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GC Detector Product Line

ppb, ppm, %
1,3 BD
EPA 602b
EPA 502.3

Photoionization, w/l Photoionization, Flame Ionization, Thermal
Conductivity, Far UV absorbance, Flame Photometer (S, P)

Model PI-52 PID on Agilent GC

Model FI-54

EPA 506,
SW 8021,
SW 8260
Models FP-56 (S, P)
Model TC-55
EMMI 1997
OSW 8020B
OSW 5021
S cpds
P cpds
Model 53 FUV
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PID Analyzers, LLC

GC Detectors- PID, wl-PID

PI 52

The PID provides a response to a wide range of organic
and some inorganic compounds at part per billion (ppb)
levels. The HNU PID consists of an ultraviolet lamp and an
ion chamber. The detector measures the concentration of
gases present in a sample using the method of
photoionization. Photoionization occurs when a molecule
absorbs a photon (light energy) of sufficient energy,
creating a positive ion and an electron as shown below:

R + h = R+ + eCarrier gas deliveresthe sample to the ion chamber where

it is is exposed to photons generated by the ultraviolet
lamp. Molecules in the sample with ionization potentials
less than or equal to the energy level of the lamp are
ionized. The ionization potential is that energy in
electron volts (eV) needed to free an electron from a
molecule. A positively biased accelerator electrode repels
these ions, causing them to travel to the collecting
electrode, where an analog signal proportional to the
concentration of the sample is generated. The signal is
amplified to provide an analog output for graphic
recording or electronic integration. Sealed ultraviolet
lamps are available in four energies; 8.3, 9.5, 10.6, and
11.7 electron volts (eV). Detector selectivity (and
sensitivity) varies with each lamp. The PID becomes more
selective as the lamp energy decreases since it is capable
of ionizing fewer compounds. The detector becomes less
selective as the lamp energy increases. It is capable of
ionizing a larger number of compounds. The best lamp for
an application is typically one with an energy level just
above the ionization potential of the compounds of
interest. The 10.6 eV lamp provides the maximum
sensitivity for those compounds it detects. The PID is
nondestructive, and can be used in series with other

Windowless (wl) PID

A high voltage atmospheric discharge without a
window of a gas such as Ar will produce two lines at
11.6 and 11.8 eV. This allows detection of CH3OD,
formaldehyds, chloroalkanes and ethane which are
nor detected with the 106 eV lamp.

Measure VOCs and inorganic

Wide linear range > 107
Ranges: low ppb, ppm, %
Non-destructive- 2nd detector can be run in-series
EPA Methods, OSHA Methods
Quality control
One of the most sensitive
GC detectors available
Schematic of PID

PID Photo

Amp/PS/Temp. Control
for all GC Detectors

GC Detectors: FID, FPD (S, P), FUV, TCD)

The flame ionization prosess occurs only for
hydrocarbons when a carbon- carbon bond is broken
via a thermal process in the flame. This results in
the formation of carbon ions which are collected in
the H2/air flame by applying a positive potential to
the FID jet to push the ions to the collection
electrode where the current is measured. The
response (current) is proportional to the
concentration and ismeasured with an amplifier. An
FID consists of a combustion/ion chamber, a flame, a
voltage source for the accelerating electrode and an

Measures difference between the thermal
transfer characteristics of the gas and a
reference gas, generally helium but hydrogen,
argon, or nitrogen can also be used for a carrier gas
depending on the application. The sample and
reference filaments are two legs of a Wheatstone
Bridge. A constant current is applied with a resultant
rise in the filament temperature. As the sample
passes through the detector, the resistance changes
as the reference gas is replaced by the sample
which has can have a lower or higher thermal
conductivity. This difference in resistance is
proportional to the concentration.

Model 54-00 FID
Measures: selective for hydrocarbons
Concentration: sub ppm to %
Destructive detector: mass flow
the output of which is directly
proportional to the ratio of the
compounds carbon mass to the total
compound mass. Range: 106
EPA Methods, OSHA Methods
Quality control

Model 55-00 TCD

Measures: Universal Response- responds
to any compound that conducts heat

Range: high ppm to 100%, H2 and

He can be detected at low ppm
because of their high Thermal
Linear range: > 104

Model 56-00 FPD (S, P)

The sample is burned in a hydrogen rich
flame which excites sulfur or phosphorus to a low
lying electronic level. This is followed by a
resultant relaxation to the ground state with a
corresponding emission of a blue (S-394 nm) or
green (P- 524 nm) photon. This emission is detected
by a PMT with an interference filter.

The Far Ultraviolet Detector (FUV) provides a nearly
universal response (except for the noble gases) to
organic and inorganic compounds at low part per million
(ppm) levels. The internal volume of the FUV is only 40 mL
making it an ideal choice for use with capillary columns.

Specific for S or P
Range S: > 103
Range P: > 105
ppb to ppm

Model 53-00 FUV

Non Destructive
Can be used in-series
Nearly Universal Response
Low dead volume- 40 uL
Dymanic Range: > 104

Chromatograms & Reasons to Purchase

Reasons to purchase one of our GC Detectors

1. Bring an old GC with a working oven & fluidics to 21st century standards with a
new detector
2. Improve FID sensitivity by 50-100 fold with our PID
3. Replace a low sensitivity OI PID detector and improve sensitivity by 50 fold
4. Our new wl PID will ionize compounds up to 11.8 eV with Ar or provide a universal
ppb detector with a He discharge
5. Add an FPD, PID or FUV to expand the compounds detected at ppm or ppb levels
6. Non-destructive detectors such as the PID, FUV, or TCD can have a second detec
tor in-series to provide confirmation of structure or replace the need for a second


2 Washington Circle, Sandwich, MA 02563

Tel/ 1 774 413 5281; Fax 1 774 413 5298 URL:
HNU Nordion, Ltd, OY, Atomitie 5 A 3, PL 1,
Helsinki, Finland Tel. +358-9-565 7240 URL:

Selection Guide for GC Detectors

PID (10.6 eV)

wl PID (Ar 11.7

ev/He (20.2 eV)windowless

FPD (S or P)

VOCs (IP of 10.6 eV or lower) air/water/soil, EPA
Methods water/soil/waste/air TO3/TO14 , OSHA
Methods, hydrides H2S, H2Se, NH3, AsH3, PH3, Quality
Ar-(IP of 11.8 eV or lower)- CH3OH, CH2O, trihalo
methanes, ,CHCl3, CCl4
He (IP> 20.2 ev which includes all organic, inorganic
and inert gases
Inert (O2 & N2) and noble gases; universal detector
useful rom 500 ppm to 100%
Specific for Hydrocarbons including CH4
S- 394 nm filter
P- 525 nm filter

FUV (120 nm)

All organic compounds, O2 but not N2 or noble gases

ppb to high ppm
dynamic range 107
ppm to high ppb
dynamic range 107
100 ppm to 100%
<10 ppm for H2 and
dynamic range >104
0.1 ppm to 10,000 ppm
dynamic range 106
0.1 to 200 ppm
dynamic range 103
ppb to ppm
dynamic range 104
ppb to ppm
dynamic range >105