4, 3  8 cos  6 sin
g
   8 sin  6 cos
Critical numbers: 0.64, 3.79
These are the angles for which Du f 4, 3 is a maximum 0.64 and minimum 3.79.
(e) f 4, 3  24i  23j  64  36  10, the maximum value of Du f 4, 3, at  0.64.
(f )

f x, y  x2  y2  7

## f 4, 3  8i  6j is perpendicular to the level curve at 4, 3.

6
4
2

6 4

4
6

Generated by Mathematica

57. f x, y 

55. f x, y  x2  y2
c  25, P  3, 4

x
x2  y2

## f x, y  2xi  2yj

1
c  , P  1, 1
2

x2  y2  25

f x, y 

f 3, 4  6i  8j

y2  x2
2xy
i 2
j
x2  y22
x  y22

1
x

x2  y2 2
x2  y2  2x  0
1
f 1, 1   j
2

59. 4x2  y  6

## 61. 9x2  4y2  40

f x, y  4x2  y

12

f x, y  8xi  j

## f 2, 1  36i  8j

f 2, 10
1

16i  j
f 2, 10 257

f 2, 1
1

9i  2j
f 2, 1 85

257

257

16i  j

85

85

9i  2j

4
2
4

102

Chapter 12

x
x2  y2

63. T 

T 

y2  x2
2xy
i 2
j
x2  y22
x  y22

T3, 4 

7
24
1
i
j
7i  24j
625
625
625

## 67. Let f x, y be a function of two variables and

u  cos i  sin j a unit vector.

69.
3

f
.
x

(a) If  0 , then Du f 

(b) If  90 , then Du f 

f
.
y

3
x

71.

18

00

1671

P  10, 10

dx
 4x
dt

dy
 2y
dt

xt  C1e4t

yt  C2e2t

10  x0  C1

10  y0  C2

xt 

yt  10e2t

1994

A
18

00

x

10e4t

y2
10

y2t  100e4t

y2  10x
75. (a)

## (b) The graph of D  250  30x2  50 sin y2

would model the ocean floor.

D
400
300

1
2
x

1
2
y

## (c) D1, 0.5  250  301  50 sin

(e)


315.4 ft
4

D
D
y

and
1, 0.5  25 cos 55.5
 25 cos
y
2
y
4

(d)

D
D
 60x and
1, 0.5  60
x
x

2yj

77. True

## 81. Let f x, y, z  ex cos y 

79. True
z2
 C. Then f x, y, z  ex cos yi  ex sin yj  zk.
2

Section 12.7

Section 12.7

## Tangent Planes and Normal Lines

1. Fx, y, z  3x  5y  3z  15  0

## 3. Fx, y, z  4x2  9y2  4z2  0

3x  5y  3z  15 Plane

## 4x2  9y2  4z2 Elliptic cone

5. Fx, y, z  x  y  z  4

7.

F  i  j  k
n

Fx, y, z 

F
1

i  j  k
F  3


3

Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z

i  j  k

n

F
5 3
4

i jk
F  52 5
5

Fx, y, z  x2y4  z

11.

## Fx, y, z  2xy4 i  4x2y3j  k

F
1

32i  32j  k
F  2049


2049

2049

n

32i  32j  k


1
F 6, , 7   i  33 j  k
6
2

F
2
1

 i  33 j  k
F  113
2




15.

1
113
113

113

 i  63 j  2k
 i  63 j  2k

## f x, y  25  x2  y2, 3, 1, 15

Fx, y, z  25  x2  y2  z
Fxx, y, z  2x
Fx3, 1, 15  6

Fyx, y, z  2y
Fy3, 1, 15  2

Fzx, y, z  1
Fz3, 1, 15  1

6x  3  2 y  1  z  15  0
0  6x  2y  z  35
6x  2y  z  35

3i  4j  5k

y x z  ln x  ln y  z

F
1

i  j  k
F  3

## Fx, y, z  sin yi  x cos yj  k

n

10

3i  4j  5k

F1, 4, 3  i  j  k

Fx, y, z  x sin y  z  4

2

Fx, y, z  ln

13.

1
52

1
1
1
Fx, y, z  i 
j
k
x
yz
yz

## F1, 2, 16  32i  32j  k

n

x
y
i
jk
2
2
x  y2
y

3
4
F3, 4, 5  i  j  k
5
5

9.

x2

3

i  j  k

103

104
17.

Chapter 12

## f x, y  x2  y2, 3, 4, 5

Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z
Fxx, y, z 
Fx3, 4, 5 

Fyx, y, z 

x2  y2

3
5

Fy3, 4, 5 

Fzx, y, z  1

x2  y2

4
5

Fz3, 4, 5  1

3
4
x  3   y  4  z  5  0
5
5
3x  3  4 y  4  5z  5  0
3x  4y  5z  0
19.

## gx, y  x2  y2, 5, 4, 9

Gx, y, z  x2  y2  z
Gxx, y, z  2x

Gyx, y, z  2y

Gzx, y, z  1

Gx5, 4, 9  10

Gy5, 4, 9  8

Gz5, 4, 9  1

10x  5  8y  4  z  9  0
10x  8y  z  9
z  exsin y  1,

21.

0, 2 , 2

Fx, y, z  exsin y  1  z
Fxx, y, z  exsin y  1

Fyx, y, z  ex cos y


Fx 0, , 2  2
2


Fy 0, , 2  0
2

Fzx, y, z  1


Fz 0, , 2  1
2

2x  z  2
23.

## hx, y  ln x2  y2, 3, 4, ln 5

Hx, y, z  ln x2  y2  z 
Hxx, y, z 
Hx3, 4, ln 5 

x
x2  y2
3
25

1
lnx2  y2  z
2
Hyx, y, z 

Hy3, 4, ln 5 

y
x2  y2
4
25

Hzx, y, z  1
Hz3, 4, ln 5  1

3
4
x  3   y  4  z  ln 5  0
25
25
3x  3  4 y  4  25z  ln 5  0
3x  4y  25z  251  ln 5
25. x2  4y2  z2  36, 2, 2, 4
Fx, y, z  x2  4y2  z2  36
Fxx, y, z  2x
Fx2, 2, 4  4

Fyx, y, z  8y
Fy2, 2, 4  16

## 4x  2  16 y  2  8z  4  0

x  2  4 y  2  2z  4  0
x  4y  2z  18

Fzx, y, z  2z
Fz2, 2, 4  8

Section 12.7
27. xy2  3x  z2  4, 2, 1, 2
Fx, y, z  xy2  3x  z2  4
Fxx, y, z  y2  3

