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The traditional methods of fish..catching are being modified with the advent of new technology.

The import.anceoffish as a/ood is becallse of its being protein-rich. It forms a vital part of the diet
of our people, particularly of those living;n coastal areas. As it is, it affords livelihood to about
one mUion people, and fish foods and processed marine products fetch the country vaillable foreign
In view of its importance as a food and foreign exchange-earner, fisheries are being encouraged
under variollSprogrammes rlln both by the Central and Staie Governments. New technology is being
introduced infish-rearing and fish-cultllre and internal fisheries is also being encouraged in tanks and
ponds. Meanwhile efforts are also afoot to changepeople'sfood habits.


F<>rJleOIlIe living In.,oastal areas,

flshing/sa JDl\iOr means of

\ f


No. 12
March 1, 1983
Pbalguna 10, 1904

IN yillages
INDIAwhere over 70 per cent of people live in
a!,d 50 per cent of the nmll peor live


below poverty line, rural development i3 a matler of

great urgency for overall economic development.

Journal of rural development)



B. S. Bhargava and Vijaykumar N. Torga!

C. B. Singh and' K .K. Patel



, V., P. Batra,




L. S. Madhava Rao
Brijesh K. Bajpai

K B ..L. Garg



WAY ...


Since .Independence, a number nf plUllS and programmes have been taken np for the benefit of the
rural masses. The success or failure of these programmes ucpended upon, among other factors, the
built-in existence of an efficie'l! delivery systcm
through which the benefits meant for the rural poor
actually reached thenl. An effective delivery system
is an essential pre-requisite for the success of any
rural development programme involving the people
at large.
Since.the'First Five Year Plan ,mmerous rural deve10Jiment . programmes
statting with
development scheme have been implemented in.' the.
. "
country.' Undeniably they did help in ameliorating
the.iot :of. the' rural, masse, and bringing abont t1':'
objectives. of ~ral development but not to the d<sired,
exteni" ,The most common failing of all these programmes' was
failure to evolve an effective channel
through which' the penefits conid flow to the rural
poor .... Most' of the schemes placed great reliance on
the exisiing administrative system to deliv<f the
goods rather than make an effort to evolve a flexible
delivery system, which could be. suitably modified
froin. place to place and time to, time to serve the

local needs.
.. "'"




What should an ideal delivery system be like? The

most ,important. and. essential feature of an ideal
deli~ery. sys~~m is th~t it should be closest to' the
people 'for whom the services are meant." Among
G. SINGH., the other important features are: awareness- among,
the'pe.ople about' the services available' to. them;"
peopl~'s' involyement and participation in decisionJIVANADALJA making, and delivery, system itself, availability of all
services at one point and .built-in system to ensure
that those 'who are ,not entitled or Ihose who are
Enquiries regarding 'Subscriptions, Agencies" etc.,
Business Manager, Publicatiom Divbion,
more influent{al do not walk away with the benefits.

_ Pntiala House,

New- Delhi-llOOOl
, Tel i 387983

Edito~i~1Office: Krishi Bbavan, ,New Delhi-lIOOO!

Telephones: 38~~8H & 382406 .


Editor's Residence:




In this issue,'we carry a thoughtCprovoking article

. ~
th subject fwd we. hope our readers will lind


interesting arid useful.



Looking~out for an'
efIectt;v;e:deliver,y, system1
Institute for Social and E;.conomic Change, Bangalore

system't~ the needs'oflthe'
'rural' poor has 'acqmred .greater =portance than.,
evef." This is because about 50 per cent of the Indian
rural"populace is still below the poverty line. PUblic
administration is striving hard to upliffthiS mass' of"
people from the acute couditions"of 'poverty" and l its"
evilS-SUCha"hungei', ill'health;' lack'of' clothing, ann;'
housliig and' unemployment. The;otasbof'developing,
this!'cdfe'pe6ple has now become a sort of challenge to
the1bureaucracy. This is.because whatever the programme, plan or strategy ,for removing poverty, if' is
ultimately the responsive and ef!'ective'delivery' system"
thai deteimIDes the outCome:
Delivery system has a crucial role in' detenmmngtlib!
sucCessof any programme or plan. An1effective and'
responsive delivery system has become the necessity of
the day to deliver serviceg and goods to the rural poor,
thereby bringing about rural development.

India, since Independence has initiated a n~ml5erof'

plans and programmes for bringing' about rapid' triinsforihation in'rurai socio-econonric life. But all the'
ruriiI development programmes (to some extent except
the present IRDP) have failed to evolve an effective
and'rlispoiisive delivery system for the rural populace.
The community' development (CD) and National
Extension Services (NBS), the first rural development
programme had iriitiated block administration as a delivery point. ibis programi:ti.efailed as blocks were
qnite big, often unWieldy, and left the weaker sections
untouched. Moreover, their heavy reliance on bureaucracy hampered their effectivenessin delivering services.
In order to fill in the gap created by the CD and NBS
popular institutions were created in the name of democratic decentralisation, popularly call&f as Panchayati

Raj Institutions (PRIs). These institutions were closer

to the rural society. Village panchayats, the first tier
. o(Panchayati"Raj System, were constituted in a village
. or. in a group,of villages, which are usually in the vici, nity of 4-5 kms. As the rural society is having traditional' moorings, the elite belonging to the higher social
stralli' dominated .these bodies. Added to this, the.
PRIs' suffered from many structural and functional inadequacies. Due to these problems, this institutional
device also left untouched.the rural poor. The early 60's.
Witnessed an effort towards rapid agricultural production. This process culminated in Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP). This progrannne succeeded in increasing agricultural production, but the
benefits of this accrued only to rich and progressive
peasants. Once again, landless and agricultural labourers were left untouched.


