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REPORT ON

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING
At

PUNE

TRAINING REPORT ON PLC

Submitted by:
ROHIT RAJ
Reg no.: 070921206
DEPT. OF INSRUMENTATION AND CONTROL ENGINEERING

MANIPAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


(A constituent college of Manipal University)

CONTENTS

1. Company profile
2. Certificate
3. PLC(Introduction)
4. PLC programming
5. Timers
6. Counters
7. Special PLCs in market( Allen Bradley, Mitsubishi, Siemens, Messung)
8. HMI/MMI
9. SCADA
10. AC Drives
11. Conclusion

COMPANY PROFILE

ACS is a complete Industrial Automation Solution Providing Company having 12


years experience. We deal with PLC, Drives, SCADA and other Automation Products
of Messung , Mitsubishi , Allen-Bradley, Siemens , Modicon , ABB and Other
PLC's. From initial development to on-site installation, Repairing and training, ACS
offers the services required ensuring successful implementation of projects

ACS thinks and conducts business internationally. ACSs experience and established
company tradition are the basis for innovation and success. The skills, knowledge,
dedication and motivation of our employees ensure the quality of our products.
Excellence in performance and a satisfied client are our goals. Learning is a vital part of
our organization. Our commitment to technical advances guarantees our future and
continued success. ACS continues to be a leader in the manufacturing industries
serving a multitude of industries in a variety of disciplines. Industries using our products
and services include:

Automation and Control in the industry are witnessing dramatic value addition through
newer and latest Technology. It is the key to enhance productivity and increase
profitability. We at ACS are in touch with the latest Technology and have the expertise
and knowledge to smoothly integrate new technology solutions with your existing
infrastructure
At ACS we have executed large projects involving various brands of Field
Instrumentation, PLCs, AC Drives and SCADA

Industries Handled by ACS


Automotive
Bulk Handling
Chemical
Environmental
Food Processing
Material Handling
Petro-chemical Industry
Pharmaceutical
Plastics Molding Machines
Power Generation Plants
News Paper
Oil & Gas Generation

Services Provided
We are in the field of providing Industrial Automation to various industries like Food,
Power Process, Automobile, Pharmaceutical, Packaging etc. We are geared to provide
total turnkey support from the stage of requirement analysis, system engineering,
software development, installation and commissioning and on site training to maintain
the above products.

Our Expertise
* Control System Configuration
* Startup & commissioning Assistance
* Application Software Development
* PLC and SCADA Programming
* Operator, Maintenance
* Engineering Training

* Remote maintenance support


* Wireless Communication
Allen Bradley : PLC5, SLC-500, Micrologix, Control Logix, Flex Logix, Compact logix
Messung Systems : Nexgen-4000 & 5000, Micro, XMP8-20 and 40Series, Mini Series
Mitsubishi : FX, FX1N, FX2N, FX1S, FxoS Series, AnS CPU,
Q Series, Beijer, GOT
Siemens : S7-200, S7-300, S7-400.
PLC Software: Codesys, FX-GP Win, GX-Developer, MEDOC, RSLogix-500, RSLogix5000
MMI / SCADA: Intellution, Rsview32, Wonderware and Beijer.
AC Drives : FRS500, FRA500, FRE500 series, 1336, Power Flex, Excellent
AC Servo Drives : MR-J2 series, MR-H Series, MR-C Series Ultra series
Integration of I/Os, Intelligent Devices & networks like, CC link, Controlnet, Ethernet,
Devicenet, RIO, Modbus, Profibus, GSM Modem, and other wireless technology .

Some of the Clients

ACC cements
Apollo Tyres
Gas Authority of India Ltd.
Ashok Leyland
Bajaj Auto Ltd
Bharat Forge Ltd
Bharat Gear
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd.
BHEL - Bangalore
Birla Copper
Crompton Greaves
DLF Power Ltd
E. I. Dupont (India) Ltd.
.

