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1. Drawing paper
Various types of drawing papers are available for use but hard and soft surface
drawing papers are highly recommended to be used. This type does not groove easily
when pressure is applied to the pencil. Oslo paper is commonly used but bond paper is
also recommended.
2. Masking tape
This is used for fastening the drawing paper on the drawing table or drawing board
because it does not damage the board and it will not damage the paper if it is removed
by pulling it off.
3. Pencil sharpener
Pencils should be sharpened whenever they show sign of dullness.
4. Eraser
This is used to clean the dirt off the drawing. A soft eraser is advantageous in
removing smudges and pencil marks, whereas, a harder eraser is useful for making
changes and correcting errors in the drawing.
5. Pencil
This is one of the most important tools in drawing. It comes in various grades. The
grade of pencil to be used depends on the quality of paper to be used. You have to
take into consideration also the type of line work required.
Hard pencils are used where extreme accuracy is required especially working on
graphs, diagrams and charts.
Medium pencils are used for general purpose work in drawing.
Soft pencils are too soft to be used in mechanical drafting. They are very useful for
art work of various kinds.
6. Triangular Scales
The architects scale is a tool generally used when reproducing a drawing in an
enlarged or reduced form to some regular proportion. Its main function is to reproduce
the measurements of an object in full size, reduced size, and enlarged size.
7. Erasing Shield
This tool is made up of a thin metal with irregular holes. It is a useful tool to protect
the rest of the drawing when clearing up smudges, unnecessary pencil lines and other
8. T-Square
It is a drawing instrument used when making
horizontal lines. It is also used for guiding triangles when drawing vertical lines. It is
made of wood, plastic or the combination of both.
There are three (3) types of T square,
1. Fixed Head. The head is fastened to the blade. It is used for ordinary work.
2. Movable Head or Adjustable Head. It has one fixed and one adjustable head and
used only for occasional drawing.
3. Detachable Head or Removable Head. It is designed for comfort when carrying the
9. Triangles
It is a three-sided ruler, which typically has twoequal sides meeting at a 90
degree angle and to a third side at 45, 30, including 60 degree angles. It is usually
made of plastic and comes in different sizes. If in use, the base of the triangle must
rest on the blade of the T square.

Drawing a line always starts from the point near the base going upward.
Commonly used triangles are:
a. 30 degrees X 60 degrees
b. 45 degrees X 45 degrees
10. Compass
This drawing instrument is used when drawingarcs and circles. It is used in a
similar way to a divider. It is composed of one with the pen leg and the needle point
leg being held together with a handle. This drawing instrument can be used for both
penciling and inking.
11. Divider
This is a drawing instrument used whentransferring measurements, dividing
lines and arcs into the desired number of equal parts. It can easily transfer accurate
measurements by adjusting the divider points. Constant and correct practice with this
is necessary before doing actual work.
12. Protractor
It is a semi-circular instrument divided into 180 equal parts, each of which is called a
degree. It is used to determine gradations of the degrees when measuring arcs, angles and
circles. High quality protractor is usually made of plastic.
Millimeters Equivalent of Decimals and Fractions of an Inch.

Orthographic Views
Orthographic view-is a representation of two or more separate views. This can be represented
into six principal views and regular views
1. The Three Regular Views
Orthographic views can be represented by two or more separate views, however, it is advisable
to illustrate three views to show clear and detail
presentation of at least three principal views of the object. The following are:
1. Top View
2. Front View

3. Side View
2. The Six Principal Views
1. Top View. It is drawn above the front.
2. Front View. It is drawn vertically aligned and below the top view
3. Right Side View. This located at the right side and alignedwith the front view
4. Left Side View. The opposite of the right side view. It is located at the left side and aligned
with the front view.
5. Rear View. The opposite view of the front view. It is located aligned after either at the right
side view or left side view.
6. Bottom View. The opposite view of the top view. This must be drawn vertically aligned and
below the front view.
Pictorial View is a representation of a complete shape of the object.
The Space Dimension
This refers to the three dimension standards of the pictorial view such as: height, width, and depth.
Height is the distance elevation from top to bottom.
Width is the distance from left side to the right side.
Depth is the distance from front to rear.
Dimensions are given in the form of linear distances, angles or notes irrespective of the
dimensioning units being used.
The following are the essential elements to be considered in dimensioning technique:
1. character of lines
2. spacing of the dimensions
3. the arrow heads
4. the use of extension lines.
The arrow heads indicate the direction and extent of a dimension. It should be uniformed in size as
3mm. length width.
Spacing of the dimension lines
The dimension nearest to the object being outlined should be spaced at least 10 mm. away. All other
dimension lines should be at least 6 mm. apart. However, if more space is available, the spacing of
dimensions line should be uniformed throughout the drawing.
Extension line
A thin and dark solid line that extends from a point on the drawing to which a dimension refers.
The dimension line meets the extension lines at right except in special cases. A gap distance of at
least 2 mm. from the object outline should extend about 3 mm. (1/8) beyond the outermost
arrowhead. 45
System of Measurements
There are two systems of measurement applied in drawing such as English and metric.
1. English System
As used in drawing, specifically refers to inches and feet unit of measurement
2. Metric System

It is an International System (IS) of measurement as applied in drawing. This is based upon the
meter or millimeter as a linear unit of measurement

Construct perspective drawing

Perspective Drawing is a pictorial drawing which contains receding lines that converge at
vanishing points on the horizon. This drawing is also called as foreshortened drawing.
Principles of Perspective Drawing:
1. All receding lines converge on a vanishing points.
2. The farther the color, the lighter it appears.
3. The farther the object, lines, edges, the smaller it appears.
4. The object can be viewed in terms of birds eye view, eye level, and ants view. (see figure 1, 2, 3).
5. The vanishing point can be located anywhere as long as the object will not be distorted. For the
two-point perspective, the two vanishing points must be aligned to each other.
Picture Plane (PP) . This is an imaginary vertical plane where the picture is registered.
Ground Line (GL) .This is where the actual figure is laid.
Station Point (SP) . This is the fixed position where the object is actually viewed.
Visual Rays. These are imaginary lines projecting from the observer to the figure passing
through the picture plane. They are sometimes called receding lines.
Horizon (H) . This is the point where the figure appears horizontally at eye level.
Vanishing Point (VP) . This is the point where all receding lines meet in a perspective figure.