Growth with social justice

'HE FOURTH FrYE YEAR PLAN iu the name of 'Growth

with Social Justice' initiated efforts towards
uplifting the vulnerable sections of the rural society.
In this connection, a number of special economic
progranrmes were launched. Programmes such as
SmaU Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Marginal Farmers and Agiicu1tural Labourers Agency
(MF ALA), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP),
Tribal Area Development Programme were brought
into the rural development scenario. These programmes addressed themselves to the upliftment
of weaker sections of the rural society and the
new approach ca11edtarget-group approach. These progrannnes did succeed, but only in limited area and
uumber. The basic problem was departmental administration coupled Withproblems of coordination. These
programmes were' implemented through the existing
administrative apparatus at block aud village level.

fu "


1, 1983 t~


have delivery point at a little distance whereas backward area should have it near the rural podr. In a
developed area, transport and communication and
publieity facilities will be there and therefore in
such an area there is no need of delivery point very
near to the rural poor. In this eonnection, cluster
app,oach of IRDP is worth mentioning, bnt it
rigidly followed throughout the country.

this sense, these programmes did not change much of

the delivery system whatever earlier programmes had.
This was a serious defect. Only at programme level
changes ~ere initiated, but not at organisational and
administration level especially at block and village level.

Of late, the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) is in vogue in rural development field.
At district level, a new organisation namely District
Run;l Development Society/Agency has been supplanted to the district development administration for implementing the IRDP. In this process again at block
and village level, the heavy reliance is on the existing
block administration, which is inherently. weak. Obcviously, such an organisati';nal,ammge,ment (particularly block administration) once again has to face pro blerils which earlier programm<;s had experienced.; It
can be mentioned here that the problemsof block administration have not been solved since years. Problems
, such as incentives to block personnel, coordination,
of BDO in block administration etc., etc., have
yet to receive due' attention from higher authorities.
And this is fraught with serious dangers, as .. far as
.implementation of IRDP is concerned.

I ~

The foregoing quick survey of .rural ,development

,efforts shows that the delivery system in all the 'programmes has suffered from one or the,other,handicaps.
Community development progranlme 'was
,bureaucratic. whereas panchayati raj was. elite.,(/ominated. and IADP was never addressed . to . th~ :w~aker
sections. In case of special economic p'r2W~J!.~es',
\ the problems of block administration, in addition to the
problem of coordination impaired the effective. delivery
.of services to the rural poor.


"AnJideahdelivery .s~~tem



. of ,rura\, poor? Answer cannot bq, .given in a,.s!raight

, way but one can construct a system. with ,essential. in"gredients. In this connection, delivery system ,should
have the following ingredients :'"




An ideal delivery system near to the
people. It has been observed that CD.failed becaus!,
. it was away from the rural poor. Delivery point'
should be either in a village or in a group of Villages
(within the radius of :5'kms) .. 'It' it is .away;rural
poor cannot avail of its services. .Obviously,. iin~er
such situation other than the rural poor marupulate it
for their own ends .. Rural poor should know, what
are the services. they are getting. It is only possible
when it is near ihem. They can just co!).tact and, get
. the services according to the p'rovisions. There should
not be
rigid pattern throuihout the country. It
should be flexible. imd according to the development
of area in context. A .highly develoPed 'area'may


An effective delivery system demands an integration of services. So far in India's rural development
programmes the services were scattered over many
ageneies and departments. For instance, in the CD,
multiplicity of welfare services, offered by the agents
of a number of separate government departments
often bewildered the village people. In speeial economie programmes also, services are scattered over
many departments and ageneies. The scattered
services will not be effective in delivering services
because of problems of overlapping and conflict over
jurisdiction. Also serving the rural poor will be one
. 'Of. the.severaLtasks of such ageneies and departments
'uand .as,such <it often leads to neglecting their duty,
~"Moreover, 'rura! poor. have to visit se'veralagencies
for. various ~ervices.~Hence,. the situation demands
. ;that,serviees,
.integrated in.a coordinated
manner at one point. In this connection village pan.'ehayats can be reconsidered. The soeial justice com.
..mittee .0Lvillage ..panchayat (say, for example in
H:Kamataka) ,should be entrusted with. this work. This
is- necessary in order to avoid manipulation by the
elites of high socio-economie baekground. This in.
tegrated agency should keep all necessary information
"pertawng","' to." potential
benefieiarie~. This helps in
t..,. -..-_.
. '
deliv,ering services efficiently and in time without
;;;uch' formalities.

:is to ~~hat.s~rt. of

Ndelivery system should be there to serve the needs


I, ,1-983



,Delivery. system should have an in-built 'boundary
,.control'.' 1; .necessary to channelise the services groups only. This need arises from the
esse)ltia!. character of a rural setting marked by a
~ sharply.skewed distribution of land holding ... The
t overall fUl'a1environment
has an inherent tendency
eto interfere in, the. delivery administration. In built
.boundry.control system ensures that
I services are: delivered ouly to the rural poor without
permitting other. forces to enter the system.