Hero Honda
Hindustan Lever Ltd.
Indian Aluminium Ltd.
Indian Osalate Ltd
Indian Petrochemicals Corp Ltd.
Kinetic Engineering Ltd.
Moser Baer Ltd.
Precision Gears Ltd
LG Electronics
RANBAXY Ltd
LML Ltd.
G M Motors
Maruti Udyog Ltd.

PLC
Definition:
PLCs are defined as miniature industrial computers that contain hardware and software
used to perform control functions.
A PLC consists of two basic components :- the CPU and the I/O interface system. The
CPU which controls all the PLC activity can be further classified into :- the processor
and the memory system.
The I/O system is physically connected to the field devices (e.g- switches, sensors,
motor, bulb) and provides the interface between the CPU and the information providers
(input) and the controllable devices (output).

PLC Operation:
To operate the CPU reads input data from the connected field devices through the use
of its input interfaces and then executes or performs the control program that has been
stored in its memory system. Programs are typically created in ladder logic, a language
that closely resembles a relay based wiring schematic and are entered into the CPU
memory prior to operation. Finally based on the program the PLC writes or updates
output devices via the output interfaces. This process also known as scanning typically
continues in the same sequence without interruption and changes only when a change
is made to the control program.

Scan Cycle
The scanning takes place continuously once the program is run. The scan cycle
consists of three phases :- input scan, logic scan( creation of ladder logic), output scan.

PLC External i/o Interface Types


Input devices

output devices

Push button

Mechanical valves

Selector switch

Solenoid valves

Alarm

Indicator lamp or LED

Limit switch

Motor or fan

Level switch

AC drives

Proximity switch

Relay

Thumbwell switch

Actuator

PLC vs PC
PLC is basically a type of PC. The differences are:PLC has no keyboard. For i/p we use an input module which is basically a little box with
a row of screws infront of it.
We wire up a bunch of push buttons, sensors, switches to the little screws this serves
as an input device for our PLC computer.
PLC has no monitor. For o/p we use an output module which is basically another little
box with a row of screws infront of it.

We wire up a bunch of solenoid valves, indicator lamps, motor starters to the little
screws this serves as an output device for our PLC computer.

Advantages

Economic ( much cheaper than PC, hence can be used in a versatile manner)

Very accurate( performance degradation is very less even after years of functioning.
ladder logic is binary in nature hence almost no error in execution of correct code)

Non stop functioning( i.e. the scan cycle runs continuously for the entire lifetime
once PLC is installed)

Types Of PLCs
There are basically 3 types of PLCs
1. Micro PLC- has 64 i/o ports

2. Mini PLC- has 128 i/o ports

HMI integrated in the PLC. We can see the row of screws for input/output.
3. Rack (modular) PLC has 4096 i/o ports.

There are various slots for different cards e.g. input cards, output cards, CPU card,
power card, special cards (for communication, HS pulse etc.)
This type of PLC is scalable i.e. we can attach another i/o PLC module. The female
connector of the primary PLC is connected to the male connector of the extension PLC
(DB-9).
Each PLC requires a power card but the CPU card is present only in the primary PLC.
On the CPU card (intelligent module) we have DB9 connectors for communication
with HMI or PC.

PLC Programming
Based on ladder logic. Each ladder has switches or flags as inputs and a single coil or a
single flag as an output.
1. Switch- push button and toggle switch
Push button gives high input only during the time it is kept pressed in on condition.
(i.e. goes to off state on releasing)
Two types:- normally open(NO) and normally closed(NC)

Toggle switch gives high input once the switch is pressed on.(i.e. does not go off
even when released)

The NO switch is represented as:-

The NC switch is represented as:-

2. Coil : the output is taken across the coil. Symbol for coil is

Program for and gate


I0

I1

output

Program for or gate


I0

I1

output

Program for xor gate


I0

I1

output

examples
Q1) Suppose we have 2 push buttons red and green. When the green button is pressed
bulb is turned ON and remains ON even after releasing the switch. Whenever the red
button is pressed the bulb is turned OFF and remains OFF(after releasing) till the green
button is pushed again. Give the ladder logic for the given situation.