Fyx, y, z  2xy

Fx2, 1, 2  4

Fzx, y, z  2z

Fy2, 1, 2  4

FZ2, 1, 2  4

4x  2  4 y  1  4z  2  0
xyz1
29. x2  y2  z  9, 1, 2, 4
Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z  9
Fxx, y, z  2x

Fyx, y, z  2y

Fzx, y, z  1

Fx1, 2, 4  2

Fy1, 2, 4  4

Fz1, 2, 4  1

Direction numbers: 2, 4, 1
Plane: 2x  1  4 y  2  z  4  0, 2x  4y  z  14
Line:



2
4
1

## 31. xy  z  0, 2, 3, 6

Fx, y, z  xy  z
Fxx, y, z  y
Fx2, 3, 6  3

Fyx, y, z  x
Fy2, 3, 6  2

Fzx, y, z  1
Fz2, 3, 6  1

Direction numbers: 3, 2, 1
Plane: 3x  2  2 y  3  z  6  0, 3x  2y  z  6
Line:

## x2 y3 z6



3
2
1

y
33. z  arctan ,
x

1, 1, 4 

Fx, y, z  arctan
Fxx, y, z 

Fx 1, 1,

y
z
x

y
x2  y2


1

4
2

Fyx, y, z 

Fy 1, 1,

x
x2  y2


1

4
2

Fzx, y, z  1

## Direction numbers: 1, 1, 2

Plane: x  1   y  1  2 z 
Line:

x  1 y  1 z  4


1
1
2



 0, x  y  2z 
4
2

Fz 1, 1,


 1
4

## Tangent Planes and Normal Lines

105

106

Chapter 12

35. z  f x, y 

## Functions of Several Variables

4xy
, 2 x z, 0 y 3
x2  1 y2  1

## (a) Let Fx, y, z 

Fx, y, z 


y2

4xy
z
x2  1 y2  1
4y x2  1  2x2
4x y2  1  2y2
i 2
jk
2
2
 1 x  1
x  1  y2  12

y2

4y1  x2
4x1  y2
i 2
jk
2
2
 1x  1
x  1 y2  12

F1, 1, 1  k.
Direction numbers: 0, 0, 1.
Line: x  1, y  1, z  1  t
Tangent plane: 0x  1  0 y  1  1z  1  0 z  1

(b) F 1, 2, 

4
43
6
jk
 0i 
jk
5
252
25

Line: x  1, y  2 

6
4
t, z    t
25
5

6
4
y  2  1 z 
0
25
5

Plane: 0x  1 

6y  12  25z  20  0
6y  25z  32  0
(c)

z
1

1
2

2
x

## (d) At 1, 1, 1, the tangent plane is parallel to the xy-plane,

implying that the surface is level there. At  1, 2,  45 ,
the function does not change in the x-direction.

2
2

3
y

37. Fxx0, y0, z0x  x0  Fyx0, y0, z0y  y0  F2x0, y0, z0z  z0  0
(Theorem 12.13)
39.

Fx, y, z  x2  y2  5

Gx, y, z  x  z

Fx, y, z  2x i  2y j

Gx, y, z  i  k

F2, 1, 2  4i  2j

i
(a) F G  4
1

j
2
0

k
0  2i  4j  2k  2i  2j  k
1

## Direction numbers: 1, 2, 1,

(b) cos  

41.

G2, 1, 2  i  k

## x2 y1 z2



1
2
1

10
F  G
4
2



; not orthogonal
F  G 202 10
5

Fx, y, z  x2  z2  25
F  2x i  2z k
F3, 3, 4  6i  8k
CONTINUED

Gx, y, z  y2  z2  25
G  2yj  2zk
G3, 3, 4  6j  8k

Section 12.7

## Tangent Planes and Normal Lines

41. CONTINUED
i
(a) F G  6
0

j
0
6

k
8  48i  48j  36k  124i  4j  3k
8

(b) cos  

43.

## x3 y3 z4



4
4
3

64
F  G
16

 ; not orthogonal
F  G 1010 25

Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z2  6

Gx, y, z  x  y  z

## Fx, y, z  2x i  2yj  2zk

Gx, y, z  i  j  k

F2, 1, 1  4i  2j  2k

G2, 1, 1  i  j  k

i
(a) F G  4
1

j
2
1

k
2  6j  6k  6 j  k
1

## Direction numbers: 0, 1, 1, x  2,

45. f x, y  6  x2 

(b) cos  

F  G
 0; orthogonal
F  G

y1 z1

1
1

y2
, gx, y  2x  y
4

(a) Fx, y, z  z  x2 
Fx, y, z  2x i 

y2
6
4

Gx, y, z  z  2x  y

1
yj  k
2

Gx, y, z  2i  j  k
G1, 2, 4  2i  j  k

F1, 2, 4  2i  j  k

## The cross product of these gradients is parallel to the curve of intersection.

F1, 2, 4 G1, 2, 4 

i
2
2

j
1
1

k
1  2i  4j
1

cos  
(b)

4  1  1 4
F  G



48.2

F G
6
6 6

z
8

(1, 2, 4)

6
8

## Fx, y, z  2xi  2yj  k

F2, 2, 5  12i  8j  k

F1, 2, 3  2i  4j  k

cos  

F2, 2, 5  k 
F2, 2, 5

  arccos

1
209

86.03

209

cos  

F1, 2, 3  k 
F1, 2, 3

  arccos

1
21

77.40

21

107

108
51.

Chapter 12

## Functions of Several Variables

Fx, y, z  3  x2  y2  6y  z

## Fx, y, z  2xi  2y  6j  k

2x  0, x  0

2y  6  0, y  3
8

z  3  02  32  63  12

8

dx
 4kx
dt

dy
 2ky
dt

dz
 8kz
dt

xt  C1e4kt

yt  C2e2kt

zt  C3e8kt

x0  C1  4

y0  C2  3

z0  C3  10

x  4e4kt

y  3e2kt

z  10e8kt

x
8
y

55. Fx, y, z 

x2
y2
z2
 2 21
2
a
b
c

## 57. Fx, y, z  a2x2  b2y2  z2

Fxx, y, z  2a2x

2x
Fxx, y, z  2
a
Fyx, y, z 

Fyx, y, z  2b2y
Fzx, y, z  2z

2y
b2

2z
Fzx, y, z  2
c
Plane:

## a2x0x  b2y0y  z0z  a2x02  b2y02  z02  0

Hence, the plane passes through the origin.