"A);resM"sive delivery,sys!em demands partieipa-rt;~j;yelcAl,a,g~g~:'ll.en~h!in~L:d~~v~ry
rad.minis~a~ion. r ~artieipation implies enhaneing well-being of the persons,
rinf-.-i!!c-?p1e,(security and self-esteem. In this sense,
participation by the rural poor in delivery administrabMo~,La~~!!JIles.TNjtal
.;place. 1Rural, development ,promll':alJ.lAl.e~"J1r",&imed~atouplifting,.the
rural .poor, and
(Conld. on p.. 16)



:,.,., "

Econ'omics of fodders and

nutrients on rural farms
C.B. SINGH and 1i.K. PATEL
Dairy Economics, Statistics and Mgmt. Dvn., NDRI, Karnal (Haryana)

that improved breeding and

Ihealth cover 'are no suhstitutes
for proper feeding.


Evidence has shown that it is more economical to

maintain high yielding animals on green fodder than
on concentrates and by-products of crops like straws,
Massi"e investments have heen mad.!' and are being
, made' in ,crossbreeding and upgrading programme in
,different states of the country so as to achieve the target
of required quantity of milk production. But adequate
attention has riot, so far, be-en given the nutritional requirements of the improved animals.

It is heartening to note that the area under .irrigated

fodders is only about 1.11 million hectares' accounting
for about 1.43 per cent of the gross ,irrigated area and
about 0,65 per cent of the gross cropped area in the
country, In view of the relatively higher profitability
of cereal and cash crops, it does not appear probable
to increase the area under fodder crops. Therefore, the
. solution of 'the problem of ,milk production lies in t4e
increased fodder production and nutrients per unit
'area and time. The production potenti<i!'of fodders'
, through an intensive crop rotations ,and cost of pro',duction, of various fodders and nutrients' on the demonstration plots have already been, reported. However, information

on economic

aspects .of fodder pro-

duction in rural areas is not available for use by the

researchers', extension workers and the farmers.


I!r~sent s.tudy was, therefore, taken up to provide information on .cost and return aspects of fodder production
in 'the ruralareas of Kamal. district.
. and nutrients

Research Project of the National' Dairy Research Institute, Kamal. A sample of 77 farmers
was randomly selected on the' basis of probability
to the number
of farmers
each \Category" viz. (i) 16 marginal ifurmers
(operational holding upto 1 ha.), (ii) 20 small farmers
(10.1 to 2.00 ha.), (iii) 16 lower medium farmers
(2.01 to 4.00 hal, (iv) 13 upper medium farmers
(4,01 to 8.00 ha.) and' (v) 12 large farmers (above
8.00 ha.).
'The relevant data 'for the year 1977-78 were col'
lected in the well designed schedules by interviewing
the farmers at monthly intervals. The average prevailing prices of various inputs and outputs were uSed to
compute costs and returns of various fodders grown by
the farmers.
The straight line method was used to work out depreciation on various items of fixed assets. :rhe joint
costs'incurred by the farmers in various farm assets
were apportioned in proportion to the fodder cropped
area til total cropped area. Thus the ,per hectare depreciation cost was worked out for each crop depending
upon the duration of the crop stand. Similarly interest
was c!'!rged on the value of fixed assets and was apportioned using the same criterion as was used for depr"'::
ciation. However, the prevailing leasing rate of land'
,was, used and was apportioned for each crop on the
basis ,of duration of crop stand.

Findings of the study

. Methodqlogy

randoni sampling' techoi, " . gue was followed to select the saniple "farmers
from theildoptcd
villages under the Operational

General TnjorJ111ltiol1
oj Sample Farms.- The average
,; si~e of operational holding, family; milch and draught
.a~imaIs -on. different categories of. sample fanus were

in Table I.
. . and are given


< '


March 1, 1981[

Table! : Average Size of Operational Holding, Famil)o', l\1.ilch and D.raught Animals
size of
operational ~offamily.
holding (ha.)

Category iJf farmers

if' Marginal

Small fanner

Lower medium farmer

Upper medium farmer
Lar-ge farmer
Overa)l average

Draught -A;nimals









I .65

7 '85


I .52
I '02

I '62
1 .50

I .00





I '31


It may be observed from Table I that the average

size of operational holding on sample farms was
4.31 hectares and the family size had a positive
reliltionship with the size of holdings. Similarly the
number of milch and draught animals per household
indicated an increasing trend; however, reverse was
on per hectare basis.

Milch Animals

Cropping Pattern and Intensi!y.-With

a view to
assessing the land use pattern on the sample farms
in the area, share of different broad categories of
crops grown on the farms and the cropping intensify
were computed and are brought out in Table II.