Assume %ix0.0 as the green button and %ix0.1 as the red button. %qx0.0 is the bulb.

q=output, m=flag, i=input

set-reset

If i0 is ON for a microsecond(one scan cycle)time the value of q0 is set to logic 1.

If i1 is ON for a microsecond the value of q0 is reset or set to logic 0.

NOTE: As we can see that using set reset we got an alternative solution for the previous
question assuming i0 as the green and i1 as the red button.

Pulse/ trigger
Two types- rising edge and falling edge

Symbol for rising edge trigger switch

Symbol for rising edge trigger switch

Q2)

Consider the case:- on either side of the gate there are 2 sensors. Sensor 1detects the
head of the bus and opens gate. The gate remains open till the bus passes completely
and is closed after the tail of the bus passes sensor 2. Assume only one way traffic and
give the logic ladder.

Rising edge at sensor1 sets the gate o/p and opens it. Falling edge at the sensor2
resets the gate o/p therefore, the gate is closed.

Memory flag
Used to decrease the number of output ports used in the ladder. The intermediate logic
results can be stored in flags which can be used in subsequent rung or scan cycle.

This is the solution to the last problem using flag concept.


Here i0 and i1 are sensors 1 and 2 respectively, while m0 is used as flag. Q0 is the
output attached to gate.

Q3)Design a push button switch which when pressed turns a bulb on continuously. The
next time the switch is pressed the bulb turns off . Again if the switch is pressed the bulb
turns on and the pattern follows.

M1 is a flag set on rising edge for a pulse interval each time the switch i0 is pressed.
Xor with previous output state gives the new output state, Next State which is the toggle
value of Present State.
Q4) write a program for rising and falling edge triggers using NO, NC contacts only.

rising edge trigger can be modeled as


Equivalent ladder diagram:-

falling edge trigger can be modeled as


Equivalent ladder diagram:-

Q5) suppose we have a push button i0 and 2 bulbs q0 and q1. Generate the following
cyclic pattern
I0

Q0

Q1

1st time

2nd time

3rd time

Solution- 1-2-3-1-2-3-1-2-3- and so on

Alternate solution- without set reset

Timers
There are 4 types of timers. They are TON,TOFF,TP,RTC. The most basic is TON ,
other timers can be derived from this timer.
1)Time delay on timer(TON)= output is turned on after the preset time value( eg 5 secs)
from the time when a continuous power supply input is given
Note:- the output of timer is high(after 5 secs) only if the input supply is still available.
2)Time delay off timer(TOFF)= the output is high the instant the switch is on(power
supply) and the output goes to low after preset time value(eg 5 secs) from the time
supply is cut.
3)Pluse timer(TP)= for a pulse input at positive edge the timer starts and the output is
high for the time timer runs.
4)RTC(real time clock)= used for real time applications and is internet controlled for
remote work site eg:- gas pipelines( rate of flow and valve function)

T0.1= name of the timer


ENBL=enable, used to give the supply, i.e. connected to the i/p switch
PRESET=the timer value set e.g. (t#5s) to set the timer for 5 secs. PV
CURNT=accumulator value, holds the current value of the timer. ACC
DONE BIT=connected to output , used to indicate that the timer current value has
reached the preset value(timer expired) PV=ACC
RUN BIT=to indicate that the timer is running PV>ACC

While timer is running run bit=1 done bit=0 and current value(22)<preset value(50)

timer has expired run bit=0 done bit=1 and current value(50)=preset value(50)

Q5)design a ladder logic for the given specification. I0 is switched onq0 on for 10
secafter 10 secsq0 off and q1 on for 8 secafter 8 sec q1 off and q2 on for 15 sec.
repeat the cycle continuously.

Counter
Three types:- CTU,CTD,CTUD
CTU(Up counter)= counts the number of input pulses. If current no. of i/p pulses
(accumulator) = preset value then o/p=high
Eg- if preset value is 5, then after 5 i/p pulses the o/p goes from low to high. (high even
if supply is removed, here supply i/p is pulse)
A pulse given to reset sets accumulator=0 and o/p to low
CTD(Count down)= initially o/p=high and accumulator=0
When the first pulse is applied to load (like reset in CU)accumulator=preset value, and
o/p low
When subsequent I/P pulses are applied to enable ACC is decremented and when
accumulator=0 o/p is high.
CTUD(Counter up/down)= only one accumulator value which can be either incremented
by giving a pulse CU and decremented by giving a pulse to CD port.