2y
2z
2x0
x  x0  20  y  y0  20 z  z0  0
a2
b
c
x0x y0 y z0z x02 y02 z02
 2  2  2  2  2 1
a2
b
c
a
b
c

## 59. f x, y  exy

fxx, y  exy,

fyx, y  exy

fxxx, y  exy,

fyyx, y  exy,

fxyx, y  exy

(a) P1x, y
f 0, 0  fx0, 0x  fy0, 0y  1  x  y
1
1
(b) P2x, y
f 0, 0  fx0, 0x  fy0,0y  2 fxx0, 0x2  fxy0, 0xy  2 fyy0, 0y2

 1  x  y  12 x2  xy  12 y2
1
(c) If x  0, P20, y  1  y  2 y2. This is the seconddegree Taylor polynomial for ey.
1
If y  0, P2x, 0  1  x  2 x2. This is the seconddegree Taylor polynomial for ex.

(d)

f x, y

P1x, y

P2x, y

0.9048

0.9000

0.9050

0.2

0.1

1.1052

1.1000

1.1050

0.2

0.5

0.7408

0.7000

0.7450

0.5

1.6487

1.5000

1.6250

(e)

f
z

P2
P1

2
x

2
1
2

## x0, y0, z0 and Fx0, y0, z0 0,

the level surface of F at x0, y0, z0 is of the form Fx, y, z  C for some constant C. Let
Gx, y, z  Fx, y, z  C  0.
Then Gx0, y0, z0  Fx0, y0, z0 where Gx0, y0, z0 is normal to Fx0, y0, z0  C  0.
Therefore, Fx0, y0z0 is normal to Fx0, y0, z0  C.

Section 12.8

Section 12.8

109

## Relative minimum: 1, 3, 0

gx  2x  1  0 x  1
gy  2 y  3  0 y  3

1
3

(1, 3, 0)

3. f x, y  x2  y2  1 1

z
5

## Relative minimum: 0, 0, 1

Check: fx 

x
x2  y2  1

0 x0
3

y
fy 
0 y0
x2  y2  1
fxx 

(0, 0, 1)

2
2

y2  1
x2  1
xy
, f 
, f 
x2  y2  132 yy x2  y2  132 xy x2  y2  132

At the critical point 0, 0, fxx > 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 0, 0, 1 is a relative minimum.
5. f x, y  x2  y2  2x  6y  6  x  12   y  32  4 4

z
2
1

## Relative minimum: 1, 3, 4

2 1

Check: fx  2x  2  0 x  1

1
2
3
4

fy  2y  6  0 y  3

1
7

(1, 3, 4)

## fxx  2, fyy  2, fxy  0

At the critical point 1, 3, fxx > 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 1, 3, 4 is a relative minimum.
7. f x, y  2x2  2xy  y2  2x  3

fx  4x  2y  2  0
fy  2x  2y  0

## fxx  4, fyy  2, fxy  2

At the critical point 1, 1, fxx > 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 1, 1, 4 is a relative minimum.
9. f x, y  5x2  4xy  y2  16x  10

fx  10x  4y  16  0
fy  4x  2y  0

## fxx  10, fyy  2, fxy  4

At the critical point 8, 16, fxx < 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 8, 16, 74 is a relative maximum.
11. f x, y  2x2  3y2  4x  12y  13
fx  4x  4  4x  1  0 when x  1.
fy  6y  12  6 y  2  0 when y  2.

fx 

2x
x2  y2

2y

0

x  0, y  0

fy 

## At the critical point 1, 2, fxx > 0 and

fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 1, 2, 1 is a relative
minimum.

x2  y2

0

110

Chapter 12

## Functions of Several Variables

 

15. gx, y  4  x  y

0, 0 is the only critical point. Since gx, y 4 for all x, y, 0, 0, 4 is relative maximum.
4x
x2  y2  1

17. z 

2 y2

## Relative maximum: 1, 0, 2

Saddle points:  1, 0, 1

z
4
6
5
4
y

4
x

4
4

21. hx, y  x2  y2  2x  4y  4
hx  2x  2  2x  1  0 when x  1.
hy  2y  4  2 y  2  0 when y  2.
hxx  2, hyy  2, hxy  0
At the critical point 1, 2, hxx hyy  hxy2 < 0. Therefore, 1, 2, 1 is a saddle point.
23. hx, y  x2  3xy  y2
hx  2x  3y  0

hy  3x  2y  0

## hxx  2, hyy  2, hxy  3

At the critical point 0, 0, hxx hyy  hxy2 < 0. Therefore, 0, 0, 0 is a saddle point.
25. f x, y  x3  3xy  y3
fx  3x2  y  0

fy  3x  y2  0

Solving by substitution yields two critical points 0, 0 and 1, 1.

## fxx  6x, fyy  6y, fxy  3

At the critical point 0, 0, fxx fyy   fxy2 < 0. Therefore, 0, 0, 0 is a saddle point. At the critical point 1, 1, fxx  6 > 0 and
fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 1, 1, 1 is a relative minimum.
27. f x, y  ex sin y

fx  ex sin y  0
fy  ex cos y  0

29. z 

Since ex > 0 for all x and sin y and cos y are never both zero for a
given value of y, there are no critical points.

x  y4
0. z  0 if x  y  0.
x2  y2

z
60

## Relative minimum at all points x, x, x  0.

40

3
x

Section 12.8
31. fxx fyy   fxy2  94  62  0

111

## 33. fxx fyy   fxy2  96  102 < 0

f has a saddle point at x0, y0.

Insufficient information.

35. (a) The function f defined on a region R containing x0, y0 has a relative minimum at x0, y0
if f x, y f x0, y0 for all x, y in R.
(b) The function f defined on a region R containing x0, y0 has a relative maximum at x0, y0
if f x, y f x0, y0 for all x, y in R.
(c) A saddle point is a critical point which is not a relative extremum.
(d) See definition page 906.
z

37.

No extrema

39.

## 41. The point A will be a saddle point.

The function could be

7
6

75
60

f x, y  x2  y2.

