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C H A P T E R 1 2

Functions of Several Variables


Section 12.1 Introduction to Functions of Several Variables . . . . . . . 76
Section 12.2 Limits and Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Section 12.3 Partial Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Section 12.4 Differentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Section 12.5 Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables . . . . . . . 92
Section 12.6 Directional Derivatives and Gradients . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Section 12.7 Tangent Planes and Normal Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Section 12.8 Extrema of Functions of Two Variables . . . . . . . . . . 109
Section 12.9 Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

. 113

Section 12.10 Lagrange Multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119


Review Exercises

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

C H A P T E R 1 2
Functions of Several Variables
Section 12.1

Introduction to Functions of Several Variables

Solutions to Odd-Numbered Exercises


1. x 2z  yz  xy  10

3.

zx 2  y  10  xy

x2 y2
  z2  1
4
9
No, z is not a function of x and y. For example,
x, y  0, 0 corresponds to both z  1.

10  xy
z 2
x y
Yes, z is a function of x and y.

5. f x, y 

x
y

(a) f 3, 2 

3
2

(b) f 1, 4  

(d) f 5, y 

5
y

(e) f x, 2 

(c) f 30, 5 

x
2

(f) f 5, t 

(a) f 5, 0  5e0  5


(b) f 3, 2  3e 2
2
e

30
6
5

5
t

xy
z

9. hx, y, z 

7. f x, y  xe y

(c) f 2, 1  2e1 

1
4

(a) h2, 3, 9 

23 2

9
3

(b) h1, 0, 1 

10
0
1

(d) f 5, y  5e y
(e) f x, 2  xe 2
(f) f t, t  tet

11. f x, y  x sin y

13. gx, y 

2t  3 dt

 4   2 sin 4  2




(a) f 2,

(a) g0, 4 

(b) f 3, 1  3 sin 1

(b) g1, 4 

2t  3 dt  t 2  3t

2t  3 dt  t 2  3t

0
4
1

4
6

15. f x, y  x 2  2y
(a)

f x  x, y  f x, y
x  x2  2y  x2  2y

x
x


(b)
76

x 2  2xx  x2  2y  x 2  2y x2x  x



 2x  x, x  0
x
x

f x, y  y  f x, y


x 2  2 y  y  x 2  2y x 2  2y  2y  x 2  2y 2y



 2, y  0
y
y
y
y

Section 12.1
17. f x, y  4  x 2  y 2
Domain: 4 

x2

19. f x, y  arcsinx  y

y 0
2
2

Domain: 4  x  y > 0
xy < 4



Range:  z
2
2

x, y: x 2  y 2 4

x, y: y < x  4

Range: 0 z 2

23. z 

Range: all real numbers

xy
xy

25. f x, y  e xy

27. gx, y 

Domain: x, y: y  0

Domain: x, y: x  0 and y  0

1
xy

Domain: x, y: x  0 and y  0

Range: z > 0

Range: all real numbers

29. f x, y 

77

21. f x, y  ln4  x  y

Domain:
x, y: 1 x  y 1

x y 4
2

Introduction to Functions of Several Variables

Range: all real numbers except zero

4x
x2  y2  1

(a) View from the positive x-axis: 20, 0, 0

(b) View where x is negative, y and z are positive:


15, 10, 20

(c) View from the first octant: 20, 15, 25

(d) View from the line y  x in the xy-plane: 20, 20, 0

31. f x, y  5

33. f x, y  y 2

Plane: z  5

Since the variable x is missing, the surface is a cylinder


with rulings parallel to the x-axis. The generating curve is
z  y 2. The domain is the entire xy-plane and the range is
z 0.

y
5

1
4

35. z  4  x 2  y 2

37. f x, y  ex

z
4

Paraboloid
Domain: entire xy-plane
Range: z 4
3

Since the variable y is missing, the


surface is a cylinder with rulings
parallel to the y-axis. The generating
curve is z  ex. The domain is the
entire xy-plane and the range is z > 0.

8
6
4
2

x
4
x

39. z  y 2  x 2  1

41. f x, y  x 2exy2

Hyperbolic paraboloid

Domain: entire xy-plane


Range:   < z <

y
x

78

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

43. f x, y  x 2  y 2
(a)

(c) g is a horizontal translation of f two units to the right.


The vertex moves from 0, 0, 0 to 0, 2, 0.

z
5
4

(d) g is a reflection of f in the xy-plane followed by a vertical translation 4 units upward.


(e)

2
1

(b) g is a vertical translation of f two units upward


z = f (x, 1)

z = f (1, y)

2
2

45. z  e1x

2 y 2

47. z  ln y  x 2

Level curves:

49. z  x  y
Level curves are parallel lines of
the form x  y  c.

Level curves:

c

2
2
e1x y

c  ln y 

ln c  1  x 2  y 2

x2

ec  y  x2

x 2  y 2  1  ln c

y  x2 e c

Circles centered at 0, 0

Parabolas

Matches (c)

Matches (b)

x
4 c=4

c=2
c = 1

53. f x, y  xy

51. f x, y  25  x 2  y 2

The level curves are hyperbolas of the form xy  c.

The level curves are of the form


c  25  x 2  y 2,
x2

y2

 25 

c=0

c 2.

Thus, the level curves are circles of radius 5 or less,


y
centered at the origin.
6

c=5
c=4
c=3
c=2

2
6

1
1

c=6
c=5
c=4
c=3
c=2
c=1
x
c = 1
c = 2
c = 3
c = 4
c = 5
c = 6

c=1
c=0

55. f x, y 

x
x2  y2

57. f x, y  x2  y2  2

The level curves are of the form


x
c 2
x  y2
x
x   y2  0
c

c=
c=

3
2

1
2
2

c=2
x

 y2 

2c1 

c = 2
c = 1

c=

1
c=
2

Thus, the level curves are circles passing through the


origin and centered at 12c, 0.

c=1

x  2c1 

3
2

Section 12.1
59. gx, y 

8
1  x2  y2

Introduction to Functions of Several Variables

61. See Definition, page 838.

63. No, The following graphs are not


hemispheres.
z  ex

2 y 2

z  x2  y2

1  R
 1  0.10

1I

Inflation Rate

f x, y  x 2  y 2.

69. f x, y, z  x  2y  3z

10

67. VI, R  1000

65. The surface is sloped like a saddle. The graph is not


unique. Any vertical translation would have the same level
curves.
One possible function is

Tax Rate

0.03

0.05

2593.74

1929.99

1592.33

0.28

2004.23

1491.34

1230.42

0.35

1877.14

1396.77

1152.40

71. f x, y, z  x 2  y 2  z 2

73. f x, y, z  4x 2  4y 2  z 2

c6

c9

c0

6  x  2y  3z

9  x2  y2  z2

0  4x 2  4y 2  z 2

Plane

Sphere

Elliptic cone

z
4

x
6

75. Nd, L 

d 4 4

(a) N22, 12 

22 4 4 12  243 board-feet


2

77. T  600  0.75x 2  0.75y 2

(b) N30, 12 

c  600 
x2  y 2 

600  c
.
0.75

0.75y 2

30 4 4 12  507 board-feet


2

20.40xz  20.40yz

79. C  0.75xy 

The level curves are of the form


0.75x 2

base  front & back  two ends


 0.75xy  0.80xz  yz

The level curves are circles centered at the origin.


c = 600
c = 500
c = 400

y
30

c = 300
c = 200
c = 100
c=0

30

30

30

79

x
z
y

80

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

81. PV  kT, 202600  k300


(a) k 

202600 520

300
3

(b) P 

kT 520 T

V
3 V

 

The level curves are of the form: c 


V

T
520
3  V 
520
T
3c

Thus, the level curves are lines through the origin with slope

520
.
3c

83. (a) Highest pressure at C

85. (a) The boundaries between colors represent level curves

(b) Lowest pressure at A

(b) No, the colors represent intervals of different lengths,


as indicated in the box

(c) Highest wind velocity at B

(c) You could use more colors, which means using


smaller intervals
87. False. Let

89. False. Let

f x, y  2xy

f x, y  5.

f 1, 2  f 2, 1, but 1  2

Section 12.2

Then, f 2x, 2y  5  22 f x, y.

Limits and Continuity

 

1. Let  > 0 be given. We need to find  > 0 such that f x, y  L  y  b < 
whenever 0 < x  a2   y  b2 < . Take   .
Then if 0 < x  a2   y  b2 <   , we have
 y  b2 < 

y  b < .
3.

5.

7.

lim

 f x, y  gx, y 

lim

 f x, ygx, y 

lim

x  3y 2  2  312  5

x, y a, b

x, y a, b

lim

x, y a, b

lim

x, y a, b

f x, y 

f x, y

x, y 2, 1

lim

x, y a, b

lim

x, y a, b

gx, y  5  3  2

gx, y  53  15

9.

lim

x, y 0, 1

arcsinx y
 arcsin 0  0
1  xy

13.

 

Continuous for xy  1, y  0, x y 1


15.

lim

x, y, z 1, 2, 5

x  y  z  8  22

Continuous for x  y  z 0

xy 24

 3
xy 24

Continuous for x  y

Continuous everywhere

11.

lim

x, y 2, 4

lim

x, y 1, 2

e xy  e2 

Continuous everywhere
17.

lim

x, y 0, 0

e xy  1

Continuous everywhere

1
e2

Section 12.2
19.

lim

x, y 0, 0

Limits and Continuity

81

lnx2  y2  ln0   

The limit does not exist.


Continuous except at 0, 0

21. f x, y 

xy
x2  y2

Continuous except at 0, 0


Path: y  0

Path: y  x

x, y

1, 0

0.5, 0

0.1, 0

0.01, 0

0.001, 0

f x, y

x, y

1, 1

0.5, 0.5

0.1, 0.1

0.01, 0.01

0.001, 0.001

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

f x, y

The limit does not exist because along the path y  0 the function equals 0, whereas along the path y  x
the function equals 12 .

23. f x, y  

x2

xy 2
 y4

Continuous except at 0, 0


Path: x  y 2

Path: x  y 2

x, y

1, 1

0.25, 0.5

0.01, 0.1

0.0001, 0.01

0.000001, 0.001

f x, y

 12

 12

 12

 12

 12

x, y

1, 1

0.25, 0.5

0.01, 0.1

0.0001, 0.01

0.000001, 0.001

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

f x, y

The limit does not exist because along the path x  y 2 the function equals  12 , whereas along the path x  y 2
the function equals 12 .

25.

lim

x, y 0, 0

f x, y 


 2xy2  y2
x2  y2

lim

x

lim

1  x 2xy y   1

x, y 0, 0

27.

lim

x, y 0, 0

x, y 0, 0

sin x  sin y  0

(same limit for g)

Thus, f is not continuous at 0, 0, whereas g is continuous


at 0, 0.

29.

lim

x, y 0, 0

x2y
x 4  4y 2

31. f x, y 

Does not exist

10xy
2x2  3y2

The limit does not exist. Use the paths x  0 and x  y.

y
x

82

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

33.

sinx 2  y 2
sin r 2
2r cos r 2
 lim 2  lim
 lim cos r 2  1
2
2
r0
r0
r0
x, y 0, 0
x y
r
2r

35.

x3  y 3
r 3 cos3  sin3 
 lim
 lim rcos3  sin3   0
2
2
r0
r0
x, y 0, 0 x  y
r2

lim

lim

37. f x, y, z 

39. f x, y, z 

x 2  y 2  z 2

Continuous except at 0, 0, 0

41.

sin z
ex  ey

Continuous everywhere

f t  t 2

f t 

43.

gx, y  3x  2y

1
t

gx, y  3x  2y

f  gx, y  f 3x  2y

f  gx, y  f 3x  2y 

 3x  2y2
 9x 2  12xy  4y 2

Continuous for y 

Continuous everywhere

1
3x  2y

3x
2

45. f x, y  x 2  4y
(a) lim

x0

f x 
x, y  f x, y
x 
x 2  4y  x 2  4y
 lim

x0

x
2x
x  
x2
 lim 2x 
x  2x

x0

x0

 lim
(b) lim

y0

f x, y 
y  f x, y
x 2  4 y 
y  x 2  4y
 lim

y0

y
 lim

y0

4
y
 lim 4  4

y0

47. f x, y  2x  xy  3y
(a) lim

x0

f x 
x, y  f x, y
2x 
x  x 
xy  3y  2x  xy  3y
 lim

x0

x
 lim

x0

(b) lim

y0

2
x 
xy
 lim 2  y  2  y

x0

f x, y 
y  f x, y
2x  x y 
y  3 y 
y  2x  xy  3y
 lim

y0

y
 lim

y0

x
y  3
y
 lim x  3  x  3

y0

51. No.

49. See the definition on page 851.


Show that the value of

lim

x, y x0 , y0 

for two different paths to x0, y0.

f x, y is not the same

The existence of f 2, 3 has no bearing on the existence of


the limit as x, y 2, 3.

