CT Tutorial Lecture-6

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CT Tutorial Lecture-6

CT Tutorial Lecture-6

© All Rights Reserved

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Lecture 6 : CT Tutorial

Objectives

In this lecture we will solve some tutorial problems on CT and analyse:

The performance of a class C CT based on standard excitation curve.

Example 1:

A

, C400 CT with excitation curves shown on above fig 5.7, is connected to a 2.0

burden. Based

on the accuracy classification, what is the maximum symmetrical fault current that may be applied to this

CT without exceeding a 10% ratio error?

Answer:

CT ratio = 1200/5

Secondary resistance = 0.61

Relay burden = 2

For 20 times rated secondary current, i.e., 100A

Secondary voltage = 100 x (2 + 0.61) = 261 Volts which is less than knee point of the CT. Since this

voltage is less than 400V, from electrical perspective, linearity will not be lost at even higher currents.

Approximate limit on secondary current is given by

= 36720A.

fault current

More exact calculation requires usage of fig 5.7. This would involve 'cut and try' approach.

Example 2:

A

, C400 CT is connected on the

tap. What is the maximum secondary burden that can

be used and we can maintain rated accuracy at 20 times rated symmetrical secondary current?

Answer:

The secondary voltage

= 333V

Secondary current

333 = 100(0.51+RB)

Secondary burden = 3.33 - 0.51 = 2.72

Example 3:

. The relay setting is 2A and the CT ratio is

Assume that secondary burden of a 300:5 class C CT is 5

. Using fig 5.7, calculate the primary current required to operate the relay?

Answer:

Secondary burden = 5

Secondary resistance for 300/5 CT = 0.15

Relay setting,

V s = 2 x (5 + 0.15) = 10.3V

Corresponding exciting current = 0.04A

Total secondary current = 2 + 0.04 = 2.04A

Note that, strictly, phasor addition of currents has to be done. However, algebraic addition simplifies work

and usually leads to conservative estimate of voltages. Hence, this practice is considered acceptable.

Primary current to operate the relay =

= 122A

Example 4:

A relay is expected to operate for 7000A primary current. The class C CT ratio is

Secondary burden is 3.5

. Will the CT saturate at this burden? Also, comment on the ratio error.

Answer:

Secondary current

V s = 58.33 (3.5 + 0.31) = 222.25V.

From the excitation curve (fig. 5.7) of 600/5 CT, we can see that the CT will be in deep saturation and %

ratio error will exceed the limits.

Example 5:

What will be the approximate % error if a 500:5 class C CT is connected to a secondary burden of 2.5

and the secondary current is 68A.

Answer:

For a 500/5 CT, secondary resistance R s = 0.25

Secondary burden R B = 2.5

= 187V

Corresponding exciting current I E = 6A (fig 5.7) (approximate)

% ratio error =

= 8.82%

Example 6:

If a 300:5 class C CT (fig 6.1) is connected to a meter with resistance

the CT is 4.5A find out the primary current, voltage developed across the meter and % ratio error. Lead

secondary resistance

of a 300:5 CT

wire resistance

Answer:

,

Total secondary resistance

Secondary voltage

= 5.0265V

From Fig 5.7,

Exciting current I E for 5.265V

= 0.03A (approximate)

Turns ratio N = 300/5 = 60

= 60(4.5 + 0.03)

= 271.8A

Voltage across meter

= 4.5V

Ratio error

= 0.67%

Review Questions

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

A circuit has a 1200:5 C 400 CT with characteristics as shown in fig 5.7. The maximum symmetrical fault

for which the

associated relays are to operate is 17,800 Amp. Find out the approximate % error if the secondary burden

is:

(2) 4

(1) 2

The secondary burden in a relay circuit is 4 . The overcurrent relay set to pick up at 3 Amp and CT ratio

is 400:5.

Calculate the minimum primary current to just operate the relay?

Find out the maximum secondary burden that can be used and still maintain rated accuracy at 20 times

rated

symmetrical secondary current if a 1200:5 C 400 CT is connected on 800/5 tap.

If the secondary burden of 1200:5 C 400 CT connected to 300:5 tap is 2 , find out. Find out the

maximum symmetrical

fault current that may be applied to this CT without exceeding 10% ratio error.

Let the primary fault current in the primary side of a CT be given by

(a) Show that this equation can be rearranged as follows.

For u(t) where u(t) is the unit step function.

(b) Consider the simplified equivalent circuit of CT as shown in fig 6.2

Let

Primary Fault current

1)

2)

3)

(Sine Component)

(Cosine Component)

(d c component)

Recap

In this lecture we have learnt the following by solving the tutorial problems:

Ratio error increases with secondary burden and there is a maximum limit for secondary burden of a CT.

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