RST=to reset in CU
LOAD=to load PV in CD

Q6)Assume a car garage. we have an entry and an exit door. We have 4 sensors
arranged as shown in diagram. A maximum of 5 cars can be accommodated in the
garage at a time. When the garage is full the entry door should not open when a new
car is detected waiting at the door. Draw a ladder logic for the problem.

Sensor 0 detects the incoming car(head) at rising edge and opens entry gate.
Sensor 1 detects the incoming car(rear) at falling edge when the car is fully inside the
garage and closes entry gate.
Sensor 0 detects the outgoing car(head) at rising edge and opens exit gate.
Sensor 1 detects the outgoing car(rear) at falling edge when the car is fully outside the
garage and closes exit gate.

Special PLCs in market


There are 4 major vendors in the world market namely
1)Mitsubishi
2)Allen Bradley
3)Siemens
4)Messung
hardware

software

country

mitsubishi

ACPU,FXCPU

GX Devloper

Japan

allen bradley

Micrologix

RSlogix

US

siemens

S7300CPU

S7 Microwin

Germany

messung

Nexgen 2000

Codesys

India

MITSUBISHI
Produced in Japan.
Product name=MELSEC

Hardware series=>
Rack type
FX SERIES=FX3U(latest),FXOS,FXON,FX1N,FX2N
A MODE=ACPU,QCPU,QnCPU(all are old)
Q MODE= Q CPU
MOTION CPU( for servo drives,robots)
Micro plc
FXCPU

For QnCPU we have Q4AR as the redundant PLC.

Redundant PLCS are of 2 types


1)hot standby
2)cold standby
Redundant PLC has the same program stored as the main PLC. While the main PLC is
running the redundant one is kept in non running condition.
If the main PLC fails the standby is used.
Cold standby= user intervention is required to physically remove and connect the
standby to the main control
Hot standby= no user intervention, if failure occurs the status of the main PLC is
assumed by the standby automatically.
we have a master and slave in hot standby.
For master:-

For slave:-

When master goes down the slave takes charge and performs all 3 scans.

Software series=>FXGPWIN,GX Developer

The software is used to create the ladder logic which is downloaded into th PLC
hardware.
e.g. FX GPWIN is a special software used to create download the ladder logic for the
specific hardware FXCPU.
GX Developer is an advanced feature software. Can be used for all CPUs. It has the
special feature of simulation online edit(download the program in run mode and part of
the program can be edited even while running on the plc)

Programming notations=>
Input address= X_
Output address=Y_
Memory address=M_
T0 K50= Timer no.(t0) and time set(k50=5secs)
There are 255 number of counters(CU). Bydefault CTD and CTUD are not present
Press f4(convert) and then run the program(ladder).

Q7)Forward and Reverse traffic light redyellowgreenyellowred.assume


3 o/p for red yellow and green lights.(use Mitsubishi)

Where y3 y4 and y6 are red yellow and green lights respectively.x0 is the i/p

Allen Bradley
Manufactured in united states.
Hardware series=>
Modular PLC
FLEX LOGIX
SLC
CONTRO LOGIX(latest)
Micro PLC
MICRO LOGIX- 1000,1500,2000

Software series=>
RSLOGIX 500,5000
Communication software=>
RSLINX(Separate communication software only for allen Bradley)
Programming notations=>
Input= i:0/0 to i:0/15
Output=o:0/0 to o:0/15
Memory flag=b3:0/0 to b3:0/15
Timer =t4:0 to t4:255
Counter=c5:0 to c5:255

rising trigger

falling trigger

latch=set
unlatch=reset

Verify projectcheck logic offlineclick downloadrun modeonline

Q8)Forward and Reverse traffic light redyellowgreenyellowred.assume


3 o/p for red yellow and green lights.(using Allen Bradley)