0/ farms

Marginal farm

Sman farm
Lower medium farm
Upper medium farm
Large farm

./1, Table II reveals that the cereal crops recorded the

highest share of about 73 per cent of the total
cropped area on the sample farms. It was .observed
that paddy and wheat were the most important
cereal crops grown in the area. It is interesting to
note that about 20 per cent of the total' cropped
area was occupied by the fodder crops as against less
than 5 pet cent for the country as a whole. Further,
the share of fodder crops in the cropping pattern w~s
the highest on marginal farms followed by small
farms. This could be attributed to the priority given
.by these farmers to the dairy enterprise owing to
its employment and income generating capacity. The
average cropping intensity on the farms was estimated
ale 179 per cent.

heclare ranged from 15 days (man days) in Jowar+

guai: to 51 days in lucerne crops.
As regards the per hectare yields, maize+cowpea
and berseem+mustard registered the highest average
yields amongst all kharif and rabi fodders respectively.
analysis for various fodder
T crops is expected to reflect
comparative perforHE


mance and resource use efficiency On the' farms .

Therefore, data on costs and returns for important
fodder crops grOW'llby the farmers were analysed and
are presented in Table IV.


Input-Output Levels.--,Table III shows the per

hectare average levels of important inputs like seed,
nitrogenous, phosphatic and potash fertilizers applied
and human labour used in different fodder crops and
.yields obtained on the sample farms.
It may be
observed that tbe application of phosphatic and
potash fertilizers was conspicuous by their absence
in majority of the fodder crops. However, the use
of nitrogenous fertilizers was made invariably in all
the .fodder crops. Human labour employment per

March 1, 1983

COS! of Production.-A
close examination of Table
IV reveals that total cost of cultivation per hectare was
the highest (Rs. 1345) for maize+cowpea and the
lowest (Rs. 941) for jowar+guar amongst all kharif
fodders: The reason Jar the lowest cost of cultivation could be found in lower cost incurred by the
farmers on .human labour and bullock labourjtractor
use. In cas.e of rabi fodders, oats+mustard recorded
lower cost of cultivation per hectare compared to
other crops,


.'ruble HI : A wrage lnput and Output levc1s in nJffercnt Fodder Crops ..

. -. Seed





.t:Fix~dcost here includes-land

rent, depreciation

Hilman .




lise (da.l.,s/ha)

and interest on fixed capital.

It was obsen'ed' that jowar+guar in kharif season

and berseem+mustard in rabi season recorded the
highest net return per hectare. Further, the cbst of
production. per quintal for jowar+guar in kharif
season (Rs. 2.52) and berseem+mustard. in rabi
season '(Rs. 4.34) was the lowest amongst all other
crops in the respective seasons. Thus on the basis
of per hectare yields, net reiurn and cost of production, it may' be inferred tl"it jowm+guar 'and
maize+cowpea in kharif season and berseem+
mU'sfardand oats+mustard'in rabi season are relatively better fodders.

Production and Cost of Nutrients-The

availability and cost of production of nutrients like.-U
digestible crude protein (DCP) and . total digestible
nutrients (TDN) in. different fodders produced
per hectare are the indicators, of quality and
economic superiority. Therefore, the quantIties of
available nutrients in different fodders grown by the
fariners and 'their cost of production were worked
out and are preseryted in Table V.
A close perusal of Table V reveals that maize+
cowpea yielded the highest DCP per hectare in


KURUKSHETRA March '1, 1983'

kharif season folIowed by jowar+guar. However.

lucerne ranked first amougst alI otber rabi seasou
fodders in terms of DCP production.. As regards tbe
TDN, maize+jowar in kharif and berseem+mU:stard
in rabi yielded the highest production of this nutrient
" per hectare .

The cost of production of DCP au the sample

farms was the lowest (Rc. 1.89/kg.) for maize+
cowpea and the highest (Rs. JO.04/kg.) for jowar in
kharif season.






registered the lowest cost of prOduction (Re. 1.53/

kg.) closely followed by berseem+mustard (Re. 1.65/

kg.). In case of TDN, the cost of production varied

in a narrow margin of Re. O.21/kg. for maize+
jowar and jowar+guar and Re .. 0.42/kg. for guar
and lucerne crops. Thus it could be inferred on the
basis of cost of production of nutrients, especially of
DCP on tbe rural farms, that maize+eowpea
jowar+guar in kharif season are superior to other
fodders whereas lucerne and berseem+mustard yield
higher DCP at lower cost compared to oats+mustard.
This suggests that tbese fodders have great potential
for meeting the DCP requirement of dairy animals
and simultaneously reducing the cost of milk production in rural areas.

1. Statistical Abstract of Hatyana (1978-19).

Economic and Statistical Organisatio-n, Planning Department, Government of Haryana;

2. Singh, C.R, R.K. Patel and S. P. Sharma (1980), "Fodder Product~on on Small. farms",

{Ildiail~ Dairyman,

32,9, 1980 pp. 685:........:

3. Siogh, c.B., RK- Patel and R:ljender Prasad (.1981), "Production Potential of Fodders and Supply of Nutrients" Illdion Dairyman
33,3, 1981,pp. 168-173.
. . :

~,. KURUKSHETRA March 1; 1983



Bringing fertilizers within

reach of small farmers

in view of its
basic importance to the development of agriculture, has been placed in the core sector. The first
large-sized plant for the manufacture of nitrogenous
fertilizers was set up at Alwaye in Kerala in 1947.
The fertilizer industry had its real start as a major
industry in India with the establishnlent of the Sindri
Fertilizer Factory in the public sector in 1951. Since
then as a result of the establiShmentof a large number
of fertilizer factories both in the public and the
private sector, production has increased rapidly.
Over the years, the ind!Jstry has made rapid strides
with manifold increase in the installed capacity and