Section 12.3
53. Since

lim

x, y a, b

Partial Derivatives

f x, y  L1, then for 2 > 0, there corresponds 1 > 0 such that f x, y  L1 < 2 whenever

0 < x  a2   y  b2 < 1.


Since

lim

x, y a, b

gx, y  L2, then for 2 > 0, there corresponds  2 > 0 such that gx, y  L 2 < 2 whenever

0 < x  a2   y  b2 < 2.


Let  be the smaller of  1 and 2. By the triangle inequality, whenever x  a2   y  b2 < , we have

f x, y  gx, y  L 1  L 2 

 f x, y  L 1  gx, y  L 2 

f x, y  L 1

gx, y  L 2
< 2  2  .
Therefore,

lim

x, y a, b

 f x, y  gx, y  L 1  L 2.

55. True

57. False. Let


f x, y 

nx2  y2,

0,l

x, y  0, 0
x  0, y  0

See Exercise 19.

Section 12.3

Partial Derivatives

1. fx 4, 1 < 0

3. fy 4, 1 > 0

5. f x, y  2x  3y  5
fx x, y  2
fy x, y  3

7.

13.

z  xy
z
 y
x

z
 2x  5y
x

z
 2xe 2y
x

x
z

y 2y

z
 5x  6y
y

z
 2x 2e 2y
y

z  lnx 2  y 2

15.

z
2x

x x 2  y 2

z

4y 2
x2

2y
x

z  ln

xx  yy  lnx  y  lnx  y

z
1
1
2y


 2
x x  y x  y
x  y2

2y
z

y x 2  y 2

17.

11. z  x 2e 2y

9. z  x2  5xy  3y2

z
1
1
2x



y x  y x  y x 2  y 2

19. hx, y  ex

z
2x 4y 2 x 3  4y 3

 2 
x 2y
x
x2y

2 y 2

hx x, y  2xex

2 y 2

hy x, y  2yex

2 y 2

z
8y x 3  16y 3
x2
 2

y
2y
x
2xy 2
21. f x, y  x 2  y 2

23.

z  tan2x  y

fx x, y 

1 2
x
x  y 212 2x 
2
x 2  y 2

z
 2 sec22x  y
x

fy x, y 

1 2
y
x  y 212 2y 
2
x 2  y 2

z
 sec 22x  y
y

83

84

Chapter 12

25.

z  e y sin xy

Functions of Several Variables

27. f x, y 

t 2  1 dt

z
 ye y cos xy
x

z
 ey sin xy  xey cos xy
y

t3  t
3

y3  y  x3  x
3

fx x, y  x  1  1  x 2
2

fy x, y  y 2  1

 ey x cos xy  sin xy

[You could also use the Second Fundamental Theorem of


Calculus.]
29. f x, y  2x  3y
f x  x, y  f x, y
2x  x  3y  2x  3y
2 x
f
 lim
 lim
 lim
2
x0
x0 x
x x0
x
x
f x, y  y  f x, y
2x  3 y  y  2x  3y
3 y
f
 lim
 lim
 lim
3
y0
y0 y
y y0
y
y
31. f x, y  x  y
x  x  y  x  y
f
f x  x, y  f x, y
 lim
 lim
x0
x x0
x
x

 lim

x0

 lim

x0

x  x  y  x  y x  x  y  x  y 
xx  x  y  x  y 
1
x  x  y  x  y

1
2x  y

x  y  y  x  y
f
f x, y  y  f x, y
 lim
 lim
y0
y y0
y
y

 lim

y0

 lim

y0

33. gx, y  4  x 2  y 2

gy x, y  2y
At 1, 1: gy 1, 1  2

1
2x  y

z
 ex sin y
y
z
0
At 0, 0:
y

y
x

39. f x, y 

1
y
y
 2  2
1   y 2x 2
x
x  y2
1
At 2, 2: fx 2, 2 
4

 



1
1
x
 2
1   y 2x 2 x
x  y2
1
At 2, 2: fy 2, 2 
4
fy x, y 

z
 ex cos y
x
z
At 0, 0:
 1
x

At 1, 1: gx 1, 1  2

fx x, y 

1
x  y  y  x  y

35. z  ex cos y

gxx, y  2x

37. f x, y  arctan

x  y  y  x  y x  y  y  x  y 
yx  y  y  x  y

xy
xy

yx  y  xy
y 2

2
x  y
x  y2
1
At 2, 2: fx 2, 2  
4
fx x, y 

xx  y  xy
x2

2
x  y
x  y2
1
At 2, 2: fy 2, 2 
4
fy x, y 

Section 12.3

43. z  9x2  y 2, y  3, 1, 3, 0

41. z  49  x2  y2, x  2,


2, 3, 6
Intersecting curve: z  45  y

Partial Derivatives

Intersecting curve: z  9x 2  9
2

z
 18x
x

y
z

y 45  y 2

z
 181  18
x

At 1, 3, 0:

z
3
1


At 2, 3, 6:
y 45  9
2

y=3
z

x=2
10

160

2
4

x
8
x

45. fx x, y  2x  4y  4, fyx, y  4x  2y  16

47. fx x, y  

1
1
 y, fyx, y   2  x
x2
y

fx  fy  0: 2x  4y  4
fx  fy  0: 

4x  2y  16
Solving for x and y,

1
1
 y  0 and  2  x  0
x2
y
y

x  6 and y  4.

1
1
and x  2
x2
y

y  y4 y  1  x
Points: 1, 1
49. (a) The graph is that of fy.

51.

(b) The graph is that of fx.

55. Hx, y, z  sinx  2y  3z


Hxx, y, z  cosx  2y  3z
Hy x, y, z  2 cosx  2y  3z
Hzx, y, z  3 cosx  2y  3z

57.

w  x 2  y 2  z 2

53. Fx, y, z  ln x 2  y 2  z 2

w
x

x
x 2  y 2  z 2

w
y

y
x 2  y 2  z 2

Fx x, y, z 

x
x2  y2  z2

w
z

z
x 2  y 2  z 2

Fy x, y, z 

y
x2  y2  z2

Fz x, y, z 

z
x2  y2  z2

z  x 2  2xy  3y 2
z
 2x  2y
x

59.

1
lnx 2  y 2  z 2
2

z  x 2  y 2
z
x

x x 2  y 2

2z
2
x2

2z
y2

x2 x 2  y 2 32

2z
 2
yx

xy
 2z

yx x 2  y 2 32

z
 2x  6y
y

z
y

y x 2  y 2

2z
6
y2

2z
x2
 2
2
y
x  y 2 32

 2z
 2
xy

 2z
xy

xy x 2  y 2 32

85

86

61.

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

z  e x tan y

z  arctan

63.

z
 e x tan y
x

1
z
y
y

 2  2
x 1   y 2x 2
x
x  y2

 


 e x tan y
x2
2z

2z
2xy

x2 x 2  y 2 2

2z
 e x sec2 y
yx

 x2  y2  y2y


 2z
y2  x2

 2
2
2
2
yx
x  y 
x  y 22

z
 e x sec2 y
y

1
1
z
x

 2
y 1   y 2x 2 x
x  y2




 2e x sec2 y tan y
y2
2z

2z
2xy

y2 x 2  y 2 2

2z
 e x sec2 y
xy

65.

x 2  y 2  x2x
y 2  x2
2z

 2
2
2
2
xy
x  y 
x  y 22

z  x sec y

z  ln

67.

z
 sec y
x

x

x
 ln x  lnx 2  y 2
 y2

z
y2  x2
1
2x
  2

x
x
x  y 2 xx 2  y 2

2z
0
x2

2z
x 4  4x 2y 2  y 4

2
x
x 2x 2  y 2 2

2z
 sec y tan y
yx

 2z
4xy

yx x2  y 2 2

z
 x sec y tan y
y

z
2y
 2
y
x  y2

2z
 x sec ysec2 y  tan2 y
y2

2z
2 y 2  x 2
 2
y2
x  y 22

2z
 sec y tan y
xy
Therefore,

y
x

2z
4xy

xy x 2  y 2 2

2z
2z

.
yx xy

There are no points for which zx  zy  0.

There are no points for which zx  0  zy, because


z
 sec y  0.
x
69.

f x, y, z  xyz

71.

f x, y, z  ex sin yz

fxx, y, z  yz

fxx, y, z  ex sin yz

fy x, y, z  xz

fy x, y, z  zex cos yz

fyyx, y, z  0

fyyx, y, z  z2ex sin yz

fxyx, y, z  z

fxyx, y, z  zex cos yz

fyxx, y, z  z

fyxx, y, z  zex cos yz

73.

z  5xy
z
 5y
x
 2z
0
x 2
z
 5x
y

fyyxx, y, z  0

fyyxx, y, z  z2ex sin yz

fxyyx, y, z  0

fxyyx, y, z  z2ex sin yz

 2z
0
y 2

fyxyx, y, z  0

fyxyx, y, z  z2ex sin yz

Therefore,

Therefore, fxyy  fyxy  fyyx  0.

Therefore, fxyy  fyxy  fyyx.

 2z  2z

 0  0  0.
x 2 y 2

Section 12.3
z  e x sin y

75.

z  sinx  ct

77.

z
 e x sin y
x

z
 c cosx  ct
t

 2z
 e x sin y
x 2

 2z
 c 2 sinx  ct
t 2

z
 e x cos y
y

z
 cosx  ct
x

 2z
 e x sin y
y 2

 2z
 sinx  ct
x 2

Therefore,

 2z
 2z
 2  e x sin y  e x sin y  0.
2
x
y

z  et cos

79.

Therefore,

x
c

Partial Derivatives

 2z
 2z
 c 2 2.
t 2
x

81. See the definition on page 859.

x
z
 et cos
t
c
x
1
z
  et sin
x
c
c
1
x
 2z
  2 et cos
x 2
c
c
Therefore,

83.

 2z
z
 c 2 2.
t
x

(x0, y0, z 0 )

85. The plane z  x  y  f x, y satisfies

(x0, y0, z 0 )

f
f
> 0 and
> 0.
x
y
z
6

Plane: y = y0

Plane: x = x0

8
x

f
denotes the slope of the surface in the x-direction.
x

f
denotes the slope of the surface in the y-direction.
y
87. (a) C  32xy  175x  205y  1050

yx  175
1
C
 16  175  183
x
4
x
C
 16  205
y
y
C
 16
x

80, 20

C
y

80, 20

 164  205  237

(b) The fireplace-insert stove results in the cost


increasing at a faster rate because
C
C
>
.
y
x

87

88

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables


91.

89. An increase in either price will cause a decrease in


demand.

T  500  0.6x 2  1.5y 2


T
T
 1.2x, 2, 3  2.4m
x
x
T
T
 3y  2, 3  9m
y
y

PV  mRT

93.

T
P

P

95. (a)

T

V
PV
T


mR
P mR

P

mRT
P
mRT
 2

V
V
V

V

mRT
V mR


P
T
P

V

 V  T   mR 
V



97. f x, y 

mRT
V2

z
 1.83
x
z
 1.09
x

(b) As the consumption of skim milk x increases,


the consumption of whole milk z decreases.
Similarly, as the consumption of reduced-fat milk
 y increases, the consumption of whole milk z
decreases.

mRP

mRT
mRT

 1
VP
mRT

xyx 2  y 2
,
x2  y2
0,

x, y 0, 0
x, y  0, 0

(a) fxx, y 

x 2  y 23x 2y  y 3  x3 y  xy 32x y x 4  4x 2y 2  y 4



x 2  y 22
x 2  y 22

fyx, y 

x 2  y 2x3  3xy 2  x3y  xy 32y x x 4  4x 2 y 2  y 4



x 2  y 22
x 2  y 22

(b) fx0, 0  lim

x0

f x, 0  f 0, 0
0x 2  0
 lim
0
x0
x
x

0y 2  0
f 0, y  f 0, 0
 lim
0
y0
y0
y
y

fy0, 0  lim


 

(c) fxy0, 0 

 f
y x

0, 0

fyx0, 0 

 f
x y

0, 0

 

 lim

y0

 lim

fx0, y  fx0, 0


y  y4
 lim
 lim 1  1
y0 y22y
y0
y
fyx, 0  fy0, 0

x0

x

 lim

x0

x x4
 lim 1  1
x22x x0

(d) fyx or fxy or both are not continuous at 0, 0.


99. True

Section 12.4
1.