45
30

x
2

## < 16 4 < fxy < 4

fxy2

45. f x, y  x3  y3
fx  3x2  0
fy  3y2  0

 Solving yields x  y  0

## fxx  6x, fyy  6y, fxy  0

At 0, 0, fxx fyy   fxy2  0 and the test fails. 0, 0, 0
47. f x, y  x  12 y  42 0
fx  2x  1 y  42  0
fy  2x  12y  4  0

## fxx  2 y  42, fyy  2x  12, fxy  4x  1 y  4

At both 1, a and b, 4, fxx fyy   fxy2  0 and the test fails.
Absolute minima: 1, a, 0 and b, 4, 0
49. f x, y  x23  y23 0
fx 
fy 

2
3 x
3

2
3 y
3

fxx  

## fx and fy are undefined at x  0, y  0. The critical point is 0, 0.

2
2
,f 
,f 0
3 3 yy
3 y xy
9x 
9y 

At 0, 0, fxx fyy   fxy2 is undefined and the test fails.
Absolute minimum: 0 at 0, 0
51. f x, y, z  x2   y  32  z  12 0
fx  2x  0

fy  2 y  3  0
fz  2z  1  0

112

Chapter 12

y=x+1
(1, 2)

## f x, y  f x  12  3x  22x  4  x  4

and the maximum is 6, the minimum is 5. On the line y   12 x  1, 0 x 2,

y = 2x + 4

(0, 1)

(2, 0)
1

y=

1x
2

+1

## Absolute minimum: 5 at 1, 2

55. f x, y  3x2  2y2  4y

(2, 4)

x0

fx  6x  0

(2, 4)

f 0, 1  2

fy  4y  4  0 y  1

On the line y  4, 2 x 2,

f x, y  f x  3x  32  16  3x  16
2

and the maximum is 28, the minimum is 16. On the curve y  x2, 2 x 2,
f x, y  f x 

3x2

 2  
x2 2

4x2

2x4

x2

x2

2x2

 1

## and the maximum is 28, the minimum is  18 .

Absolute maximum: 28 at  2, 4
Absolute minimum: 2 at 0, 1





## 57. f x, y  x2  xy, R  x, y: x 2, y 1

xy0

fx  2x  y  0
fy  x  0

y
2

f 0, 0  0

1
Along y  1, 2 x 2, f  x2  x, f  2x  1  0 x   2 .

## Thus, f 2, 1  2, f   2 , 1   4 and f 2, 1  6.

1

1
Along y  1, 2 x 2, f  x2  x, f  2x  1  0 x  2 .

## Thus, f 2, 1  6, f  2 , 1   4 , f 2, 1  2.

1

Along x  2, 1 y 1, f  4  2y f  2  0.
Along x  2, 1 y 1, f  4  2y f  2  0.

Thus, the maxima are f 2, 1  6 and f 2, 1  6 and the minima are f   2 , 1   4 and f  2 , 1   4 .
1

 y  x

fx  2x  2y  0

fy  2x  2y  0
f x, x 

x2

2x2

x2

0

2
2

## f  x2 2x8  x2  8  x2  8 2x8  x2

f  8  x2122x  28  x212 

16  4x2
.
8  x2

## Then, f  0 implies 16  4x2 or x  2.

f 2, 2  f 2, 2  16 and

## f 2, 2  f 2, 2  0



Thus, the maxima are f 2, 2  16 and f 2, 2  16, and the minima are f x, x  0, x 2.

Section 12.9

61. f x, y 

## Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

4xy
, R  x, y: 0 x 1, 0 y 1
x2  1 y2  1

fx 

41  x2y
 0 x  1 or y  0
  1x2  1

fy 

41  y2x
x  0 or y  1
2
x  1 y2  12

113

y2

R
x
1

## For x  0, y  0, also, and f 0, 0  0.

For x  1, y  1, f 1, 1  1.
The absolute maximum is 1  f 1, 1.
The absolute minimum is 0  f 0, 0. In fact, f 0, y  f x, 0  0
63. False

Let f x, y  1  x  y .

Section 12.9

## 1. A point on the plane is given by x, y, 12  2x  3y. The

square of the distance from the origin to this point is
S  x2  y2  12  2x  3y2

## 3. A point on the paraboloid is given by x, y, x2  y2. The

square of the distance from 5, 5, 0 to a point on the
paraboloid is given by
S  x  52   y  52  x2  y22

Sx  2x  212  2x  3y2

## Sx  2x  5  4xx2  y2  0

Sy  2y  212  2x  3y3
From the equations Sx  0 and Sy  0, we obtain the
system
5x  6y  24

Sy  2 y  5  4yx2  y2  0.
From the equations Sx  0 and Sy  0, we obtain the
system
2x3  2xy2  x  5  0

3x  5y  18.
Solving simultaneously, we have x 

12
7 ,

y

2y3  2x2y  y  5  0

18
7

54
6
z  12  24
7  7  7 . Therefore, the distance from

the origin to 

12 18 6
7 , 7 ,7

 is

2

## Multiply the first equation by y and the second equation

by x, and subtract to obtain x  y. Then, we have x  1,
y  1, z  2 and the distance is

614
.
7

## 5. Let x, y and z be the numbers. Since x  y  z  30, z  30  x  y.

P  xyz  30xy  x2y  xy2
Px  30y  2xy  y2  y30  2x  y  0 2x  y  30

## Py  30x  x2  2xy  x30  x  2y  0 x  2y  30

Solving simultaneously yields x  10, y  10, and z  10.
7. Let x, y, and z be the numbers and let S  x2  y2  z2. Since x  y  z  30, we have
S  x2  y2  30  x  y2
Sx  2x  230  x  y1  0 2x  y  30

## Sy  2y  230  x  y1  0 x  2y  30.

Solving simultaneously yields x  10, y  10, and z  10.

114

Chapter 12

## Functions of Several Variables

9. Let x, y, and z be the length, width, and height, respectively. Then the sum of the length and girth is given by
x  2y  2z  108 or x  108  2y  2z. The volume is given by
V  xyz  108zy  2zy2  2yz2
Vy  108z  4yz  2z2  z108  4y  2z  0
Vz  108y  2y2  4yz  y108  2y  4z  0.
Solving the system 4y  2z  108 and 2y  4z  108, we obtain the solution x  36 inches, y  18 inches, and z  18 inches.
11. Let a  b  c  k. Then
V

## 13. Let x, y, and z be the length, width, and height,

respectively and let V0 be the given volume.

4 abc 4
  abk  a  b
3
3


## Then V0  xyz and z  V0 xy. The surface area is

4
 kab  a2b  ab2
3

## S  2xy  2yz  2xz  2 xy 

V0
 0 x2y  V0  0
x2

V0
 0 xy2  V0  0.
y2

Va 

4
kb  2ab  b2  0 kb  2ab  b2  0
3

Sx  2 y 

Vb 

4
ka  a2  2ab  0 ka  a2  2ab  0.
3

Sy  2 x 

V0 V0

x
y

3 V ,y  
3 V ,
Solving simultaneously yields x  
0
0
3 V .
and z  
0

## Solving this system simultaneously yields a  b and

substitution yields b  k 3. Therefore, the solution is
a  b  c  k 3.