At the beginning of the First Five Year Plan

(1951-52), India produced 38.7 thousand tonnes of

fertilizers. Iilitially imported fertilizers formed the

bulk of total consumption, imports accounting. for
more than 50 per cent of the total supplies: Recent
years have witnessed a spurt in the number of units
of fertilizers. The industry, being capital-intensive
in character requires a huge amount of funds running
into erores. This being the main reason, the number
of units in the fertilizer industry is very small. In
1973, there were over 50 factories in operation as
against 9 in 1950. The production of nitrogenous
fertilizers in 1973-74 amounted' to 10.50 lakh tonnes
as against 29 thousand tonnes in 1951~52. P20. in- J
Creasedto 32.45 lakh tonnes from 9.8 thousand tonnes ""
during the same period as can be seen from Table I


, T~", above .figures reveal the widening gap between

th." !leWaIld and, production which had to be bridged
by imports involving heavy foreign exchange expenditnre. ytith the iner,ease in produetio;' the imports of
fertilizer showed a declitiing trend in 1973-74 though
it increased from 1974-75 to 1980-81.
The Green Revolution of the mid-sixties gave a
great impetus of fertilizer production.
The output
stood at 609.8 thousand tonnes in 1968-69 and rose
to 954.3 thousandtonnesin
Dur,iIig the
Fourth Plan period, ' the production of 'tiitrogenous
fertilizers increased, by 96 per cent and thit of phos. :',
, ..
I . "
phatie 'fertili~ers oy. 51 per cent: This, was achieved
partly through the expansion of ekfsting units aid partly
through efforts made to ensure unintenupted supply of
pOwerio fertilizer plants and adequate wagons fur the
moveinent of raw material and finished products.



Green revolution gives a push


and great determination

on the part of the country to become self-sufficient
in fop<!, th~ Fifth Plan laid greater emphasis on thi:
production of fertilizers. The Fifth Plan envisaged an
increase in' nitrogenous fertilizer capacity by 163 per
cent and output by 227 per cent and that of phosphatic
fertiliser capadty by 206 per cent and output by 294
per cent.



A large scale programme for implementation of

fertilizer capacity comprising of 9 large-sized fertilizer
projects and a few single sulphur,phosphate scheme is
under implementation. These projects on completion
would add an additional capacity of 20.80 lakh tonnes
of nitrogen and 2.48 lakh tannes of phosphate, raising'
the total capacity to 68.55 lakh tonnes of nitrogen and
15.30 lakh tonnes
., of P20,.

As indicated earlier, the fertiliZer being' a core sector '

industry, the public and private as well as C90Perative
sectors have been assigned a definite role in its development. There are at present 32 large-sized nitrogenous complex fertilizer units, besides' 35 single super
phosphate units. Of the '32 large' nitrogenouS units
22 are in the public sector, 9 in the private sector
while one in the cooperative sector.



- .



The demand for nitrogynous and phosphatic fertilizers

at 60 lakh tonnes and 23 lakh
respectively. ,in 1984-85 and at 86.0 lakh tonnes and
33 lakh tonnes in.. 1989-90. Considering the time
lag inherent in the, establishment of new capacity, the
attainable levels of production in 1984-85 have been
estimated at 42 lakh tonnes of nitrogen and 14.0 lakh
tonnes of P20,. Snbstantial imports would therefore
be necessary even at the end of the Sixth Five Year


Indian Farmers Fertil~ers Cooperative (lFFCO)

unlike other cooperative organisations which normally
confine their activities to processing of agricultural
produce. has entered the' field of m~ern industrial
manufactures by having i~ own fertilizer plant. The
.country;s first and the largest fertilizer plant in the
cooperative sector went on stream in November 1974.
The ,organization has .certain other outstanding characteristics ,too. " It is a federation of more than 24,500
cooperative~~"societies, ,big and' smalJ, spread all over
the country, with a membership ,of more than 22
million farmcrs. Its Kalal pr.oject involved a foreign
ex.change expenditnre of about Rs. 30 crores for capital
equipment, parts etc. which was provided by the United
States, UK and the Netherlands. The technical knowhow for the, plant was provided by an American cooperative, CC;~peiative Fertilizer International.
on natural gas, abundantly available in th~ nearby area,
the, Kalal plant produces ammonia, urea and NPK fertilizers whic~ are in much short supply. allover the
world and which are considered very vital inputs' for
rising our farm production.

, '


Match 1; 19.83



The Kalol pIani is one of the two fertilizer units

being put up by the IFFC(,}, rhe other pl;mt being at
Kandla is also in Gujarat. Ammonia phosphoric acid
and nitrate of potash are the basic raw materials for
this plant. It has been observcd that Kandla plants
location is suitable for the eventual manufacture of
phosphatic acid locally and plans have heen drawn up
.Presently; the IFFCO's share in the total fertilizer
producti~n. in the country amounteu to 14 per cent of
nitrogenous and 26 per cent of phosphatic fertilizers
against the previous year's I~velpf 11 and '23 per cent
respectively. Its Kanrlla. and Kalal' units' operated at
107 per cent and the Phulpur unit in its_first full year
of operation, at 80 per cent capacity to produce 15.9
lakh tonnes of urea and phosphatic fertilizers up ffC'ffi
10.4 lakh tonnes.