101. True

Differentials

z  3x 2y 3

3. z 

dz  6xy 3 dx  9x 2 y 2 dy
dz 


1
x2  y2
2x
2y
dx  2
dy
x 2  y 2 2
x  y 2 2
2
x dx  y dy
x 2  y 22

Section 12.4

Differentials

89

5. z  x cos y  y cos x
dz  cos y  y sin x dx  x sin y  cos x dy  cos y  y sin x dx  x sin y  cos x dy
7. z  e x sin y

w  2z 3 y sin x

9.

dz  e x sin y dx  e x cos y dy

dw  2z 3 y cos x dx  2z3 sin x dy  6z 2 y sin x dz

11. (a) f 1, 2  4

13. (a) f 1, 2  sin 2

f 1.05, 2.1  3.4875

f 1.05, 2.1  1.05 sin 2.1

z  f 1.05, 2.1  f 1, 2  0.5125

z  f 1.05, 2.1  f 1, 2 0.00293

(b) dz  2x dx  2y dy

(b) dz  sin y dx  x cos y dy

 20.05  40.1  0.5

 sin 20.05  cos 20.1 0.00385

15. (a) f 1, 2  5


f 1.05, 2.1  5.25
z  0.25
(b) dz  3 dx  4 dy
 30.05  40.1 0.25

17. Let z  x 2  y 2, x  5, y  3, dx  0.05, dy  0.1. Then: dz 


5.052  3.12  52  32

5
52  32

0.05 

x
x 2  y 2

3
52  32

0.1 

19. Let z  1  x 2y 2, x  3, y  6, dx  0.05, dy  0.05. Then: dz  

dx 
0.55

34

y
x 2  y 2

dy

0.094

21  x 2
2x
dx 
dy
y2
y3

1  3.052 1  32
23
21  32

 2 0.05 
0.05 0.012
2
2
5.95
6
6
63
21. See the definition on page 869.

25.

23. The tangent plane to the surface z  f x, y at the point P


is a linear approximation of z.

A  lh
dA  l dh  h dl
h

dA

dA

dA
l

r 2h
3

r

h

r3

0.1

0.1

4.7124

4.8391

0.1267

h6

0.1

0.1

2.8274

2.8264

0.0010

0.0565

0.0566

0.0001

0.0019

0.0019

0.0000

27. V 

dV 

r2

r
2
rh
dr 
dh 
2h dr  r dh
3
3
3

0.001

0.002

0.0001

0.0002

dV

V

V  dV

90

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

29. (a) dz  1.83 dx  1.09 dy


z
z
dx 
dy
x
y

(b) dz 

 1.83 0.25  1.09 0.25


 0.73
Maximum propagated error: 0.73
Relative error:

31.

0.73
0.73
dz


0.1166  11.67%
z
1.837.2  1.098.5  28.7
6.259

V 
r 2h  dV  2
rh dr  
r 2 dh
dr dh
dV
2 
V
r
h
 20.04  0.02  0.10  10%

1
33. A  2 ab sin C

dA  12 b sin C da  a sin C db  ab cos C dC


1
 12 4sin 45 16
  3sin 45 161   12cos 45 0.02 0.24 in.2

35. (a) V 

1
bhl
2

 18 sin

b
2

18 cos 21612

18

 31,104 sin in.3

18

 18 sin ft3
V is maximum when sin  1 or 
2.
(b) V 

s2
sin l
2

dV  ssin l ds 

 18 sin

s2
s2
l cos  d  sin  dl
2
2

1
182

1612

1612 cos
2
2
2
2



 1809 in3 1.047 ft3

37.

P
dP 

E2
R
E2
2E
dE  2 dR
R
R

dP
dE dR
2

 20.02  0.03  0.07  7%
P
E
R

90
  182 sin
2 12
2

Section 12.4

39. L  0.00021 ln

dL  0.00021

dh

2h
 0.75
r


dr
 1100  116
 0.00021

 6.6 106
r
100
2

L  0.00021ln 100  0.75 8.096 104 dL  8.096 104 6.6 106 microhenrys
41.

z  f x, y  x2  2x  y
z  f x  x, y  y  f x, y
 x2  2xx  x2  2x  2x  y  y  x2  2x  y
 2xx  x2  2x  y
 2x  2 x  y  xx  0y
 fxx, y x  fyx, y y  1x  2y where 1  x and 2  0.
As x, y 0, 0, 1 0 and 2 0.

43.

z  f x, y  x2y
z  f x  x, y  y  f x, y
 x2  2xx  x2 y  y  x2y
 2xyx  yx2  x2y  2xxy  x2 y
 2xyx  x2y   yx x  2xx  x2 y
 fxx, y x  fyx, y y  1x  2y where 1  yx and 2  2xx  x2.
As x, y 0, 0, 1 0 and 2 0.

45. f x, y 

3x2y , x, y 0, 0


 y2
0,
x, y  0, 0

x4

0
0
f x, 0  f 0, 0
x4
(a) fx0, 0  lim
 lim
0
x0
x0
x
x
0
0
f 0, y  f 0, 0
y2
fy0, 0  lim
 lim
0
y0
y0
y
y
Thus, the partial derivatives exist at 0, 0.
(b) Along the line y  x:

lim

x, y 0, 0

Along the curve y  x2:

lim

f x, y  lim

x, y 0, 0

x 0 x 4

f x, y 

3x3
3x
 lim
0
 x2 x 0 x2  1

3x 4 3

2x 4 2

f is not continuous at 0, 0. Therefore, f is not differentiable at 0, 0. (See Theroem 12.5)
47. Essay. For example, we can use the equation F  ma:
dF 

F
F
dm 
da  a dm  m da.
m
a

Differentials

91

92

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

Section 12.5
1.

Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables

w  x2  y2

w  x sec y

3.

x  et

x  et

y  et

yt

dw
 2xet  2yet   2e2t  e2t 
dt

dw
 sec yet   x sec y tan y1
dt
 et sec  t1  tan  t
 et sec t  sec t tan t

5. w  xy, x  2 sin t, y  cos t


(a)

dw
 2y cos t  xsin t  2y cos t  x sin t
dt
 2cos2 t  sin2 t  2 cos 2t

(b) w  2 sin t cos t  sin 2t,

dw
 2 cos 2t
dt

7. w  x2  y2  z2
x  et cos t
y  et sin t
z  et
(a)

dw
 2xet sin t  et cos t  2yet cos t  et sin t  2zet  4e2t
dt

(b) w  2e2t,

dw
 4e2t
dt

9. w  xy  xz  yz, x  t  1, y  t 2  1, z  t
(a)

dw
 y  z  x  z2t  x  y
dt
 t 2  1  t  t  1  12t  t  1  t 2  1  32t 2  1

(b)

w  t  1t 2  1  t  1t  t 2  1t


dw
 2tt  1  t 2  1  2t  1  3t 2  1  32t 2  1
dt

11. Distance  f t  x1  x22   y1  y2 2  10 cos 2t  7 cos t2  6 sin 2t  4 sin t2
1
ft  10 cos 2t  7 cos t2  6 sin 2t  4 sin t212
2

210 cos 2t  7 cos t20 sin 2t  7 sin t  26 sin 2t  4 sin t12 cos 2t  4 cos t
f

2
 21 10

 42122107  2412

22
1129
1

 1161244 
 2.04
2
229
20

Section 12.5

Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables

13. w  arctan2xy, x  cos t, y  sin t, t  0


dw w dx w dy


dt
x dt
y dt


2y
2x
sin t 
cos t
1  4x2y2
1  4x2y2

2 cos t
2 sin t
sin t 
cos t
1  4 cos2 t sin2 t
1  4 cos2 t sin2 t

2 cos2 t  2 sin2 t
1  4 cos2 t sin2 t

d 2w 1  4 cos2 t sin2 t8 cos t sin t  2 cos2 t  2 sin2 t8 cos3 t sin t  8 sin3 t cos t

dt 2
1  4 cos2 t sin2 t2

At t  0,

15.

8 cos t sin t1  2 sin4 t  2 cos 4 t


1  4 cos2 t sin2 t2

d 2w
 0.
dt 2

w  x2  y2

17. w  x2  y2

xst

x  s cos t

yst

y  s sin t

w
 2x  2y  2x  y  4s
s
w
 2x  2y1  2x  y  4t
t
When s  2 and t  1,
w
w
 8 and
 4.
s
t
19. w  x2  2xy  y2, x  r  , y  r  
(a)

w
 2x  2y1  2x  2y1  0
r
w
 2x  2y1  2x  2y1

 4x  4y  4x  y
 4r    r    8

(b)

w  r  2  2r  r    r  2


 r 2  2r  2  2r 2  2  r 2  2r  2
 4 2
w
0
r
w
 8


w
 2x cos t  2y sin t
s
 2s cos2 t  2s sin2 t  2s cos 2t
w
 2xs sin t  2ys cos t  2s2 sin 2t
t
When s  3 and t 

w
 w
,
 0 and
 18.
4 s
t

93

94

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

y
21. w  arctan , x  r cos , y  r sin 
x
(a)

y
x
r sin  cos  r cos  sin 
w
 2
cos   2
sin  

0
r
x  y2
x  y2
r2
r2
w
y
x
 r sin r sin  r cos r cos 
 2
r sin   2
r cos  

1

x  y2
x  y2
r2
r2

(b)

w  arctan

r sin 
 arctantan   
r cos 

w
0
r
w
1

23. w  xyz, x  s  t, y  s  t, z  st2
w
 yz1  xz1  xyt2
s
 s  tst2  s  tst2  s  ts  tt2
 2s2t2  s2t2  t4  3s2t2  t4  t23s2  t2
w
 yz1  xz1  xy2st
t
 s  tst2  s  tst2  s  ts  t2st
 2st3  2s3t  2st3  2s3t  4st3  2sts2  2t2

25. w  ze xy, x  s  t, y  s  t, z  st
w
zx
z
 e xy1   2 e xy1  e xyt
s
y
y

s st t  ss  ttst  t

 estst

sts  t  sst  tst


2

 estst
 estst

 estst
 estst

3y  2x  2
2y  3x  1

31. Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z2  25

w
zx
z
 e xy1   2 e xy1  e xys
t
y
y

Fxx, y
2x  3y  2
dy


dx
Fyx, y
3x  2y  1

 ts  t2

ts2  4st  t2


s  t2

 estst 

27. x2  3xy  y2  2x  y  5  0

st
sts  t

s
st
s  t2

sts  t  sts  t  ss  t2


s  t2

ss2  t2
s  t2

29. ln x2  y2  xy  4
1
lnx2  y2  xy  4  0
2
x
y
Fxx, y
x  x2y  y3
dy
x2  y2



dx
Fyx, y
y
y  xy2  x3
x
2
2
x y
33. Fx, y, z  tanx  y  tan y  z  1

Fx  2x

Fx  sec2x  y

Fy  2y

Fy  sec2x  y  sec2 y  z

Fz  2z

Fz  sec2 y  z

Fx
x
z
 
x
Fz
z

Fx
z
sec2x  y
  2
x
Fz
sec  y  z

Fy
z
y
 
y
Fz
z

Fy
sec2x  y  sec2 y  z
z
 
y
Fz
sec2 y  z


sec x  y
 1

sec
 y  z
2

Section 12.5

37. exz  xy  0

35. x 2  2yz  z2  1  0
(i) 2x  2y
(ii) 2y

Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables

Fxx, y, z
z
zexz  y


x
Fzx, y, z
xexz

z
z
x
z
 2z
 0 implies

.
x
x
x
yz

Fyx, y, z
z
x
1

 xz  xz  exz
y
Fzx, y, z
xe
e

z
z
z
z
 2z  2z
 0 implies

.
y
y
y
yz

41. Fx, y, z, w  cos xy  sin yz  wz  20

39. Fx, y, z, w  xyz  xzw  yzw  w2  5


Fx  yz  zw

w Fx y sin xy


x
Fw
z

Fy  xz  zw

w Fy x sin xy  z cos yz




y
Fw
z

Fz  xy  xw  yw
Fw  xz  yz  2w

w Fz
y cos zy  w


z
Fw
z

Fx
zy  w
w
 
x
Fw
xz  yz  2w
Fy
zx  w
w
 
y
Fw
xz  yz  2w
Fz
xy  xw  yw
w
 
z
Fw
xz  yz  2w

43. f x, y 
f tx, ty 

xy
x2  y2

txty

t

tx2  ty2

xy
x2  y2

 tf x, y

Degree: 1
x fxx, y  y fyx, y  x


45.

x

y3
x3
y 2
 y232
x  y232

xy
x2  y2

 1 f x, y

f x, y  exy

47.

f tx, ty  etxty  exy  f x, y

dw w dx w dy
(Page 876)


dt
x dt
y dt

Degree: 0
x fxx, y  y fyx, y  x

1y e
 y  yx e
 0
xy

xy

49. w  f x, y is the explicit form of a function of two variables, as in z  x2  y2.


The implicit form is of the form F x, y, z  0, as in z  x2  y2  0.