15. The distance from P to Q is x2  4. The distance from Q to R is y  x2  1 . The distance from R to S is 10  y.
C  3kx2  4  2k y  x2  1  k10  y



yx
yx
1
k0


2
 y  x  1
 y  x  1
1
x
 2k  0
3k
2
x  4

C  2k

Cx  3k
y

  y  x
x
 2k
0

 y  x2  1
4

x2


x
x2  4

1
3

3x  x2  4
9x2  x2  4
x2 
x

1
2
2

2 y  x   y  x2  1
4 y  x2   y  x2  1

 y  x2 
y
Therefore, x 

2

1
3
1
3

0.707 km and y 

1
2

23  32
6

23  32
1.284 kms.
6

Section 12.9

## Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

115

17. Let h be the height of the trough and r the length of the slanted sides. We observe that the area of a trapezoidal cross section is
given by

## w  2r  2w  2r  2x  w  2r  xh

Ah

where x  r cos  and h  r sin . Substituting these expressions for x and h, we have
Ar,   w  2r  r cos r sin   wr sin   2r 2 sin   r 2 sin  cos 
Now
Arr,   w sin   4r sin   2r sin  cos   sin w  4r  2r cos   0 w  r 4  2 cos 
Ar,   wr cos   2r 2 cos   r 2 cos 2  0.
Substituting the expression for w from Arr,   0 into the equation Ar,   0, we have
r 24  2 cos cos   2r 2 cos   r 22 cos2   1  0
1
r 22 cos   1  0 or cos   .
2
Therefore, the first partial derivatives are zero when    3 and r  w 3. (Ignore the solution r    0.) Thus, the
trapezoid of maximum area occurs when each edge of width w 3 is turned up 60 from the horizontal.
19. Rx1, x2  5x12  8x22  2x1x2  42x1  102x2
Rx1  10x1  2x2  42  0, 5x1  x2  21
Rx2  16x2  2x1  102  0, x1  8x2  51
Solving this system yields x1  3 and x2  6.
Rx1x1  10
Rx1x2  2
Rx2x2  16
Rx1x1 < 0 and Rx1x1 Rx2x2  Rx1x22 > 0
Thus, revenue is maximized when x1  3 and x2  6.
21. Px1, x2  15x1  x2  C1  C2
 15x1  15x2  0.02x12  4x1  500  0.05x22  4x2  275
 0.02x12  0.05x22  11x1  11x2  775
Px1  0.04x1  11  0, x1  275
Px2  0.10x2  11  0, x2  110
Px1x1  0.04
Px1x2  0
Px2x2  0.10
Px1x1 < 0 and Px1x1 Px2x2  Px1x22 > 0
Therefore, profit is maximized when x1  275 and x2  110.

116

Chapter 12

## 23. (a) Sx, y  d1  d2  d3

 x  02   y  02  x  22   y  22  x  42   y  22
 x2  y2  x  22   y  22  x  42   y  22
From the graph we see that the surface has a minimum.
(b) Sxx, y 
Syx, y 

S
24

x2
x
x4


x2  y2
x  22   y  22
x  42   y  22
y
x2  y2

y2
x  22   y  22

20

y2
x  42   y  22

1
2
1
i

j
(c) S1, 1  Sx1, 1i  Sy1, 1j  
2
2
10
tan  

 2 10    1 2   1 
1 2

2
5

1
2

t, 1 

2
10

 186.027

## (d) x2, y2  x1  Sxx1, y1t, y1  Syx1, y1t  1 

S 1

1
2

t, 1 

2
10

1
2

2 t  2  2 510  2 2 t  1  2 5 5  25 t


1


10  2 510  2 2 t  1  2 5 5  25 t

10  2 510  4 2 t  1  2 5 5  25 t

Using a computer algebra system, we find that the minimum occurs when t 1.344. Thus, x2, y2 0.05, 0.90.
(e) x3, y3  x2  Sxx2, y2t, y2  Syx2, y2t 0.05  0.03t, 0.90  0.26t
S0.05  0.03t, 0.90  0.26t  0.05  0.03t2  0.90  0.26t2  2.05  0.03t2  1.10  0.26t2
 3.95  0.03t2  1.10  0.26t2
Using a computer algebra system, we find that the minimum occurs when t 1.78. Thus x3, y3 0.10, 0.44.

x4, y4  x3  Sxx3, y3t, y3  Syx3, y3t 0.10  0.09t, 0.44  0.01t
S0.10  0.09t, 0.45  0.01t  0.10  0.09t2  0.45  0.01t2  2.10  0.09t2  1.55  0.01t2
 3.90  0.09t2  1.55  0.01t2
Using a computer algebra system, we find that the minimum occurs when t 0.44. Thus, x4, y4 0.06, 0.44.
Note: The minimum occurs at x, y  0.0555, 0.3992
(f) Sx, y points in the direction that S decreases most rapidly. You would use Sx, y for maximization problems.
25. Write the equation to be maximized or minimized as a function of two variables. Set the partial derivatives
equal to zero (or undefined) to obtain the critical points. Use the Second Partials Test to test for relative extrema
using the critical points. Check the boundary points, too.

Section 12.9

27. (a)

xy

x2

xy

x2

2

x  0  y  4  xy  6  x
i

29. (a)

2
i

i i

8

x  4 y  8 xy  4 x
i

36  04 3
1
3
4
a
 , b
4  0  ,
38  02
4
3
4
3

a

3
4
y x
4
3


2

4

1
3


2

3 4

 3
2 3

 x  13,
x y  46,

 y  12,
x  51

2
i

i i

a

546  1312 74 37


551  132
86 43

## (b) S  4  42  2  32  2  12  0  02  2

b
y

33. 0, 6, 4, 3, 5, 0, 8, 4, 10, 5

 x  27,
 x y  70,

2
i

i i

37
7
1
12 
13 
5
43
43

b

175
945
1
0 
27 
5
148
148

37
7
x
43
43

y

175
945
x
148
148

7
y = 37
x + 43
43

(0, 6)
(4, 3)

(3, 4)

10

## 35. (a) y  1.7236x  79.7334

18

(5, 0)
(8, 4)

(4, 2)
(1, 1)
(0, 0)

(5, 5)

(b)

 y  0,
 x  205

175
570  270 350


5205  272
296
148

(10, 5)

y = 175
x + 945
148
148

## 37. 1.0, 32, 1.5, 41, 2.0, 48, 2.5, 53

 x  7,  y  174,  x y  322,  x

240

i i

## When x  1.6, y  41.4 bushels per acre.

0
100

6

44  48
1
 2, b  8  24  4,
46  42
4

a

2
i

i i

1
6

31. 0, 0, 1, 1, 3, 4, 4, 2, 5, 5

y  2x  4

3 4
(b) S     0
2 3


117

100

## (c) For each one-year increase in age, the pressure

changes by 1.7236 (slope of line).