Need to keep down prices

the rise in fertilizer prices and certain
credit restraints have brought in some distortions
inimical to the efficient and rational use of fertilizer
among different crops, regions and the farmers. Some
of these distortions affecting the use of fertilizers
through differential profitability and paying capacities
~ of different types and sizes-of farms are inherited from
the skewed distribution or land and other resources iri
the country _and are independent to fertilizer usc
programme. '


An important problemhedevilling
the industry is
the heavy billid-up of' iiwcntories and to some extent
power cuts imposed by some state governments on
units located in their states. The fertilizer industry had



as on April 1, 1982 an inventory level nearly 80 per

cent more than the level on April 1, 1981 with the
resultant serious cash credit problems. The basic root .
cause for this malaise is the unrealistic estimates of
consumption and stocks in hand at the beginning of
each consumption season namely Kharif and Rabi.
On acconnt of over-estimation in the consumption and
under-estimation of'stocks in hand, there exists a much
wider anticipated gap compared to realistic situation
between consumption and domestic production. .1m.
ports planned on the basis of these unrealistic gap
would create a situation of abundant availability' of
feitilizers in the country.
The two successive price increases iIi 1989 and 1981
made a distinct dent in the demand .growthcurve. With
the ip.c:reasing. p'rice1i,farniers have become more conscipus of' their ret)lrn on investments. The country
indeed' is' facing problem inasmuch as any reduction
in prices will require heavier subsidy to .the industry.
On the other hand, if we do not maintain the prices
at a reasonably low level, the desired consumption of
fertilizers' to increase the food production may not be
there requiring subsidies on other fronts. The situation
will.have to be optimised by a proper balance in prices
oI-.inputs to fertilizer industry and the prices oflood-.

, Jt' is all the more important that the fertilizer use
efficiency must become an integral part of all extension
and promotion programmes of the state governments,
agricultural universities, banks and the industry. An
integrated rind coordinated approach ot' all the agencies
under the aegis of state governments would be of
cOlisiderable help. ,It is felt.that state governments
must take a lead' role in the matter.

To remedy the situation of difficult cash credit problem of the industry, itis essential that fertilizer industry'
so vital to the economy of the. country is granted by
RBI the faCilityof refinancing so that the industry does
not have to run helter-skelter to get adhoc adjuStments.
The commerCial banks should be able to. provide the -f.
necessary support.

Popularising use of fertilizers

fertilizer prices during 1980-81
of growth of fertilizer
I and 1981-82, thein rate



sumption.has been about 10 per cent in 1981-82, as

compared to 4.9 per cent in 1980-81. With.a view to
increasing agriculture productivity in the dryland areas
under the New 20-p"int Programme of the Prime
Minister; the target of fertilizer consumption has been
kept at 7.2 million tonnes of fertilizer nutrients for
1982-83. ~.
The state governments have recently been directed-4...,
to maximise the fertilizer use in' the. irrigated areas in
order to optimise the agricultural production under the
prevailing..9rought conditions in many parts of the
country.. However, special emphasis has been placed
in max.irnisingthe fertilizer_use in irrigated command
area. Conce~ed efforts are being made to. augment
fertilizer use in the north-eastern states which' have
very low base 9f fertilizer use.
Last but not the least, dry land areas which are
important for oilseeds and pulses production have to
be given attention to promote higher fertilizer use. The
training and visit system is the main vehicle of transfer
of teehnol<:Jgyfor stepping up'the low level of fertilizer
use in these areas. Besides, all efforts should be pnt
into use to' achieve this objective thereby paving way
for higher production.





. ~, .

. ,.


KURUKSBETRA'Mlirch 1,1983



I... .'

. j



'" ,

'.'Management of rural

water supply Jprogramlles


DePtt. or"Public Admn., Vivek'vardbini College, Hyderabad



..ONEARTHis caused by.lack of
several factors. such as food, clothing, shelter,' and
God's grace.. Ngnetheless. lack of water too can .add
to the suffering .inuo less measure. It is.most surprising and looks paradoxicar' to' see tliat the. relentlesS
quest is made by human beiIlg for udrinking water
facility" even though: the globe is surrounded by 2/3rd
of water,

.,It is needless to say that moral obligation is cast on

the government in this regard-,be it Central, State or
Local, to provide this basic amenity to the people.
In this brief article, an attempt is made to project the
picture of problems of drinking water supply confronting the government department and its efforts made to
solve them.