51.

1

A  bh  x sin
2
2

x cos 2
 x2 sin 
2

b
2

dx x2
d
dA
 x sin 
 cos 
dt
dt
2
dt


 6 sin
4

1
62


cos
2
2
4


32 2 2


m hr
90
2
10

95

96

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

1
V   r 2h
3

53. (a)

dr
1
dV 1
dh
  212366  1224  1536 in.3min
  2rh  r 2
dt
3
dt
dt
3
S   rr 2  h2   r 2 (Surface area includes base.)

(b)


144
3612
  12  36 
 212
6 
4
12  36
12  36
12
36
  12 10 
6  144 
4
10

10

dS

dt

r 2  h2 


55.

I

r2
rh
dh
dr
 2r

dt
r 2  h2
r 2  h2 dt
2

36
648
 144 in.2min 
 20  910  in.2min
5
10

1
mr12  r22
2

dr1
dr2
dI 1
 m 2r1
 2r2
 m62  82  28m cm2sec
dt
2
dt
dt

tan 

2
x

tan   

4
x

57. (a)

8
6
4

tan   tan
4

1  tan  tan
x

tan   2x
4

1  2xtan 
x
x tan   2  4 

8
tan 
x

x2 tan   2x  8 tan   0
(b) Fx,   x2  8tan   2x  0
Fx
d
2x tan   2
2 cos2   2x sin  cos 
  2

2
dx
F
sec x  8
x2  8
(c)

d
1
 0 2 cos2   2x sin  cos  cos   x sin  tan  
dx
x
Thus, x2

59.

1x
 2x  8 1x
 0 8x  x x  22 ft.

w  f x, y
xuv
yvu
w dy
w w
w w dx




u
x du
y du
x
y
w w
w w dx w dy




v
x dv
y dv
x
y
w w

0
u
v

Section 12.5
61.

Chain Rules for Functions of Several Variables

w  f x, y, x  r cos , y  r sin 


w w
w

cos  
sin 
r
x
y
w
w w

r sin  
r cos 

x
y
(a)

r cos 

r cos 

w w
w

r cos2  
r sin  cos 
r
x
y

sin 

w w
w

r sin2  
r sin  cos 

x
x

w
w w
 sin 

r cos2   r sin2 
r

x
r

w
w w

r cos  
sin 
x
r

w w
w sin 

cos  
x
r
 r

r sin 
cos 
r sin 

w w
w

r sin  cos  
r sin2 
r
x
y
w w
w

r sin  cos  
r cos2 

x
y

w
w w
 cos 

r sin2   r cos2 
r

y
r

w
w w

r sin  
cos 
y
r

w cos 
w w

sin  
y
r
 r

(b)

w
r

1 w
r 2 

cos

 w
x

63. Given

2

w w
w
sin  cos  
x y
y

w w
w
sin  cos  
x y
y


cos
2



u u
u
v
v

cos  
sin  
cos  
sin 
r
x
y
y
x

Therefore,

u 1 v

.
r
r 

v v
v
u
u

cos  
sin    cos  
sin 
r
x
y
y
x
u
u
u
u u
 r sin   r cos   r  cos  
sin 

x
y
y
x

Therefore,

1 u
v

.
r
r 

sin2  

w
x

w


w
x

y

u v
u
v

and
  , x  r cos  and y  r sin .
x
y
y
x

v
v
v
v
v
 r sin  
r cos   r
cos  
sin 
 x
y
y
x

sin2  

97

98

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

Section 12.6
1.

Directional Derivatives and Gradients

f x, y  3x  4xy  5y
v

3.

vij

1
 i  3 j
2

f x, y  yi  xj

f x, y  3  4yi  4x  5j

f 2, 3  3i  2j

f 1, 2  5i  j

u

3
1
v
 i
j
u
v 2
2

gx, y  x2  y2

7.

g3, 4 

v  i
h  e x sin yi  e x cos yj

y
x
i
j
2
2
2
x  y
x  y2

 2   ei

h 1,

3
4
i j
5
5

u

3
4
v
 i j
u
v 5
5

 2   h1, 2   u  e

f x, y, z  xy  yz  xz

11.

hx, y, z  x arctan yz
v 
1, 2, 1

v  2i  j  k
f x, y, z   y  zi  x  zj  x  yk
f 1, 1, 1  2i  2j  2k
u

v
 i
v

Duh 1,

7
Du g3, 4  g3, 4  u  
25
9.

52
2

hx, y  e x sin y

v  3i  4j
g 

2
2
v

i
j
v
2
2

Du f 2, 3  f 2, 3  u 

1
 5  3 
2

Du f 1, 2  f 1, 2  u 

5.

f x, y  xy

6
6
6
v

i
j
k
v
3
6
6

Du f 1, 1, 1  f 1, 1, 1  u 

hx, y, z  arctan yz i 
h4, 1, 1 

26
3

u

xz
xy
j
k
1   yz2
1   yz2


i  2j  2k
4

v
2
1
1

,
,
v
6 6
6

Du h4, 1, 1  h4, 1, 1  u 

1
2

i

  8   86

24
46

15. f x, y  sin2x  y

13. f x, y  x2  y2
u

1
2

u

f  2 cos2x  y i  cos2x  y j

f  2x i  2y j
Du f  f  u 

3
1
i
j
2
2

2
2

x

2
2

y  2 x  y

Du f  f  u  cos2x  y 


2 2 3 cos2x  y


3

cos2x  y

Section 12.6

v  3i  3j  k

v  2i  2j
f  2x i  8yj

h 

v
1
1
i
j

v
2
2

Du f  

2
2

x

8
2

y   2x  4y

u

w  3x2y  5yz  z2

27.

5

i

Du g  g  u 

1
5

31.

1
5

i

2
5

2
8
10


 25
5
5
5

hx, y  x tan y
hx, y  tan yi  x sec2 yj

f x, y  ex cos yi  ex sin yj

 4   i  4j

f 0, 0  i

h 2,

Du f  f  u  

37.

PQ  2i  4j, u 

gx, y  2xi  2yj, g1, 2  2i  4j

w1, 1, 2  6i  13j  9k

2
5



3 x2  y2 
gx, y  ln 

25
5

1
lnx2  y2
3

gx, y 

1
2x
2y
i 2
j
3 x2  y2
x  y2

g1, 2 

1 2
4
2
i j 
i  2j
3 5
5
15

g1, 2 

719
19

z3, 4  6 sin 25i  8 sin 25j 0.7941i  1.0588j

wx, y, z  6xyi  3x2  5zj  2z  5yk

33.

zx, y  2x sinx2  y2i  2y sinx2  y2j

f 2, 1  3i  10j

PQ  2i  j, u 

7
19

z  cosx2  y2

23.

f x, y  3i  10yj

29.

v
1
3i  3j  k

v 19

Du h  h  u 

f x, y  3x  5y2  10

25.

1
i  j  k
xyz

At 1, 0, 0, h  i  j  k.

At P  3, 1, Du f  72.

21.

99

19. hx, y, z  lnx  y  z

17. f x, y  x2  4y2

u

Directional Derivatives and Gradients

25
15

f x, y, z  xeyz
f x, y, z  eyz i  xzeyz j  xyeyz k
f 2, 0, 4  i  8j
f 2, 0, 4  65

 h2, 4   
35.

17

f x, y, z  x2  y2  z2
f x, y, z 
f 1, 4, 2 

1
x2  y2  z2

1
21

f 1, 4, 2  1

xi  yj  zk

i  4j  2k

100

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

For Exercises 3945, f x, y  3 

39. f x, y  3 





x
y
1
1
 and D f x, y  
cos  
sin .
3 2
3
2

x
y

3 2

41. (a) D43 f 3, 2  

(3, 2, 1)


6

13 21  12 23 




2  33
12

(b) D6 f 3, 2  

9
x

v  3i  4j

43. (a)

(b)

v  9  16  5

13 23   12 21




3  23
12

v  i  3j
v  10

3
4
u i j
5
5
1 2
1
Du f  f  u    
5 5
5

u

1
10

i

Du f  f  u 

3
10

11
1110

60

6 10

45. f   19  14  1613


For Exercises 47 and 49, f x, y  9  x2  y2 and D f x, y  2x cos   2y sin   2x cos   y sin .
47. f x, y  9  x2  y2

49.

f 1, 2  4  16  20  25

z
9

(1, 2, 4)

51. (a) In the direction of the vector 4i  j.


1
1
(b) f  10 2x  3yi  10 3x  2yj
1
1
1
f 1, 2  10
4i  10
1j   25 i  10
j

(Same direction as in part (a).)


2

(c) f  5 i  10 j, the direction opposite that of the gradient.


53. f x, y  x2  y2, 4, 3, 7
z

(a)

f 1, 2  2i  4j

x
y

CONTINUED

Section 12.6

Directional Derivatives and Gradients

101

53. CONTINUED
(b) Du f x, y  f x, y  u  2x cos  2y sin
Du f 4, 3  8 cos  6 sin
y
12
8
4

8
12

Generated by Mathematica

(c) Zeros: 2.21, 5.36


These are the angles for which Du f 4, 3 equals zero.
(d) g   Du f 4, 3  8 cos  6 sin
g
   8 sin  6 cos
Critical numbers: 0.64, 3.79
These are the angles for which Du f 4, 3 is a maximum 0.64 and minimum 3.79.
(e) f 4, 3  24i  23j  64  36  10, the maximum value of Du f 4, 3, at  0.64.
(f )

f x, y  x2  y2  7

f 4, 3  8i  6j is perpendicular to the level curve at 4, 3.

6
4
2

6 4

4
6

Generated by Mathematica

57. f x, y 

55. f x, y  x2  y2
c  25, P  3, 4

x
x2  y2

f x, y  2xi  2yj

1
c  , P  1, 1
2

x2  y2  25

f x, y 

f 3, 4  6i  8j

y2  x2
2xy
i 2
j
x2  y22
x  y22

1
x

x2  y2 2
x2  y2  2x  0
1
f 1, 1   j
2

59. 4x2  y  6

61. 9x2  4y2  40

f x, y  4x2  y

12

f x, y  8xi  j

f x, y  9x2  4y2

f x, y  18xi  8yj

f 2, 10  16i  j

f 2, 1  36i  8j

f 2, 10
1

16i  j
f 2, 10 257

f 2, 1
1

9i  2j
f 2, 1 85

257

257

16i  j

85

85

9i  2j

4
2
4

102

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

x
x2  y2

63. T 

T 

65. See the definition, page 885.

y2  x2
2xy
i 2
j
x2  y22
x  y22

T3, 4 

7
24
1
i
j
7i  24j
625
625
625

67. Let f x, y be a function of two variables and


u  cos i  sin j a unit vector.

69.
3

f
.
x

(a) If  0 , then Du f 

(b) If  90 , then Du f 

f
.
y

3
x

73. T x, y  400  2x2  y2,

71.

18

00

1671

P  10, 10

dx
 4x
dt

dy
 2y
dt

xt  C1e4t

yt  C2e2t

10  x0  C1

10  y0  C2

xt 

yt  10e2t

1994

A
18

00

x

10e4t

y2
10

y2t  100e4t

y2  10x
75. (a)

(b) The graph of D  250  30x2  50 sin y2


would model the ocean floor.

D
400
300

1
2
x

1
2
y

(c) D1, 0.5  250  301  50 sin


(e)


315.4 ft
4

D
D
y

and
1, 0.5  25 cos 55.5
 25 cos
y
2
y
4

(d)

D
D
 60x and
1, 0.5  60
x
x

(f ) D  60x i  25 cos

2yj

D1, 0.5  60i  55.5j


77. True

81. Let f x, y, z  ex cos y 

79. True
z2
 C. Then f x, y, z  ex cos yi  ex sin yj  zk.
2

Section 12.7

Section 12.7

Tangent Planes and Normal Lines

Tangent Planes and Normal Lines

1. Fx, y, z  3x  5y  3z  15  0

3. Fx, y, z  4x2  9y2  4z2  0

3x  5y  3z  15 Plane

4x2  9y2  4z2 Elliptic cone

5. Fx, y, z  x  y  z  4

7.

F  i  j  k
n

Fx, y, z 

F
1

i  j  k
F  3


3

Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z

i  j  k

n

F
5 3
4

i jk
F  52 5
5

Fx, y, z  x2y4  z

11.

Fx, y, z  2xy4 i  4x2y3j  k


F
1

32i  32j  k
F  2049


2049

2049

n

32i  32j  k


1
F 6, , 7   i  33 j  k
6
2

F
2
1

 i  33 j  k
F  113
2




15.