2
i

 13.5

118

Chapter 12

## Functions of Several Variables

  y  ax

39. Sa, b, c 

2
i

 bxi  c2

i1

n
S

2xi2 yi  axi2  bxi  c  0
a i1

n
S

2xi yi  axi2  bxi  c  0
b i1

n
S
 2  yi  axi2  bxi  c  0
c
i1

b

xi4

xi3

c

i1

i1

i1

x

3
i

b

i1

x

2
i

c

i1
n

x

2
i

xi2yi
i1
n

x  x y
i

i1

b

i1

xi2

i i

i1

 x  cn   y
i

i1

i1

## 43. 0, 0, 2, 2, 3, 6, 4, 12

41. 2, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 5

x 0
y 8
 x  10
x  0
 x  34
 x y  12
 x y  22

(1, 2)

2
i

(0, 1)
2

3
i
4
i

i i

2
i i

## 34a  10c  22, 10b  12, 10a  5c  8

3 2
6
26
a  37 , b  65 , c  26
35 , y  7 x  5 x  35

 x  30,
 y  230,
 x  220,
 x  1,800,
 x  15,664,
 x y  1,670,
 x y  13,500

2
i

2
i

3
i

3
i

4
i

4
i

i i

i i

2
i i

2
i i

## 15,664a  1,800b  220c  13,500

99a  29b  9c  70

1,800a 

29a  9b  4c  20
a  1, b  1, c  0, y  x2  x

220a 
y

25 2
 112
x

30b 


541
56

x

6c 
25
14

14
120

(4, 12)
(3, 6)
(2, 2)
(0, 0)

## (b) ln P  0.1499h  9.3018

P  e0.1499h9.3018  10,957.7e0.1499h
14,000

2
2,000

14
20

## 47. (a) ln P  0.1499h  9.3018

(c)

(2, 0)

45. 0, 0, 2, 15, 4, 30, 6, 50, 8, 65, 10, 70

x 9
 y  20
 x  29
 x  99
x  353
 x y  70
 x y  254

(2, 5)

(1, 0)

24

230

## 0.22x 2  9.66x  1.79

Section 12.10

Section 12.10

Lagrange Multipliers

119

Lagrange Multipliers

## 1. Maximize f x, y  xy.

3. Minimize f x, y  x2  y 2.

Constraint: x  y  10

10

f  g

2x i  2yj   i   j

6
4

y

xy
x  

2x  

constraint
x
2

10

x  y  10  x  y  5

12

constraint

f  g

level curves

y i  xj  i  j

Constraint: x  y  4

12

2y  

x
4

x  y

level curves

xy4 xy2

f 5, 5  25

f 2, 2  8

5. Minimize f x, y  x2  y 2.

## 7. Maximize f x, y  2x  2xy  y.

Constraint: x  2y  6

Constraint: 2x  y  100

f  g

f  g

2x i  2yj   i  2 j

## 2  2y i  2x  1j  2 i   j

x

2x  


2

2  2y  2 y    1
2x  1  

2y  2 y  

  1 y  2x
2

2x  y  100 4x  100

3
   6
2

x  2y  6

x

x  25, y  50

  4, x  2, y  4

## f 25, 50  2600

f 2, 4  12
9. Note: f x, y  6  x2  y 2 is maximum when gx, y
is maximum.
Maximize gx, y  6  x2  y 2.

2y  

xe xy  2y

xy

xy2
f 2, 2 

f 1, 1  g1, 1  2
13. Maximize or minimize f x, y  x 2  3xy  y 2.
Constraint:

y2

xy

x2  y 2  8 2x2  8

xy2 xy1

x2

Constraint: x2  y 2  8
ye xy  2x

Constraint: x  y  2
 2x  

e4

x2

fx  2x  3y  0

y2

2x  3y  2x
3x  2y  2y

2

Maxima: f
Minima: f

2
2

,

x2  y 2

x2  y2  1 x 
2

xy0

fy  3x  2y  0

1

2

2 

2
2

,y

5

2

   12

2

## By combining these two cases, we have a maximum of 2 at

2

2


1

and a minimum of  2 at

2

,

2

.

120

Chapter 12

## 17. Minimize f x, y, z  x2  y 2  z 2.

Constraint: x  y  z  6

Constraint: x  y  z  1

2x  
2y   x  y  z
2z  

2x  
2y   x  y  z
2z  

xyz6 xyz2

x  y  z  1 x  y  z  13

f 2, 2, 2  12

f  13 , 13 , 13   13

## 21. Maximize f x, y, z  xy  yz.

Constraints: x  y  z  32

Constraints: x  2y  6

xyz0

x  3z  0

f  g  h

f  g  h

yz i  xz j  xyk  i  j  k   i  j  k

## y i  x  z j  yk  i  2j   i  3k

yz    
xz     yz  xy x  z
xy    

y
8
3
x  z  2
y  xz y
4
3
y  3

x  y  z  32

2x  2z  32 x  z  8
xyz0 
y  16

x  2y  6 y  3 
x  3z  0 z 

## f 8, 16, 8  1024

x

x
2

x
3

x
8
x
 3
3 3
2

3
x  3, y  , z  1
2

3
f 3, , 1  6
2
23. Minimize the square of the distance f x, y  x2  y 2
subject to the constraint 2x  3y  1.
2x  2
2y  3

 y  3x2

distance is
2

   


2
13

## f x, y, z  x  22   y  12  z  12

subject to the constraint x  y  z  1.

3
2
2x  3y  1 x   , y  
13
13

d

## 25. Minimize the square of the distance

 

3
13

13

13

2x  2  
2 y  1   y  z and y  x  1
2z  1  

x  y  z  1 x  2x  1  1
x  1, y  z  0

## The point on the plane is 1, 0, 0 and the desired

distance is
d  1  22  0  12  0  12  3.

Section 12.10
27. Maximize f x, y, z  z subject to the constraints
x2  y 2  z2  36 and 2x  y  z  2.
0  2x  2
0  2y   x  2y
1  2z  

Lagrange Multipliers

121

## 29. Optimization problems that have restrictions or contstraints

on the values that can be used to produce the optimal
solution are called contrained optimization problems.

x2  y 2  z 2  36
2x  y  z  2 z  2x  y  2  5y  2

## 2y2  y 2  5y  22  36

30y 2  20y  32  0
15y 2  10y  16  0
y

5 265
15

## Choosing the positive value for y we have the point

265 5  265 1  265

10  152

15

.