O3 O4 AND 05 are red yellow and green lights respectively, i/p is i0

Siemens
Manufactured in Germany.
Product name= SIMETIC
Hardware series=>
Mini PLC
LOGO
S5 CPU
Micro PLC
S7200 CPU
Rack PLC
S7300 CPU
S7400 CPU

Software series=>
Step 5 microwin
Step 6 microwin 3.2 or 4.0
Step 7 microwin 5.3
Simulation software=>
SIMETIC manager

Programming notations=>
Input address= i0._
Output address=o0._
Memory address=m0._
Timer=t37(time base of 100 ms)

To set N no. of bits starting from bit address


Eg address=m0.1 and n=3
This sets bits m0.1 m0.2 and m0.3

Q9)Forward and Reverse traffic light redyellowgreenyellowred.assume


3 o/p for red yellow and green lights.(using Siemens)

Q3 Q4 Q5 are red yellow and green lights respectively. Input is i0.

MESSUNG
Made in India
Hardware series=>
NEXGEN 2000
NEXGEN 5000 CPU
NEXGEN 2K PLUS
All are modular(rack) PLCs
Softwares=>
DOXMINI(DOS based) for hardware xmp8(outdated)
CODESYS=simulation software, has visualization(in built SCADA feature)

Programming notations=>
Input= %ix0.0 to %ix0.7 (%ix_._)
Output= %ox0.0 to %ox0.7 (%ox_._)
Memory=%mx0.0 to %mx0.7 (%mx_._)

Has 255 timers and counters. Has all types of timers and counters.
Has visualization(inbuilt SCADA)
Force input is used for testing (input given to a switch from pc rather than the attached
sensors while the program is running on plc).

Q10)Forward and Reverse traffic light redyellowgreenyellowred.assume


3 o/p for red yellow and green lights.(using Messung- codesys)

HMI/MMI(human machine interface)


Significance:to control and monitor PLC operations
reduce the number of i/p terminals
In actual applications once the programming is done it is downloaded to the PLC. After
this the program continuously runs on the PLC for years together. But a need might
arise to change certain parameters in the program( e.g. in a alloy mixing tub the motor
must stir the components for 20 mins. Now if we want to manufacture a different alloy
the mixing time, heating time must be changed).
To do this we need to modify the program and again download it each time a parameter
is changed.
Another practical solution to this problem is use of HMI. We can feed changing data
such as the timer value through the HMI, instead of directly specifying in the program.

An HMI has 2 panels:(OPI) operator panel=keys on HMI


(TPI) touch screen panel
e.g. FX2N32MR HMI has 16 i/p and 16 o/p capabilities.

HMI drive is required for each brand of PLC.


Purchase HMI drive and paste it in c:\ drive of PC.
PLC

HMI(TERMINALS)

SOFTWARE

Messung

SMART line SR, SMART


line JR

SOFT line

Mitsubishi

GOT

GT Designer(GT Simulator)

Allen Bradley

Panel view

Panel builder

Siemens

TP,OP

TP,OP designers

Software for MMIEDESIGNER

hardwareE100

Steps in MMI configuration


1)open Edesignerselect filenew
Controller1:FX CPU Protocol/FX2N3.04.1
2)from the main block drag sub-blocks and give block name
3)similarly set up all the sub- blocks

4)click on main block

Type a comment Click F1button


Click on jump block and assign respective block nos.
F1

Jump to block 1

Timer

F2

Jump to block 2

Timer preset

F3

Jump to block 3

Timer accumulator

F4

Jump to block 4

motor

5)click on key field and verify


F1

F2

F3

F4

Timer

Timer preset

Timer accumulator

motor

6)similarly do this for timer, timer preset, timer acc and motor subblocks making
necessary changes in the menu screen.
7)for timer preset

Click the 03 button for analog i/panalog signal:D0click acessminimum i/p:0


maximum i/p:32767enable operator i/p
8)for timer accumulator

Click the 03 button for analog i/panalog signal:T0click acessminimum i/p:0


maximum i/p:32767do not enable operator i/p

9)motor:

F1

Jump to block0

Main

F2

Jump to block1

Timer

F3

i/o momentarily x0

Start

F4

i/o momentarily x1

Stop

For F3 and F4
Select i/o instead of jump to block
i/o=x0

i/o=x1

Select the0/1 button for digital data


Digital signal=Y0
Text off=motor off
Text on=motor on

Monitor mode= run on PLC(should be in write mode when transfer setup to HMI)
To set a value from PC use the steps1)right click on coil T0(timer)
2)select device test
3)device:D0(preset value)
Setting value:50(50 secs)
Set(press enter)

SCADA(Supervisory control and data acquisition)


To monitor and control the operation of PLC. Interfaced like HMI to PLC.
The scada software is in PC. Pc is connected to PLC. Gives graphical representation of
the status of inputs and outputs of the PLC.
Input to the PLC can be issued from the PC by SCADA.
Software SCADA

PLC

ELLIPSE

Mitsubishi

RS VIEW 32

Allen Bradley

WIN CC

Siemens

Messung also uses ELLIPSE.


We need a SCADA drive here too like HMI drive.
TAGS= used for indirect addressing
Eg:-in a program we have the following components and we give the tags
PLC DEVICES

TAGS

M50

Start

M51

Stop(reset)

Y0

Alarm(motor)

T0

Timer accumulator

D0

Timer preset

C0

Counter accumulator

C0

Alarm(digital)

D1

Counter preset

PROCESS

1)PLC program
2)download program to PLC
3)make a list of PLC devices
4)open SCADA software
5)make SCADA graphics

Plc software dhould be in offline mode when running the SCADA software
N1=DEVICE
N2=DEVICE number
device

Component

X INPUT

Y OUTPUT

M MEMORY

N1

N2

M50

50

Y0

X0

D0

17

T0

C0

12

MIMIC development

1)goto organizer(in new)


2)TAGSnew tagsPLC tagsno. of tags
3)drivernew driverconfigurereload
4)TAG1nameselect driverconfigure N1,N2
5)draw the MIMIC
6)goto each MIMIC device and add the TAG.
7)for o/p MIMIC device goto ZONE
Add two pictures 1stdefault 2ndalarm(1 1 maximum and minimum)
8)for RUNF10 and OFFLINEESC

SCADA visualization for traffic light

SCADA visualization for industrial applications

AC DRIVES
AC Drives used in PLC are controlled on PWM(pulse width modulation)
Main manufacturers of ac drives are Allen Bradley and ABB

Features:1)speed control=120f/N ; where N=no. of poles


2)acceleration(to start motor) and deacceleration time control(to stop motor).
3)PLC interface

4)other communication interface


5)multispeed
e.g. the motor spins at 50 Hz for first 5 secs 70 Hz for next 10 secs and 10 Hz for
remaining 12 secs.
Note:-For a 5 HP motor we use a 5 HP AC Drive only. (AC Drive interfaces the PLC to
the motor)

AC DRIVE SCHEMATIC

C000main frequency
C001acceleration time
C002deacceleration time
C0120(digital operator)
1(PLC interface)
2(other communication interface)
C0128reset and restore=>08(to activate factory setting)
C0130(frequency set by digital operator)
1(frequency set by potentiometer)
C012MULTISPEED( press F4)
Note:-Interlock is provided in the PLC program such that both forward and reverse
rotation orders at a single instance are not issued.

CONCLUSION
Finally I would like to conclude with the brief synopsis of all that we learnt in the training
tenure at ACS, pune.

This training started with a brief introduction to PLCS proceeding on to the


programming of PLCS, study of different platforms of PLCS (Mitsubishi, Allen-Bradley,
Messung and Siemens), the differences amongst them. Further it included the lab
practice sessions of simulation and downloading and running the different programs on
PLC hardware. The training ended with the final week of study and practice labs on HMI
and SCADA and AC Drives.

Finally the training of 3 weeks was completed with a final presentation of various
applications and versatile use of PLCS in various fields and practical examples of
various concepts(HMI, SCADA, AC Drives) that we had studied during the lecture
hours.