1
113
113

113

 i  63 j  2k
 i  63 j  2k

f x, y  25  x2  y2, 3, 1, 15


Fx, y, z  25  x2  y2  z
Fxx, y, z  2x
Fx3, 1, 15  6

Fyx, y, z  2y
Fy3, 1, 15  2

Fzx, y, z  1
Fz3, 1, 15  1

6x  3  2 y  1  z  15  0
0  6x  2y  z  35
6x  2y  z  35

3i  4j  5k

y x z  ln x  ln y  z

F
1

i  j  k
F  3

Fx, y, z  sin yi  x cos yj  k

n

10

3i  4j  5k

F1, 4, 3  i  j  k

Fx, y, z  x sin y  z  4

2

Fx, y, z  ln

13.

1
52

1
1
1
Fx, y, z  i 
j
k
x
yz
yz

F1, 2, 16  32i  32j  k


n

x
y
i
jk
2
2
x  y2
y

3
4
F3, 4, 5  i  j  k
5
5

9.

x2

3

i  j  k

103

104
17.

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

f x, y  x2  y2, 3, 4, 5


Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z
Fxx, y, z 
Fx3, 4, 5 

Fyx, y, z 

x2  y2

3
5

Fy3, 4, 5 

Fzx, y, z  1

x2  y2

4
5

Fz3, 4, 5  1

3
4
x  3   y  4  z  5  0
5
5
3x  3  4 y  4  5z  5  0
3x  4y  5z  0
19.

gx, y  x2  y2, 5, 4, 9


Gx, y, z  x2  y2  z
Gxx, y, z  2x

Gyx, y, z  2y

Gzx, y, z  1

Gx5, 4, 9  10

Gy5, 4, 9  8

Gz5, 4, 9  1

10x  5  8y  4  z  9  0
10x  8y  z  9
z  exsin y  1,

21.

0, 2 , 2

Fx, y, z  exsin y  1  z
Fxx, y, z  exsin y  1

Fyx, y, z  ex cos y


Fx 0, , 2  2
2


Fy 0, , 2  0
2

Fzx, y, z  1


Fz 0, , 2  1
2

2x  z  2
23.

hx, y  ln x2  y2, 3, 4, ln 5


Hx, y, z  ln x2  y2  z 
Hxx, y, z 
Hx3, 4, ln 5 

x
x2  y2
3
25

1
lnx2  y2  z
2
Hyx, y, z 

Hy3, 4, ln 5 

y
x2  y2
4
25

Hzx, y, z  1
Hz3, 4, ln 5  1

3
4
x  3   y  4  z  ln 5  0
25
25
3x  3  4 y  4  25z  ln 5  0
3x  4y  25z  251  ln 5
25. x2  4y2  z2  36, 2, 2, 4
Fx, y, z  x2  4y2  z2  36
Fxx, y, z  2x
Fx2, 2, 4  4

Fyx, y, z  8y
Fy2, 2, 4  16

4x  2  16 y  2  8z  4  0

x  2  4 y  2  2z  4  0
x  4y  2z  18

Fzx, y, z  2z
Fz2, 2, 4  8

Section 12.7
27. xy2  3x  z2  4, 2, 1, 2
Fx, y, z  xy2  3x  z2  4
Fxx, y, z  y2  3

Fyx, y, z  2xy

Fx2, 1, 2  4

Fzx, y, z  2z

Fy2, 1, 2  4

FZ2, 1, 2  4

4x  2  4 y  1  4z  2  0
xyz1
29. x2  y2  z  9, 1, 2, 4
Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z  9
Fxx, y, z  2x

Fyx, y, z  2y

Fzx, y, z  1

Fx1, 2, 4  2

Fy1, 2, 4  4

Fz1, 2, 4  1

Direction numbers: 2, 4, 1
Plane: 2x  1  4 y  2  z  4  0, 2x  4y  z  14
Line:

x1 y2 z4




2
4
1

31. xy  z  0, 2, 3, 6


Fx, y, z  xy  z
Fxx, y, z  y
Fx2, 3, 6  3

Fyx, y, z  x
Fy2, 3, 6  2

Fzx, y, z  1
Fz2, 3, 6  1

Direction numbers: 3, 2, 1
Plane: 3x  2  2 y  3  z  6  0, 3x  2y  z  6
Line:

x2 y3 z6




3
2
1

y
33. z  arctan ,
x

1, 1, 4 

Fx, y, z  arctan
Fxx, y, z 

Fx 1, 1,

y
z
x

y
x2  y2


1

4
2

Fyx, y, z 

Fy 1, 1,

x
x2  y2


1

4
2

Fzx, y, z  1

Direction numbers: 1, 1, 2

Plane: x  1   y  1  2 z 
Line:

x  1 y  1 z  4


1
1
2



 0, x  y  2z 
4
2

Fz 1, 1,


 1
4

Tangent Planes and Normal Lines

105

106

Chapter 12

35. z  f x, y 

Functions of Several Variables

4xy
, 2 x z, 0 y 3
x2  1 y2  1

(a) Let Fx, y, z 


Fx, y, z 


y2

4xy
z
x2  1 y2  1
4y x2  1  2x2
4x y2  1  2y2
i 2
jk
2
2
 1 x  1
x  1  y2  12

y2

4y1  x2
4x1  y2
i 2
jk
2
2
 1x  1
x  1 y2  12

F1, 1, 1  k.
Direction numbers: 0, 0, 1.
Line: x  1, y  1, z  1  t
Tangent plane: 0x  1  0 y  1  1z  1  0 z  1

(b) F 1, 2, 

4
43
6
jk
 0i 
jk
5
252
25

Line: x  1, y  2 

6
4
t, z    t
25
5

6
4
y  2  1 z 
0
25
5

Plane: 0x  1 

6y  12  25z  20  0
6y  25z  32  0
(c)

z
1

1
2

2
x

(d) At 1, 1, 1, the tangent plane is parallel to the xy-plane,


implying that the surface is level there. At  1, 2,  45 ,
the function does not change in the x-direction.

2
2

3
y

37. Fxx0, y0, z0x  x0  Fyx0, y0, z0y  y0  F2x0, y0, z0z  z0  0
(Theorem 12.13)
39.

Fx, y, z  x2  y2  5

Gx, y, z  x  z

Fx, y, z  2x i  2y j

Gx, y, z  i  k

F2, 1, 2  4i  2j

i
(a) F G  4
1

j
2
0

k
0  2i  4j  2k  2i  2j  k
1

Direction numbers: 1, 2, 1,


(b) cos  

41.

G2, 1, 2  i  k

x2 y1 z2




1
2
1

10
F  G
4
2



; not orthogonal
F  G 202 10
5

Fx, y, z  x2  z2  25
F  2x i  2z k
F3, 3, 4  6i  8k
CONTINUED

Gx, y, z  y2  z2  25
G  2yj  2zk
G3, 3, 4  6j  8k

Section 12.7

Tangent Planes and Normal Lines

41. CONTINUED
i
(a) F G  6
0

j
0
6

k
8  48i  48j  36k  124i  4j  3k
8

Direction numbers: 4, 4, 3,


(b) cos  

43.

x3 y3 z4




4
4
3

64
F  G
16

 ; not orthogonal
F  G 1010 25

Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z2  6

Gx, y, z  x  y  z

Fx, y, z  2x i  2yj  2zk

Gx, y, z  i  j  k

F2, 1, 1  4i  2j  2k

G2, 1, 1  i  j  k

i
(a) F G  4
1

j
2
1

k
2  6j  6k  6 j  k
1

Direction numbers: 0, 1, 1, x  2,

45. f x, y  6  x2 

(b) cos  

F  G
 0; orthogonal
F  G

y1 z1

1
1

y2
, gx, y  2x  y
4

(a) Fx, y, z  z  x2 
Fx, y, z  2x i 

y2
6
4

Gx, y, z  z  2x  y

1
yj  k
2

Gx, y, z  2i  j  k
G1, 2, 4  2i  j  k

F1, 2, 4  2i  j  k

The cross product of these gradients is parallel to the curve of intersection.


F1, 2, 4 G1, 2, 4 

i
2
2

j
1
1

k
1  2i  4j
1

Using direction numbers 1, 2, 0, you get x  1  t, y  2  2t, z  4.


cos  
(b)

4  1  1 4
F  G



48.2

F G
6
6 6

z
8

(1, 2, 4)

6
8

47. Fx, y, z  3x2  2y2  z  15, 2, 2, 5

49. Fx, y, z  x2  y2  z, 1, 2, 3

Fx, y, z  6xi  4yj  k

Fx, y, z  2xi  2yj  k

F2, 2, 5  12i  8j  k

F1, 2, 3  2i  4j  k

cos  

F2, 2, 5  k 
F2, 2, 5

  arccos

1
209

86.03

209

cos  

F1, 2, 3  k 
F1, 2, 3

  arccos

1
21

77.40

21

107

108
51.

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

Fx, y, z  3  x2  y2  6y  z

53. Tx, y, z  400  2x2  y2  4z2, 4, 3, 10

Fx, y, z  2xi  2y  6j  k


2x  0, x  0

2y  6  0, y  3
8

z  3  02  32  63  12

0, 3, 12 (vertex of paraboloid)


8

dx
 4kx
dt

dy
 2ky
dt

dz
 8kz
dt

xt  C1e4kt

yt  C2e2kt

zt  C3e8kt

x0  C1  4

y0  C2  3

z0  C3  10

x  4e4kt

y  3e2kt

z  10e8kt

x
8
y

55. Fx, y, z 

x2
y2
z2
 2 21
2
a
b
c

57. Fx, y, z  a2x2  b2y2  z2


Fxx, y, z  2a2x

2x
Fxx, y, z  2
a
Fyx, y, z 

Fyx, y, z  2b2y
Fzx, y, z  2z

2y
b2

Plane: 2a2x0x  x0  2b2y0 y  y0  2z0z  z0  0

2z
Fzx, y, z  2
c
Plane:

a2x0x  b2y0y  z0z  a2x02  b2y02  z02  0


Hence, the plane passes through the origin.

2y
2z
2x0
x  x0  20  y  y0  20 z  z0  0
a2
b
c
x0x y0 y z0z x02 y02 z02
 2  2  2  2  2 1
a2
b
c
a
b
c

59. f x, y  exy


fxx, y  exy,

fyx, y  exy

fxxx, y  exy,

fyyx, y  exy,

fxyx, y  exy

(a) P1x, y
f 0, 0  fx0, 0x  fy0, 0y  1  x  y
1
1
(b) P2x, y
f 0, 0  fx0, 0x  fy0,0y  2 fxx0, 0x2  fxy0, 0xy  2 fyy0, 0y2

 1  x  y  12 x2  xy  12 y2
1
(c) If x  0, P20, y  1  y  2 y2. This is the seconddegree Taylor polynomial for ey.
1
If y  0, P2x, 0  1  x  2 x2. This is the seconddegree Taylor polynomial for ex.

(d)

f x, y

P1x, y

P2x, y

0.9048

0.9000

0.9050

0.2

0.1

1.1052

1.1000

1.1050

0.2

0.5

0.7408

0.7000

0.7450

0.5

1.6487

1.5000

1.6250

(e)

f
z

P2
P1

2
x

2
1
2

61. Given w  Fx, y, z where F is differentiable at

x0, y0, z0 and Fx0, y0, z0 0,


the level surface of F at x0, y0, z0 is of the form Fx, y, z  C for some constant C. Let
Gx, y, z  Fx, y, z  C  0.
Then Gx0, y0, z0  Fx0, y0, z0 where Gx0, y0, z0 is normal to Fx0, y0, z0  C  0.
Therefore, Fx0, y0z0 is normal to Fx0, y0, z0  C.

Section 12.8

Section 12.8

Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

109

Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

1. gx, y  x  12   y  32 0

Relative minimum: 1, 3, 0

gx  2x  1  0 x  1
gy  2 y  3  0 y  3

1
3

(1, 3, 0)

3. f x, y  x2  y2  1 1

z
5

Relative minimum: 0, 0, 1


Check: fx 

x
x2  y2  1

0 x0
3

y
fy 
0 y0
x2  y2  1
fxx 

(0, 0, 1)

2
2

y2  1
x2  1
xy
, f 
, f 
x2  y2  132 yy x2  y2  132 xy x2  y2  132

At the critical point 0, 0, fxx > 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 0, 0, 1 is a relative minimum.
5. f x, y  x2  y2  2x  6y  6  x  12   y  32  4 4

z
2
1

Relative minimum: 1, 3, 4

2 1

Check: fx  2x  2  0 x  1

1
2
3
4

fy  2y  6  0 y  3

1
7

(1, 3, 4)

fxx  2, fyy  2, fxy  0

At the critical point 1, 3, fxx > 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 1, 3, 4 is a relative minimum.
7. f x, y  2x2  2xy  y2  2x  3

fx  4x  2y  2  0
fy  2x  2y  0

Solving simultaneously yields x  1 and y  1.

fxx  4, fyy  2, fxy  2


At the critical point 1, 1, fxx > 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 1, 1, 4 is a relative minimum.
9. f x, y  5x2  4xy  y2  16x  10

fx  10x  4y  16  0
fy  4x  2y  0

Solving simultaneously yields x  8 and y  16.

fxx  10, fyy  2, fxy  4


At the critical point 8, 16, fxx < 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 8, 16, 74 is a relative maximum.
11. f x, y  2x2  3y2  4x  12y  13
fx  4x  4  4x  1  0 when x  1.
fy  6y  12  6 y  2  0 when y  2.