## 31. Maximize Vx, y, z  xyz subject to the constraint

x  2y  2z  108.

## 33. Minimize Cx, y, z  5xy  32xz  2yz  xy subject

to the constraint x yz  480.

yz  
xz  2 y  z and x  2y
xy  2

8y  6z  yz 
8x  6z  xz  x  y, 4y  3z
6x  6y  xy

x  2y  2z  108 6y  108, y  18

## xyz  480 43 y 3  480

x  36, y  z  18
Volume is maximum when the dimensions are
36 18 18 inches

3 360, z  4 
3 360
x  y 
3
3 360 
3 360 4 
3 360
Dimensions: 
feet
3

z
x

## 35. Maximize Vx, y, z  2x2y2z  8xyz subject to the constraint

8yz 

2x

a2

8xz 

2y

b2

8xy 

2z

c2

x2
y2
z2
2  2  2
a
b
c

x2
y2
z2
3x2
3y 2
3z 2

  1 2  1, 2  1, 2  1
a2 b 2 c 2
a
b
c
x

a
3

,y

b
3

,z

c
3

.
3
3
3

x2
y2
z2
2  2  2  1.
a
b
c

122

Chapter 12

## 37. Using the formula Time 

d12  x2
d22  y 2
Distance
, minimize Tx, y 
subject to the constraint x  y  a.

Rate
v1
v2

x

v1d22  x 2
x
y

y
v1d12  x2 v2d22  y 2

v2d22  y 2

Medium 1

d1

xya

Since sin
1 
xd1 
v1
2

x
d12  x2

x2

and sin
2 

yd2 
v2
2

y2

y
d22  y

, we have
2

## subject to the constraint 48x  36y  100,000.

P  g

3  4 p  q  r  41


4
3

25x0.75y0.75  48

yx

0.75

75x0.25y0.25  36

xy

0.25

pqr1

0.75

 p

48
25

36
75

yx yx

pqr1
q  r  23

## 41. Maximize Px, y  100x 0.25y 0.75

Constraint: p  q  r  1
2q  2r  
2p  2r  
2p  2q  

d2

a
Medium 2

sin
1 sin
2

.
v1
v2

or

1
3,

q  13 , r  13

0.25

48253675

y
4
x

P 13 , 13 , 13   2 13  13   2 13  13   2 13  13   23 .

y  4x
48x  36y  100,000 192x  100,000
x
Therefore, P

43. Minimize Cx, y  48x  36y subject to the constraint 100x0.25y0.75  20,000.
48  25x0.75y0.75

yx

0.75

36  75x0.25y0.25

xy

0.25

48
25

36
75

yx yx
0.75

0.25

25487536

y
 4 y  4x
x
100x0.25y0.75  20,000 x0.254x0.75  200
x

200
200

 502
40.75 22

y  4x  2002
Therefore, C 502, 2002  \$13,576.45.

3125 6250
6 , 3

 147,314.

3125
6250
,y
6
3

## Review Exercises for Chapter 12

123

45. (a) Maximize g, ,   cos  cos  cos  subject to the constraint       .
 sin  cos  cos  
cos  sin  cos   tan   tan   tan      
cos  cos  sin  

 
3

3 , 3 . 3   81

(b)              

## Review Exercises for Chapter 12

1. No, it is not the graph of a function.
3. f x, y  ex

5. f x, y  x2  y 2

2 y 2

c

c  x2  y 2

2
2
ex y

ln c  x2  y 2.

1

x2 y 2
 .
c
c

## The level curves are hyperbolas.

y
2

c = 10
4

c = 12 c = 2
c=2

c=1
c = 12

Generated by Mathematica

Generated by Mathematica

7. f x, y  ex

9. f x, y, z  x2  y  z2  1

y 2

y  x2  z2  1

z
3

Elliptic paraboloid

3
3

2
x
3

3
x

11.

xy
1

x, y 1, 1 x  y 2
2
lim

## Continuous except at 0, 0.

13.

lim

x, y 0, 0

4x2y
x4  y2

For y  x 2,
For y  0,

4x 4
4x 2y
 4
 2, for x
0
4
2
x y
x  x4
4x 2y
 0, for x
0
x4  y 2

Thus, the limit does not exist. Continuous except at 0, 0.

124

Chapter 12

z
 ey  yex
x

fx  ex cos y
fy  e sin y
x

19. gx, y 

z  xey  yex

17.

z
 xey  ex
y

xy
x2  y 2

y
x

gx 

 2
x2  y 22
x  y 22

fx 

z
y
yz

 2
1   y2 x2 x2
x  y2

gy 

xx2  y 2
x2  y 22

fy 

z
xz
1
 2
1   y 2 x2 x
x  y2

 


fz  arctan

## 23. ux, t  cen t sinnx

2

y
x

25.

u
2
 cnen t cosnx
x

u
2
 cn2en t sinnx
t

1
3

3
x

## 29. hx, y  x sin y  y cos x

fx  6x  y

hx  sin y  y sin x

fy  x 

hy  x cos y  cos x

6y 2

z  x2  y2

31.

z
 2x
x
2z
2
x2

fxx  6

hxx  y cos x

fyy  12y

hyy  x sin y

fxy  1

fyx  1

## hyx  cos y  sin x

z
 2y
y
2z
 2
y 2
Therefore,

33.

z

y
x2  y 2

35. z  x sin

z
2xy

x x2  y 22

dz 

2z
4x2
1
3x2  y 2
 2y 2

 2y 2
x2
x  y 23 x2  y 22
x  y 23

z
x2  y2
x2  y 2  2y

 2
y
x2  y 22
x  y 22

## x2  y 222y  2x2  y 2x2  y 22y

2z

2
y
x2  y 24
 2y
Therefore,

3x2  y 2
x2  y 23

2z
2z
 2  0.
2
x
y

2z
2z
 2  0.
2
x
y

y
x

y y
y
z
z
y
dx 
dy  sin  cos dx  cos dy
x
y
x x
x
x

## Review Exercises for Chapter 12

37.

z2  x2  y 2

39.