Water resources in A.P.

has three distinct regions, They
are Coastal Districts, Rayalaseema Districts and
Deccan Plateau; each presenting a problem of its own,
There is no scarcity of water either surface or ground
in Coastal Districts; but because of nearness of sea,
the water tastes saline and brakish.
In the delta areas of Krishna and Godavari rivers,
the surface water though in abundance and' useful for
"-' irrigation, becomes unfit for drinking purpose because
of highly jiolluted condition,
Rayalaseema and part of Telengana region receive
scant rainfall and are therefore subject to frequent
droughts and famines, The nature of soil is hard rock
and ground water occurrence is a matter of luck.
Deccan Plateau where the average rainfall is about
30" the soil is rocky granite. The upper strata of the
soil is highly porous having large fissures, which is un_ >KURUKSHETRA March l",'1983

. ,f-


t ~ .






suitable for surfa<;estmage and storage tanks and they

dry in summer.. "





! .,,"

Thanks to ihe Central GoVenlmen(j'or having sanctioned it special Investigation' Division 'to conduct' a
detailed'surveY'.of scarcity areas for dririking":water
supply in the year 1963. '



The team has done its job sincerely and -analysed

the' problem in' two ~ays. It divided ihe villages in
Andhra Pradesh into two .categories. Under Category I
such villages are inchided where there' is . 'aCute
scarcity' of,water:and ,under Catego'ry n are induded
such villages whe~e there is water supply but is,
'inadequate'. Top priority is given to the first category.


The survey party ,has revealed that out of 54,143

viiIages and haD;lletsin the Stale, 33,996 villages and'
hamlets' have' received drinking water facilities upto
March, 1970 and the balance 20,149 villages and
hamlets require urgent attention of the local body and
the Government as well in the matter.

When the same point is Said in terms of above made

categorisation, it comes to 11,555 villages ~allingunder ~
Category I (acute scarcity) and 8,594 villages under
Category n (inadequate ~ndition).



WATERprobiem in big
. citieS,and towns having municipalities and corporations, the Public Health Engineering Department is
made responsible while in rural areas, Panchayati Raj
comes into picture to solve the same problem. Currently the Panchayati Raj Department is manned by
two Chief Engineers of its own, one for rural water
supply and administration and the other. to carry out .


the works such as rural roads, buildings, minor irrigation and housing. Since the present enquiry is concerned with R.W.S., it is evident that this wing is
headed by one Chicf Engineer having a battalion of 6
Superintending Engineers (roughly one for every 3
districts), 23 Executive Engineers (one at every district); about 3 Assistant Engineers and, 5-6 Junior
Engineers (who are all gazetted) are working under
each Executive Engineer.

Amount of work involved

Open wells are cheaper and are preferred to borewells. This is established by investigation that open'
wells have an edge over borewells because of their
lasting durability with least maintenance charges.
Further borewells need frequent repairs and cause
disruption in supplying rinking water regularly and COn-,,',
tinuously, thus involving heavy maintenance charg,s. '(;'
Borewells are to be drilled only where open wells
are not feasible due to geological or health factors and
when water table cannot be touched at a reasonable depth and where the expenditure' is estimated to
go abnormally high for an open well.

problem has been more acute in

of the
and 'the
State . Gov":.'
.' ~'

. ".
. , ~
The issue has to be decided from the point of numanmentis committed to' solve it ,by promoting various
ber of beneficiaries also. Normally, one borewell
s~~m,'es indepe,nde;ltlYSu,:h _a,'sPt?tec,te~ waJer S':lPP~Yl
serves the needs of rougWy 250 people.
s~Iieine, bore wells and open ,wells under State Plan.:1,:;l
Mini-water supply is provided using a small bore or
, 1. The State is frequently affected by water assoa well as a source. Water is given at one or two
ciated problems such as droughts" high .incidence of
places using battery of taps. It serves approximately
water-borne diseases like cholera, dysentery etc. Realis750 persons. Major protected water supply is extended"",in.ll .the, magnitude pf the problem the, Government of
to'major Gram Panchayats, whose' financial status is
Il1dia"Wtiated programming like . AC5e1erated Rural
Water Supply Programme (AR.W.S.P.).
Its objective is ,to provide drinking water facilities to all
The water brought should be pumped high to over~
"Problem villages"': ' The Government provides full
~ead taDle and be subjected to cherical and bacteriofinancial-,aSsistance in implementing the 'progranuue.
logical tests before the 8ame is let out for human con." ;," r .
sumption. through distribution system .
2. Life Insurance Corporation of India came forward
- '...
to finance' protected water supply schemes in the form
Problem Villages.-Surveys were conducted during
of. kiiinscovering 50 . pe,rcent of the cost of the scheme.
1972 and 1980 and in all 12,269 villages have been
as problem villages.
With the continuous
, 3: To' provide' safe potable' water to I 71 f1uoridepumping
purpqse and
affectect villages, Roy:il Netherl~ds Government came
frequent d~ought conditions, the gtotind water"table is
fOrWiirdwith a massive project at a cost of Rs. 11.55
goi~g down year by year and the numbe~ of problem
villages is also on the increase. HiilJ growth rate of
4. UNICEF had given Rigs and other machinery
population and pollution of waier soUrces by industries
to dig borewells in the State.
have contributed to this difficult situation. To: meet
" .