13. f x, y  2x2  y2  3


fx 

2x
x2  y2

2y

0

x  0, y  0

fxx  4, fyy  6, fxy  0

fy 

At the critical point 1, 2, fxx > 0 and


fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 1, 2, 1 is a relative
minimum.

Since f x, y 3 for all x, y, 0, 0, 3 is relative minimum.

x2  y2

0

110

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

 

15. gx, y  4  x  y

0, 0 is the only critical point. Since gx, y 4 for all x, y, 0, 0, 4 is relative maximum.
4x
x2  y2  1

17. z 

19. z  x2  4y2e1x

2 y2

Relative minimum: 0, 0, 0

Relative minimum: 1, 0, 2

Relative maxima: 0, 1, 4

Relative maximum: 1, 0, 2

Saddle points:  1, 0, 1

z
4
6
5
4
y

4
x

4
4

21. hx, y  x2  y2  2x  4y  4
hx  2x  2  2x  1  0 when x  1.
hy  2y  4  2 y  2  0 when y  2.
hxx  2, hyy  2, hxy  0
At the critical point 1, 2, hxx hyy  hxy2 < 0. Therefore, 1, 2, 1 is a saddle point.
23. hx, y  x2  3xy  y2
hx  2x  3y  0

hy  3x  2y  0

Solving simultaneously yields x  0 and y  0.

hxx  2, hyy  2, hxy  3


At the critical point 0, 0, hxx hyy  hxy2 < 0. Therefore, 0, 0, 0 is a saddle point.
25. f x, y  x3  3xy  y3
fx  3x2  y  0

fy  3x  y2  0

Solving by substitution yields two critical points 0, 0 and 1, 1.

fxx  6x, fyy  6y, fxy  3


At the critical point 0, 0, fxx fyy   fxy2 < 0. Therefore, 0, 0, 0 is a saddle point. At the critical point 1, 1, fxx  6 > 0 and
fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0. Therefore, 1, 1, 1 is a relative minimum.
27. f x, y  ex sin y

fx  ex sin y  0
fy  ex cos y  0

29. z 

Since ex > 0 for all x and sin y and cos y are never both zero for a
given value of y, there are no critical points.

x  y4
0. z  0 if x  y  0.
x2  y2

z
60

Relative minimum at all points x, x, x  0.

40

3
x

Section 12.8
31. fxx fyy   fxy2  94  62  0

Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

111

33. fxx fyy   fxy2  96  102 < 0


f has a saddle point at x0, y0.

Insufficient information.

35. (a) The function f defined on a region R containing x0, y0 has a relative minimum at x0, y0
if f x, y f x0, y0 for all x, y in R.
(b) The function f defined on a region R containing x0, y0 has a relative maximum at x0, y0
if f x, y f x0, y0 for all x, y in R.
(c) A saddle point is a critical point which is not a relative extremum.
(d) See definition page 906.
z

37.

No extrema

39.

Saddle point

41. The point A will be a saddle point.


The function could be

7
6

75
60

f x, y  x2  y2.

45
30

x
2

43. d  fxx fyy  fxy2  28  fxy2  16  fxy2 > 0

< 16 4 < fxy < 4

fxy2

45. f x, y  x3  y3
fx  3x2  0
fy  3y2  0

 Solving yields x  y  0

fxx  6x, fyy  6y, fxy  0


At 0, 0, fxx fyy   fxy2  0 and the test fails. 0, 0, 0
is a saddle point.
47. f x, y  x  12 y  42 0
fx  2x  1 y  42  0
fy  2x  12y  4  0

 Solving yields the critical points 1, a and b, 4.

fxx  2 y  42, fyy  2x  12, fxy  4x  1 y  4


At both 1, a and b, 4, fxx fyy   fxy2  0 and the test fails.
Absolute minima: 1, a, 0 and b, 4, 0
49. f x, y  x23  y23 0
fx 
fy 

2
3 x
3

2
3 y
3

fxx  

fx and fy are undefined at x  0, y  0. The critical point is 0, 0.

2
2
,f 
,f 0
3 3 yy
3 y xy
9x 
9y 

At 0, 0, fxx fyy   fxy2 is undefined and the test fails.
Absolute minimum: 0 at 0, 0
51. f x, y, z  x2   y  32  z  12 0
fx  2x  0

fy  2 y  3  0
fz  2z  1  0

Solving yields the critical point 0, 3, 1.

Absolute minimum: 0 at 0, 3, 1

112

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

53. f x, y  12  3x  2y has no critical points. On the line y  x  1, 0 x 1,

f x, y  f x  12  3x  2x  1  5x  10

and the maximum is 10, the minimum is 5. On the line y  2x  4, 1 x 2,

y=x+1
(1, 2)

f x, y  f x  12  3x  22x  4  x  4


and the maximum is 6, the minimum is 5. On the line y   12 x  1, 0 x 2,

y = 2x + 4

(0, 1)

f x, y  f x  12  3x  2  12 x  1  2x  10

(2, 0)
1

and the maximum is 10, the minimum is 6.

y=

Absolute maximum: 10 at 0, 1

1x
2

+1

Absolute minimum: 5 at 1, 2


55. f x, y  3x2  2y2  4y

(2, 4)

x0

fx  6x  0

(2, 4)

f 0, 1  2

fy  4y  4  0 y  1

On the line y  4, 2 x 2,

f x, y  f x  3x  32  16  3x  16
2

and the maximum is 28, the minimum is 16. On the curve y  x2, 2 x 2,
f x, y  f x 

3x2

 2  
x2 2

4x2

2x4

x2

x2

2x2

 1

and the maximum is 28, the minimum is  18 .


Absolute maximum: 28 at  2, 4
Absolute minimum: 2 at 0, 1





57. f x, y  x2  xy, R  x, y: x 2, y 1

xy0

fx  2x  y  0
fy  x  0

y
2

f 0, 0  0

1
Along y  1, 2 x 2, f  x2  x, f  2x  1  0 x   2 .

Thus, f 2, 1  2, f   2 , 1   4 and f 2, 1  6.


1

1
Along y  1, 2 x 2, f  x2  x, f  2x  1  0 x  2 .

Thus, f 2, 1  6, f  2 , 1   4 , f 2, 1  2.


1

Along x  2, 1 y 1, f  4  2y f  2  0.
Along x  2, 1 y 1, f  4  2y f  2  0.

Thus, the maxima are f 2, 1  6 and f 2, 1  6 and the minima are f   2 , 1   4 and f  2 , 1   4 .
1

59. f x, y  x2  2xy  y2, R  x, y: x2  y2 8

 y  x

fx  2x  2y  0

fy  2x  2y  0
f x, x 

x2

2x2

x2

0

On the boundary x2  y2  8, we have y2  8  x2 and y  8  x2. Thus,

2
2

f  x2 2x8  x2  8  x2  8 2x8  x2


f  8  x2122x  28  x212 

16  4x2
.
8  x2

Then, f  0 implies 16  4x2 or x  2.


f 2, 2  f 2, 2  16 and

f 2, 2  f 2, 2  0



Thus, the maxima are f 2, 2  16 and f 2, 2  16, and the minima are f x, x  0, x 2.

Section 12.9

61. f x, y 

Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

4xy
, R  x, y: 0 x 1, 0 y 1
x2  1 y2  1

fx 

41  x2y
 0 x  1 or y  0
  1x2  1

fy 

41  y2x
x  0 or y  1
2
x  1 y2  12

113

y2

R
x
1

For x  0, y  0, also, and f 0, 0  0.


For x  1, y  1, f 1, 1  1.
The absolute maximum is 1  f 1, 1.
The absolute minimum is 0  f 0, 0. In fact, f 0, y  f x, 0  0
63. False

Let f x, y  1  x  y .

0, 0, 1 is a relative maximum, but fx0, 0 and fy0, 0 do not exist.

Section 12.9

Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

1. A point on the plane is given by x, y, 12  2x  3y. The


square of the distance from the origin to this point is
S  x2  y2  12  2x  3y2

3. A point on the paraboloid is given by x, y, x2  y2. The


square of the distance from 5, 5, 0 to a point on the
paraboloid is given by
S  x  52   y  52  x2  y22

Sx  2x  212  2x  3y2

Sx  2x  5  4xx2  y2  0

Sy  2y  212  2x  3y3
From the equations Sx  0 and Sy  0, we obtain the
system
5x  6y  24

Sy  2 y  5  4yx2  y2  0.
From the equations Sx  0 and Sy  0, we obtain the
system
2x3  2xy2  x  5  0

3x  5y  18.
Solving simultaneously, we have x 

12
7 ,

y

2y3  2x2y  y  5  0

18
7

54
6
z  12  24
7  7  7 . Therefore, the distance from

the origin to 

12 18 6
7 , 7 ,7

 is

127  187  67


2

Multiply the first equation by y and the second equation


by x, and subtract to obtain x  y. Then, we have x  1,
y  1, z  2 and the distance is

614
.
7

1  52  1  52  2  02  6.

5. Let x, y and z be the numbers. Since x  y  z  30, z  30  x  y.


P  xyz  30xy  x2y  xy2
Px  30y  2xy  y2  y30  2x  y  0 2x  y  30

Py  30x  x2  2xy  x30  x  2y  0 x  2y  30


Solving simultaneously yields x  10, y  10, and z  10.
7. Let x, y, and z be the numbers and let S  x2  y2  z2. Since x  y  z  30, we have
S  x2  y2  30  x  y2
Sx  2x  230  x  y1  0 2x  y  30

Sy  2y  230  x  y1  0 x  2y  30.


Solving simultaneously yields x  10, y  10, and z  10.

114

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

9. Let x, y, and z be the length, width, and height, respectively. Then the sum of the length and girth is given by
x  2y  2z  108 or x  108  2y  2z. The volume is given by
V  xyz  108zy  2zy2  2yz2
Vy  108z  4yz  2z2  z108  4y  2z  0
Vz  108y  2y2  4yz  y108  2y  4z  0.
Solving the system 4y  2z  108 and 2y  4z  108, we obtain the solution x  36 inches, y  18 inches, and z  18 inches.
11. Let a  b  c  k. Then
V

13. Let x, y, and z be the length, width, and height,


respectively and let V0 be the given volume.

4 abc 4
  abk  a  b
3
3


Then V0  xyz and z  V0 xy. The surface area is

4
 kab  a2b  ab2
3

S  2xy  2yz  2xz  2 xy 

V0
 0 x2y  V0  0
x2

V0
 0 xy2  V0  0.
y2

Va 

4
kb  2ab  b2  0 kb  2ab  b2  0
3

Sx  2 y 

Vb 

4
ka  a2  2ab  0 ka  a2  2ab  0.
3

Sy  2 x 

V0 V0

x
y

3 V ,y  
3 V ,
Solving simultaneously yields x  
0
0
3 V .
and z  
0

Solving this system simultaneously yields a  b and


substitution yields b  k 3. Therefore, the solution is
a  b  c  k 3.