y
5 1
12 1
17
x
dx  dy 


0.654 cm
z
z
13 2
13 2
26

Percentage error:

dz 17 26

0.0503 5%
z
13

## 41. w  lnx2  y2, x  2t  3, y  4  t

Chain Rule:

dw w dx w dy


dt
x dt
y dt


2x
2y
2  2
1
x2  y2
x  y2

22t  32
24  t

2t  32  4  t2 2t  32  4  t2

10t  4
5t2  4t  25

## Substitution: w  lnx2  y2  ln2t  32  4  t2

10t  4
dw 22t  32  24  t

 2
dt
2t  32  4  t2
5t  4t  25
43. u  x2  y 2  z2, x  r cos t, y  r sin t, z  t
Chain Rule:

u u x u y u z



r
x r
y r
z r
 2x cos t  2y sin t  2z0
 2r cos2 t  r sin2 t  2r
u u x u y u z



t
x t
y t
z t
 2xr sin t  2yr cos t  2z
 2r 2 sin t cos t  r 2 sin t cos t  2t
 2t

## Substitution: ur, t  r 2 cos2 t  r 2 sin2 t  t 2  r 2  t 2

u
 2r
r
u
 2t
t
x2y  2yz  xz  z2  0

45.
2xy  2y

z
z
z
x
 z  2z
0
x
x
x
2xy  z
2xy  z
z


x 2y  x  2z x  2y  2z

x2  2y

V  13 r 2h
dV  23 rh dr  13 r 2 dh  23 25 18   13 22 18 

2z dx  2x dx  2y dy
dz 

125

z
z
z
 2z  x
 2z
0
y
y
y
z
x2  2z
x2  2z


y 2y  x  2z x  2y  2z

5
1
 6 6   in.3

126

Chapter 12

47.

f x, y  x2y

## Functions of Several Variables

w  z i  2yj  xk

f  2xyi  x 2j

w1, 2, 2  2i  4 j  k

f 2, 1  4 i  4j
u

1
2

v

i

2
1
2
1
u v i j k
3
3
3
3

Duw1, 2, 2  w1, 2, 2 u 

Du f 2, 1  f 2, 1 u  2 2  2 2  0
z

51.

y
x2  y 2

4 4 2 2
  
3 3 3 3

z  ex cos y

53.

## z  ex cos yi  ex sin y j

2xy
x2  y 2
z   2
i 2
j
x  y 22
x  y 22

 4    22 i 

z 0,

1
1
z1, 1   i   , 0
2
2
 z1, 1 

w  y 2  xz

49.

j 

,

 z0, 4    1

1
2

57.

## f x, y  9x2  4y2

Fx, y, z  x2y  z  0
F  2xy i  x 2j  k

## f x, y  18xi  8yj

F2, 1, 4  4i  4j  k

## Therefore, the equation of the tangent plane is

Unit normal:

4x  2  4 y  1  z  4  0 or

54i  16j
1
27i  8j


54i  16j
793

4x  4y  z  8,
and the equation of the normal line is
x2 y1 z4


.
4
4
1

59.

Fx, y, z  x2  y2  4x  6y  z  9  0
F  2x  4i  2y  6j  k

61.

Fx, y, z  x2  y 2  z  0
Gx, y, z  3  z  0

F2, 3, 4  k

F  2x i  2yj  k

## Therefore, the equation of the tangent plane is

G  k

z  4  0 or

F2, 1, 3  4i  2j  k

z  4,

## and the equation of the normal line is

x  2, y  3, z  4  t.

 

i
F  G  4
0

j
2
0

k
1  2i  2j
1

## Therefore, the equation of the tangent line is

x2 y1

, z  3.
1
2
63.

f x, y, z  x2  y2  z2  14
f x, y, z  2xi  2yj  2zk
f 2, 1, 3  4i  2j  6k Normal vector to plane.
cos  

n k 
n

  36.7

6
56

3 14
14

## Review Exercises for Chapter 12

65. f x, y  x3  3xy  y 2

fx  3x2  3y  3x2  y  0
fy  3x  2y  0
fxx  6x

127

30

2
30

fyy  2
fxy  3
3
From fx  0, we have y  x2. Substituting this into fy  0, we have 3x  2x2  x2x  3  0. Thus, x  0 or 2 .

At the critical point 0, 0, fxx fyy   fxy2 < 0. Therefore, 0, 0, 0 is a saddle point.

3 9
3 9
27
At the critical point  2 , 4 , fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0 and fxx > 0. Therefore,  2 , 4 ,  16  is a relative minimum.

67. f x, y  xy 

1 1

x
y

fx  y 

1
 0, x2y  1
x2

fy  x 

1
 0, xy 2  1
y2

x2y

fxx 

2
x3

Thus,

xy2

## or x  y and substitution yields the critical point 1, 1.

20

3 4
4
x

20
24

(1, 1, 3)

fxy  1
fyy 

2
y3

At the critical point 1, 1, fxx  2 > 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2  3 > 0. Thus, 1, 1, 3 is a relative minimum.
69. The level curves are hyperbolas. There is a critical point at 0, 0, but there are no relative extrema. The gradient is normal to the
level curve at any given point at x0, y0.
71. Px1, x2  R  C1  C2
 225  0.4x1  x2x1  x2  0.05x12  15x1  5400  0.03x22  15x2  6100
 0.45x12  0.43x22  0.8x1x2  210x1  210x2  11,500
Px1  0.9x1  0.8x2  210  0
0.9x1  0.8x2  210
Px2  0.86x2  0.8x1  210  0
0.8x1  0.86x2  210
Solving this system yields x1 94 and x2 157.
Px1x1  0.9
Px1x2  0.8
Px2x2  0.86
Px1x1 < 0
Px1x1 Px2x2  Px1x22 > 0
Therefore, profit is maximum when x1 94 and x2 157.

128

Chapter 12

## Functions of Several Variables

75. (a) y  2.29t  2.34

## 73. Maximize f x, y  4x  xy  2y subject to the

constraint 20x  4y  2000.
4  y  20
x  2  4

30

 5x  y  6

20x  4y  2000

5x  y  500

5x  y  6
(b)

 494

10x

11
5
20

x  49.4
y  253

## Yes, the data appears more linear.

(c) y  8.37 ln t  1.54
(d)

25

10
5

## The logarithmic model is a better fit.

77. Optimize f x, y, z  xy  yz  xz subject to the constraint x  y  z  1.
yz
xz xyz
xy

x  y  z  1 x  y  z  13
Maximum: f  13 , 13 , 13   13
79. PQ  x2  4, QR  y2  1, RS  z; x  y  z  10
C  3 x2  4  2 y2  1  2
Constraint: x  y  z  10
C  g
3x
x2  4

i

2y
y2  1

j  k  i  j  k

3x  x2  4
2y  y2  1
1
9x2  x2  4 x2 

1
2

4y2  y2  1 y2 

1
3

Hence, x 

,y

, z  10 

8.716 m.