15. The distance from P to Q is x2  4. The distance from Q to R is y  x2  1 . The distance from R to S is 10  y.
C  3kx2  4  2k y  x2  1  k10  y



yx
yx
1
k0


2
 y  x  1
 y  x  1
1
x
 2k  0
3k
2
x  4

C  2k

Cx  3k
y

  y  x
x
 2k
0

 y  x2  1
4

x2


x
x2  4

1
3

3x  x2  4
9x2  x2  4
x2 
x

1
2
2

2 y  x   y  x2  1
4 y  x2   y  x2  1

 y  x2 
y
Therefore, x 

2

1
3
1
3

0.707 km and y 

1
2

23  32
6

23  32
1.284 kms.
6

Section 12.9

Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

115

17. Let h be the height of the trough and r the length of the slanted sides. We observe that the area of a trapezoidal cross section is
given by

w  2r  2w  2r  2x  w  2r  xh

Ah

where x  r cos  and h  r sin . Substituting these expressions for x and h, we have
Ar,   w  2r  r cos r sin   wr sin   2r 2 sin   r 2 sin  cos 
Now
Arr,   w sin   4r sin   2r sin  cos   sin w  4r  2r cos   0 w  r 4  2 cos 
Ar,   wr cos   2r 2 cos   r 2 cos 2  0.
Substituting the expression for w from Arr,   0 into the equation Ar,   0, we have
r 24  2 cos cos   2r 2 cos   r 22 cos2   1  0
1
r 22 cos   1  0 or cos   .
2
Therefore, the first partial derivatives are zero when    3 and r  w 3. (Ignore the solution r    0.) Thus, the
trapezoid of maximum area occurs when each edge of width w 3 is turned up 60 from the horizontal.
19. Rx1, x2  5x12  8x22  2x1x2  42x1  102x2
Rx1  10x1  2x2  42  0, 5x1  x2  21
Rx2  16x2  2x1  102  0, x1  8x2  51
Solving this system yields x1  3 and x2  6.
Rx1x1  10
Rx1x2  2
Rx2x2  16
Rx1x1 < 0 and Rx1x1 Rx2x2  Rx1x22 > 0
Thus, revenue is maximized when x1  3 and x2  6.
21. Px1, x2  15x1  x2  C1  C2
 15x1  15x2  0.02x12  4x1  500  0.05x22  4x2  275
 0.02x12  0.05x22  11x1  11x2  775
Px1  0.04x1  11  0, x1  275
Px2  0.10x2  11  0, x2  110
Px1x1  0.04
Px1x2  0
Px2x2  0.10
Px1x1 < 0 and Px1x1 Px2x2  Px1x22 > 0
Therefore, profit is maximized when x1  275 and x2  110.

116

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

23. (a) Sx, y  d1  d2  d3


 x  02   y  02  x  22   y  22  x  42   y  22
 x2  y2  x  22   y  22  x  42   y  22
From the graph we see that the surface has a minimum.
(b) Sxx, y 
Syx, y 

S
24

x2
x
x4


x2  y2
x  22   y  22
x  42   y  22
y
x2  y2

y2
x  22   y  22

20

y2
x  42   y  22

1
2
1
i

j
(c) S1, 1  Sx1, 1i  Sy1, 1j  
2
2
10
tan  

 2 10    1 2   1 
1 2

2
5

1
2

t, 1 

2
10

 186.027

(d) x2, y2  x1  Sxx1, y1t, y1  Syx1, y1t  1 

S 1

1
2

t, 1 

2
10

1
2

2 t  2  2 510  2 2 t  1  2 5 5  25 t


1


10  2 510  2 2 t  1  2 5 5  25 t

10  2 510  4 2 t  1  2 5 5  25 t

Using a computer algebra system, we find that the minimum occurs when t 1.344. Thus, x2, y2 0.05, 0.90.
(e) x3, y3  x2  Sxx2, y2t, y2  Syx2, y2t 0.05  0.03t, 0.90  0.26t
S0.05  0.03t, 0.90  0.26t  0.05  0.03t2  0.90  0.26t2  2.05  0.03t2  1.10  0.26t2
 3.95  0.03t2  1.10  0.26t2
Using a computer algebra system, we find that the minimum occurs when t 1.78. Thus x3, y3 0.10, 0.44.

x4, y4  x3  Sxx3, y3t, y3  Syx3, y3t 0.10  0.09t, 0.44  0.01t
S0.10  0.09t, 0.45  0.01t  0.10  0.09t2  0.45  0.01t2  2.10  0.09t2  1.55  0.01t2
 3.90  0.09t2  1.55  0.01t2
Using a computer algebra system, we find that the minimum occurs when t 0.44. Thus, x4, y4 0.06, 0.44.
Note: The minimum occurs at x, y  0.0555, 0.3992
(f) Sx, y points in the direction that S decreases most rapidly. You would use Sx, y for maximization problems.
25. Write the equation to be maximized or minimized as a function of two variables. Set the partial derivatives
equal to zero (or undefined) to obtain the critical points. Use the Second Partials Test to test for relative extrema
using the critical points. Check the boundary points, too.

Section 12.9

27. (a)

xy

x2

xy

x2

2

x  0  y  4  xy  6  x
i

29. (a)

2
i

i i

8

x  4 y  8 xy  4 x
i

36  04 3
1
3
4
a
 , b
4  0  ,
38  02
4
3
4
3

a

3
4
y x
4
3


2

4

1
3


2

3 4

 3
2 3

 x  13,
x y  46,

 y  12,
x  51

2
i

i i

a

546  1312 74 37


551  132
86 43

(b) S  4  42  2  32  2  12  0  02  2

b
y

33. 0, 6, 4, 3, 5, 0, 8, 4, 10, 5

 x  27,
 x y  70,

2
i

i i

37
7
1
12 
13 
5
43
43

b

175
945
1
0 
27 
5
148
148

37
7
x
43
43

y

175
945
x
148
148

7
y = 37
x + 43
43

(0, 6)
(4, 3)

(3, 4)

10

35. (a) y  1.7236x  79.7334

18

(5, 0)
(8, 4)

(4, 2)
(1, 1)
(0, 0)

(5, 5)

(b)

 y  0,
 x  205

175
570  270 350


5205  272
296
148

(10, 5)

y = 175
x + 945
148
148

37. 1.0, 32, 1.5, 41, 2.0, 48, 2.5, 53

 x  7,  y  174,  x y  322,  x

240

i i

a  14, b  19, y  14x  19

When x  1.6, y  41.4 bushels per acre.


0
100

6

44  48
1
 2, b  8  24  4,
46  42
4

a

2
i

i i

1
6

31. 0, 0, 1, 1, 3, 4, 4, 2, 5, 5

y  2x  4

3 4
(b) S     0
2 3


117

Applications of Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

100

(c) For each one-year increase in age, the pressure


changes by 1.7236 (slope of line).

2
i

 13.5

118

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

  y  ax

39. Sa, b, c 

2
i

 bxi  c2

i1

n
S

2xi2 yi  axi2  bxi  c  0
a i1

n
S

2xi yi  axi2  bxi  c  0
b i1

n
S
 2  yi  axi2  bxi  c  0
c
i1

b

xi4

xi3

c

i1

i1

i1

x

3
i

b

i1

x

2
i

c

i1
n

x

2
i

xi2yi
i1
n

x  x y
i

i1

b

i1

xi2

i i

i1

 x  cn   y
i

i1

i1

43. 0, 0, 2, 2, 3, 6, 4, 12

41. 2, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 5

x 0
y 8
 x  10
x  0
 x  34
 x y  12
 x y  22

(1, 2)

2
i

(0, 1)
2

3
i
4
i

i i

2
i i

34a  10c  22, 10b  12, 10a  5c  8


3 2
6
26
a  37 , b  65 , c  26
35 , y  7 x  5 x  35

 x  30,
 y  230,
 x  220,
 x  1,800,
 x  15,664,
 x y  1,670,
 x y  13,500

2
i

2
i

3
i

3
i

4
i

4
i

i i

i i

2
i i

2
i i

353a  99b  29c  254

15,664a  1,800b  220c  13,500

99a  29b  9c  70

1,800a 

29a  9b  4c  20
a  1, b  1, c  0, y  x2  x

220a 
y

25 2
 112
x

220b  30c  1,670


30b 


541
56

x

6c 
25
14

14
120

(4, 12)
(3, 6)
(2, 2)
(0, 0)

(b) ln P  0.1499h  9.3018


P  e0.1499h9.3018  10,957.7e0.1499h
14,000

2
2,000

(d) Same answers.

14
20

47. (a) ln P  0.1499h  9.3018

(c)

(2, 0)

45. 0, 0, 2, 15, 4, 30, 6, 50, 8, 65, 10, 70

x 9
 y  20
 x  29
 x  99
x  353
 x y  70
 x y  254

(2, 5)

(1, 0)

24

230

0.22x 2  9.66x  1.79

Section 12.10

Section 12.10

Lagrange Multipliers

119

Lagrange Multipliers

1. Maximize f x, y  xy.

3. Minimize f x, y  x2  y 2.

Constraint: x  y  10

10

f  g

2x i  2yj   i   j

6
4

y

xy
x  

2x  

constraint
x
2

10

x  y  10  x  y  5

12

constraint

f  g

level curves

y i  xj  i  j

Constraint: x  y  4

12

2y  

x
4

x  y

level curves

xy4 xy2

f 5, 5  25

f 2, 2  8

5. Minimize f x, y  x2  y 2.

7. Maximize f x, y  2x  2xy  y.

Constraint: x  2y  6

Constraint: 2x  y  100

f  g

f  g

2x i  2yj   i  2 j

2  2y i  2x  1j  2 i   j

x

2x  


2

2  2y  2 y    1
2x  1  

2y  2 y  

  1 y  2x
2

2x  y  100 4x  100

3
   6
2

x  2y  6

x

x  25, y  50

  4, x  2, y  4

f 25, 50  2600

f 2, 4  12
9. Note: f x, y  6  x2  y 2 is maximum when gx, y
is maximum.
Maximize gx, y  6  x2  y 2.

2y  

xe xy  2y

xy

xy2
f 2, 2 

f 1, 1  g1, 1  2
13. Maximize or minimize f x, y  x 2  3xy  y 2.
Constraint:

y2

xy

x2  y 2  8 2x2  8

xy2 xy1

x2

Constraint: x2  y 2  8
ye xy  2x

Constraint: x  y  2
 2x  

11. Maximize f x, y  e xy.

e4

Case 2: Inside the circle

Case 1: On the circle

x2

fx  2x  3y  0

y2

2x  3y  2x
3x  2y  2y

2

Maxima: f
Minima: f

2
2

,

fxx  2, fyy  2, fxy  3, fxx fyy   fxy2 0

x2  y 2

x2  y2  1 x 
2

xy0

fy  3x  2y  0

1

2

2 

2
2

,y

5

2

   12

Saddle point: f 0, 0  0


2

By combining these two cases, we have a maximum of 2 at

2

2


1

and a minimum of  2 at

2

,

2

.

120

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

15. Minimize f x, y, z  x2  y 2  z 2.

17. Minimize f x, y, z  x2  y 2  z 2.

Constraint: x  y  z  6

Constraint: x  y  z  1

2x  
2y   x  y  z
2z  

2x  
2y   x  y  z
2z  

xyz6 xyz2

x  y  z  1 x  y  z  13

f 2, 2, 2  12

f  13 , 13 , 13   13

19. Maximize f x, y, z  xyz.

21. Maximize f x, y, z  xy  yz.

Constraints: x  y  z  32

Constraints: x  2y  6

xyz0

x  3z  0

f  g  h

f  g  h

yz i  xz j  xyk  i  j  k   i  j  k

y i  x  z j  yk  i  2j   i  3k

yz    
xz     yz  xy x  z
xy    

y
8
3
x  z  2
y  xz y
4
3
y  3

x  y  z  32

2x  2z  32 x  z  8
xyz0 
y  16

x  2y  6 y  3 
x  3z  0 z 

f 8, 16, 8  1024


x

x
2

x
3

x
8
x
 3
3 3
2

3
x  3, y  , z  1
2

3
f 3, , 1  6
2
23. Minimize the square of the distance f x, y  x2  y 2
subject to the constraint 2x  3y  1.
2x  2
2y  3

 y  3x2

The point on the line is   13 ,  13  and the desired


distance is
2

   


2
13

f x, y, z  x  22   y  12  z  12


subject to the constraint x  y  z  1.

3
2
2x  3y  1 x   , y  
13
13

d

25. Minimize the square of the distance

 

3
13

13

13

2x  2  
2 y  1   y  z and y  x  1
2z  1  

x  y  z  1 x  2x  1  1
x  1, y  z  0

The point on the plane is 1, 0, 0 and the desired


distance is
d  1  22  0  12  0  12  3.

Section 12.10
27. Maximize f x, y, z  z subject to the constraints
x2  y 2  z2  36 and 2x  y  z  2.
0  2x  2
0  2y   x  2y
1  2z  

Lagrange Multipliers

121

29. Optimization problems that have restrictions or contstraints


on the values that can be used to produce the optimal
solution are called contrained optimization problems.

x2  y 2  z 2  36
2x  y  z  2 z  2x  y  2  5y  2

2y2  y 2  5y  22  36


30y 2  20y  32  0
15y 2  10y  16  0
y

5 265
15

Choosing the positive value for y we have the point


265 5  265 1  265

10  152

15

.

31. Maximize Vx, y, z  xyz subject to the constraint


x  2y  2z  108.

33. Minimize Cx, y, z  5xy  32xz  2yz  xy subject


to the constraint x yz  480.

yz  
xz  2 y  z and x  2y
xy  2

8y  6z  yz 
8x  6z  xz  x  y, 4y  3z
6x  6y  xy

x  2y  2z  108 6y  108, y  18

xyz  480 43 y 3  480

x  36, y  z  18
Volume is maximum when the dimensions are
36 18 18 inches

3 360, z  4 
3 360
x  y 
3
3 360 
3 360 4 
3 360
Dimensions: 
feet
3

z
x

35. Maximize Vx, y, z  2x2y2z  8xyz subject to the constraint


8yz 

2x

a2

8xz 

2y

b2

8xy 

2z

c2

x2
y2
z2
2  2  2
a
b
c

x2
y2
z2
3x2
3y 2
3z 2

  1 2  1, 2  1, 2  1
a2 b 2 c 2
a
b
c
x

a
3

,y

b
3

,z

c
3

Therefore, the dimensions of the box are

23a 23b 23c




.
3
3
3

x2
y2
z2
2  2  2  1.
a
b
c

122

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

37. Using the formula Time 

d12  x2
d22  y 2
Distance
, minimize Tx, y 
subject to the constraint x  y  a.

Rate
v1
v2

x

v1d22  x 2
x
y

y
v1d12  x2 v2d22  y 2

v2d22  y 2

Medium 1

d1

xya

Since sin
1 
xd1 
v1
2

x
d12  x2

x2

and sin
2 

yd2 
v2
2

y2

y
d22  y

, we have
2

39. Maximize P p, q, r  2pq  2pr  2qr.

subject to the constraint 48x  36y  100,000.

P  g

3  4 p  q  r  41


4
3

25x0.75y0.75  48

yx

0.75

75x0.25y0.25  36

xy

0.25

pqr1

0.75

 p

48
25

36
75

yx yx

pqr1
q  r  23

41. Maximize Px, y  100x 0.25y 0.75

Constraint: p  q  r  1
2q  2r  
2p  2r  
2p  2q  

d2

a
Medium 2

sin
1 sin
2

.
v1
v2

or

1
3,

q  13 , r  13

0.25

48253675

y
4
x

P 13 , 13 , 13   2 13  13   2 13  13   2 13  13   23 .

y  4x
48x  36y  100,000 192x  100,000
x
Therefore, P

43. Minimize Cx, y  48x  36y subject to the constraint 100x0.25y0.75  20,000.
48  25x0.75y0.75

yx

0.75

36  75x0.25y0.25

xy

0.25

48
25

36
75

yx yx
0.75

0.25

25487536

y
 4 y  4x
x
100x0.25y0.75  20,000 x0.254x0.75  200
x

200
200

 502
40.75 22

y  4x  2002
Therefore, C 502, 2002  $13,576.45.

3125 6250
6 , 3

 147,314.

3125
6250
,y
6
3

Review Exercises for Chapter 12

123

45. (a) Maximize g, ,   cos  cos  cos  subject to the constraint       .
 sin  cos  cos  
cos  sin  cos   tan   tan   tan      
cos  cos  sin  

 
3

3 , 3 . 3   81

(b)              

g    cos  cos  cos     

 cos  cos cos  cos    sin  sin  

 cos  cos  cos  

Review Exercises for Chapter 12


1. No, it is not the graph of a function.
3. f x, y  ex

5. f x, y  x2  y 2

2 y 2

The level curves are of the form


c

The level curves are of the form


c  x2  y 2

2
2
ex y

ln c  x2  y 2.

1

The level curves are circles centered at the origin.

x2 y 2
 .
c
c

The level curves are hyperbolas.

y
2

c = 10
4

c = 12 c = 2
c=2

c=1
c = 12

Generated by Mathematica

Generated by Mathematica

7. f x, y  ex

9. f x, y, z  x2  y  z2  1

y 2

y  x2  z2  1

z
3

Elliptic paraboloid

3
3

2
x
3

3
x

11.

xy
1

x, y 1, 1 x  y 2
2
lim

Continuous except at 0, 0.

13.

lim

x, y 0, 0

4x2y
x4  y2

For y  x 2,
For y  0,

4x 4
4x 2y
 4
 2, for x
0
4
2
x y
x  x4
4x 2y
 0, for x
0
x4  y 2

Thus, the limit does not exist. Continuous except at 0, 0.

124

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

15. f x, y  ex cos y

z
 ey  yex
x

fx  ex cos y
fy  e sin y
x

19. gx, y 

z  xey  yex

17.

z
 xey  ex
y

xy
x2  y 2

21. f x, y, z  z arctan

y
x

gx 

yx2  y 2  xy2x y y2  x2


 2
x2  y 22
x  y 22

fx 

z
y
yz

 2
1   y2 x2 x2
x  y2

gy 

xx2  y 2
x2  y 22

fy 

z
xz
1
 2
1   y 2 x2 x
x  y2

 


fz  arctan

23. ux, t  cen t sinnx


2

y
x

25.

u
2
 cnen t cosnx
x

u
2
 cn2en t sinnx
t

1
3

3
x

27. f x, y  3x2  xy  2y 3

29. hx, y  x sin y  y cos x

fx  6x  y

hx  sin y  y sin x

fy  x 

hy  x cos y  cos x

6y 2

z  x2  y2

31.

z
 2x
x
2z
2
x2

fxx  6

hxx  y cos x

fyy  12y

hyy  x sin y

fxy  1

hxy  cos y  sin x

fyx  1

hyx  cos y  sin x

z
 2y
y
2z
 2
y 2
Therefore,

33.

z

y
x2  y 2

35. z  x sin

z
2xy

x x2  y 22

dz 

2z
4x2
1
3x2  y 2
 2y 2

 2y 2
x2
x  y 23 x2  y 22
x  y 23

z
x2  y2
x2  y 2  2y

 2
y
x2  y 22
x  y 22

x2  y 222y  2x2  y 2x2  y 22y


2z

2
y
x2  y 24
 2y
Therefore,

3x2  y 2
x2  y 23

2z
2z
 2  0.
2
x
y

2z
2z
 2  0.
2
x
y

y
x

y y
y
z
z
y
dx 
dy  sin  cos dx  cos dy
x
y
x x
x
x

Review Exercises for Chapter 12


37.

z2  x2  y 2

39.





y
5 1
12 1
17
x
dx  dy 


0.654 cm
z
z
13 2
13 2
26

Percentage error:

dz 17 26

0.0503 5%
z
13

41. w  lnx2  y2, x  2t  3, y  4  t


Chain Rule:

dw w dx w dy


dt
x dt
y dt


2x
2y
2  2
1
x2  y2
x  y2

22t  32
24  t

2t  32  4  t2 2t  32  4  t2

10t  4
5t2  4t  25

Substitution: w  lnx2  y2  ln2t  32  4  t2


10t  4
dw 22t  32  24  t

 2
dt
2t  32  4  t2
5t  4t  25
43. u  x2  y 2  z2, x  r cos t, y  r sin t, z  t
Chain Rule:

u u x u y u z



r
x r
y r
z r
 2x cos t  2y sin t  2z0
 2r cos2 t  r sin2 t  2r
u u x u y u z



t
x t
y t
z t
 2xr sin t  2yr cos t  2z
 2r 2 sin t cos t  r 2 sin t cos t  2t
 2t

Substitution: ur, t  r 2 cos2 t  r 2 sin2 t  t 2  r 2  t 2


u
 2r
r
u
 2t
t
x2y  2yz  xz  z2  0

45.
2xy  2y

z
z
z
x
 z  2z
0
x
x
x
2xy  z
2xy  z
z


x 2y  x  2z x  2y  2z

x2  2y

V  13 r 2h
dV  23 rh dr  13 r 2 dh  23 25 18   13 22 18 

2z dx  2x dx  2y dy
dz 

125

z
z
z
 2z  x
 2z
0
y
y
y
z
x2  2z
x2  2z


y 2y  x  2z x  2y  2z

5
1
 6 6   in.3

126

Chapter 12

47.

f x, y  x2y

Functions of Several Variables

w  z i  2yj  xk

f  2xyi  x 2j

w1, 2, 2  2i  4 j  k

f 2, 1  4 i  4j
u

1
2

v

i

2
1
2
1
u v i j k
3
3
3
3

Duw1, 2, 2  w1, 2, 2 u 

Du f 2, 1  f 2, 1 u  2 2  2 2  0
z

51.

y
x2  y 2

4 4 2 2
  
3 3 3 3

z  ex cos y

53.

z  ex cos yi  ex sin y j

2xy
x2  y 2
z   2
i 2
j
x  y 22
x  y 22

 4    22 i 

z 0,

1
1
z1, 1   i   , 0
2
2
 z1, 1 

w  y 2  xz

49.

j 

,

 z0, 4    1

1
2

55. 9x2  4y2  65

57.

f x, y  9x2  4y2

Fx, y, z  x2y  z  0
F  2xy i  x 2j  k

f x, y  18xi  8yj

F2, 1, 4  4i  4j  k

f 3, 2  54i  16j

Therefore, the equation of the tangent plane is

Unit normal:

4x  2  4 y  1  z  4  0 or

54i  16j
1
27i  8j


54i  16j
793

4x  4y  z  8,
and the equation of the normal line is
x2 y1 z4


.
4
4
1

59.

Fx, y, z  x2  y2  4x  6y  z  9  0
F  2x  4i  2y  6j  k

61.

Fx, y, z  x2  y 2  z  0
Gx, y, z  3  z  0

F2, 3, 4  k

F  2x i  2yj  k

Therefore, the equation of the tangent plane is

G  k

z  4  0 or

F2, 1, 3  4i  2j  k

z  4,

and the equation of the normal line is


x  2, y  3, z  4  t.

 

i
F  G  4
0

j
2
0

k
1  2i  2j
1

Therefore, the equation of the tangent line is


x2 y1

, z  3.
1
2
63.

f x, y, z  x2  y2  z2  14
f x, y, z  2xi  2yj  2zk
f 2, 1, 3  4i  2j  6k Normal vector to plane.
cos  

n k 
n

  36.7

6
56

3 14
14

Review Exercises for Chapter 12


65. f x, y  x3  3xy  y 2

fx  3x2  3y  3x2  y  0
fy  3x  2y  0
fxx  6x

127

30

2
30

fyy  2
fxy  3
3
From fx  0, we have y  x2. Substituting this into fy  0, we have 3x  2x2  x2x  3  0. Thus, x  0 or 2 .

At the critical point 0, 0, fxx fyy   fxy2 < 0. Therefore, 0, 0, 0 is a saddle point.

3 9
3 9
27
At the critical point  2 , 4 , fxx fyy   fxy2 > 0 and fxx > 0. Therefore,  2 , 4 ,  16  is a relative minimum.

67. f x, y  xy 

1 1

x
y

fx  y 

1
 0, x2y  1
x2

fy  x 

1
 0, xy 2  1
y2

x2y

fxx 

2
x3

Thus,

xy2

or x  y and substitution yields the critical point 1, 1.

20

3 4
4
x

20
24

(1, 1, 3)

fxy  1
fyy 

2
y3

At the critical point 1, 1, fxx  2 > 0 and fxx fyy   fxy2  3 > 0. Thus, 1, 1, 3 is a relative minimum.
69. The level curves are hyperbolas. There is a critical point at 0, 0, but there are no relative extrema. The gradient is normal to the
level curve at any given point at x0, y0.
71. Px1, x2  R  C1  C2
 225  0.4x1  x2x1  x2  0.05x12  15x1  5400  0.03x22  15x2  6100
 0.45x12  0.43x22  0.8x1x2  210x1  210x2  11,500
Px1  0.9x1  0.8x2  210  0
0.9x1  0.8x2  210
Px2  0.86x2  0.8x1  210  0
0.8x1  0.86x2  210
Solving this system yields x1 94 and x2 157.
Px1x1  0.9
Px1x2  0.8
Px2x2  0.86
Px1x1 < 0
Px1x1 Px2x2  Px1x22 > 0
Therefore, profit is maximum when x1 94 and x2 157.

128

Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables


75. (a) y  2.29t  2.34

73. Maximize f x, y  4x  xy  2y subject to the


constraint 20x  4y  2000.
4  y  20
x  2  4

30

 5x  y  6

20x  4y  2000

5x  y  500

5x  y  6
(b)

 494

10x

11
5
20

x  49.4
y  253

f 49.4, 253  13,201.8

Yes, the data appears more linear.


(c) y  8.37 ln t  1.54
(d)

25

10
5

The logarithmic model is a better fit.


77. Optimize f x, y, z  xy  yz  xz subject to the constraint x  y  z  1.
yz
xz xyz
xy

x  y  z  1 x  y  z  13
Maximum: f  13 , 13 , 13   13
79. PQ  x2  4, QR  y2  1, RS  z; x  y  z  10
C  3 x2  4  2 y2  1  2
Constraint: x  y  z  10
C  g
3x
x2  4

i

2y
y2  1

j  k  i  j  k

3x  x2  4
2y  y2  1
1
9x2  x2  4 x2 

1
2

4y2  y2  1 y2 

1
3

Hence, x 

,y

, z  10 

8.716 m.