, .,
themthe.departInent is adopting suitable measures by
5. Beneficiaries.,also contrlbuted'in the case of R.W.S.,
furmulating syst~'matic' programmes and implementing
taken up under.State Plan. Luckily the decade 1981
, .
to' 1990 is recognised as International Drinking Water
:Walef'S~pply froni'[rrigatldn Canab.-Th~ GovernSupply and' Samtation Decade. to gear. up, the implementation of water supply schemes."
ment has 'take~ a 'wlse decision to supply drinkini
water, to lhe villages near .the impoundments 'of major
,minor irrigation canals and those falling along the
, r, >J (,i [; Action pmgramme
water course free of cost. Of course, the water before
~ '~~riF"des~liptio~
it is released for drinking purposes is treated either in
:',operand. of'eilch
_ -. ..
sedimentation tanks or slow sand filters and mechanical
necessary for a layman. Discussion is also essential
filters to remove turBidity and also cWorination is done
on the issue of whether to have open wells or to go
to remove bacteria. ,These safeguards are observed ,:..:>
in .for .bOre wells from the point of view of speedy
in the case of Nagarjnna Canal, Madras City Canal,
eXf).;ution a~d~nomy.
, n
Kakatiya Canal and Vizag Canal.







. -






Prablem village 'shauld satisfy .one .of the fallowing'critetia :_

1 ,Thase nat having an assured source .of drinking water within <l
" nr~sbnabledistance.of1.6
K.M. and within a depth .of J5
...1 metreS.

, - . "










~. !hosc whjc~ suffer from e_~c~s .of ~~_linity, ir.on and fluoride
.or .oth"ertoxic efements hazard.ous te' health; and
" oj. :rhose where the sources' of 'w~ter- are liable t.o-th~ risk .of
"'f c~eIeraeT guiriea-wonn"infecti.ort.

Royal Netherlands.Government's Assistance.-A

massive project a~.~,cosi,Qf Rs 11.55 cmre ~astaken
up with ../he'assistance .of the Roval Netherlands Gov- .
emment to provide saf!" potable ;vater to 171 f1ourideaffectedvtilages roveriIig six'districts-2Prakasam, Gunt\1r, Krishiia, Karimnagar, Nalgonda 'ani:!K~~ooI.The
scheme,;"'ili benefit 7'.'17 lakns of population. ' Furth~r,

March"r,' i9S3;,,: ~

200 vitiages have been identified as fluoride-affecte<i

villages and a project is being formulated by obtaining
external assistance.
It may be noted as an interesting side-light that
. continuous use of drinking water with high fluoride
.' content ca~ses fluorosis. This diseas" IS symptomised by skeletal disfigurement, patches on the
enamel of teeth (Mottling) and eulargement and
malfunctioning of kidneys and stiffness of joiiUs, leading to severe and periiianent disabilitY. The niain
ca~se for the prysence oflluo~ide is due !O the fluoridebearing minerals in the rocks; surfaces or the flow
path of natural streams.

BIiit cost" (per capita cost) based on 1982 pnces

are being exeT

.'. 'cuted out of the State Plan fliiids and Central



AssistanceProgriliiiine; whereas the protecfcd . water

sanctioned \il1d"erthe Stale Plan,
'Six-Point Formula, Life Insurance Corpotatioli loan
A;;'sistailceaha Central Assistance Programme.

--> silpply schemes are

Further it may be noted tllat State Plans are partly

assisted by contribution .from Panehayats depending
upon their gross income for the last three years.
As six-point formula schemes are executed in the
backward areas of the State the contribution of Panchayats towards financing is either -reduced or
in full, bas'ed oil dYerecommendation of the District
Collector. In the case. of P.W.S. Schemcs intended
for Sc~eduled. Castes anli Tribes, the contribution
expected 'from them is not insisted upon and the
scheme is exccuted on full grant basis. Government of
india. is financing on full grant basis to finance the
Accelerated Rilral Water Supply . to the problem
villages. As ~aid earlier, R"oyalNetherIimds Government is providing Rs. 11.55 crore to implement R.W.S.
in fluoride"affectedvillages.
Finally, during 'the drought season, special grants are
rele"asedby -Central Government and \viththis help,
some R.W.S. schemes are taken-up.

Coverage and achievements

matdy 6 crores. ;rhere are a~ut 27635 revenue
villages. Apart from this, there are 26510- hamlets,
7656 Fiarijanwadas, and 2000 colonies, the grand total
of which comes to 63,801.'

(i) Piped water ,upply


RS. 100

welJs with power. pumps

(iii) Tube Wells With hand pu~~s




(open welf,)


Spot sources

'40-70 lit-res' per capita

per day.
One-Jor every

~ KURUKSHETRA March 1, 1983



Rs. 80

':fable l : ,ExpeiuJit~e io,lakl!S ,Q.DR,.W.S. WQf~s


IV Five Year Plan


AJmual Plan








Booklet is'sued by Panchayati

Raj Department.

The reai:ling of tile above table reveals' tliat the

financial allocations on R.W.S.' are on themcreasing
scale year after year and that the outlays on R.W.S.
in the Fifth Five Year Plan are double that of the
Fo,~ith Five Year Plan and yet the acmevemlmt falls
,snort ,of the targets.
Table 2:


S. Source of Water Supply

No. of
and settle-




1. By open wells
, 3., By R.W.s.




SOluce : Handout


i.e. 14 '348 miHions
issued by Panchayati

Raj J::>epartmeiit. 1980

, Altl;LOugh
'Yater supply ,,'as made available in 50,170
settlements, out of 63801 as on March 31, 1980 there
were many villages where full covering of popwation
on the basis of prescribed service level was not there.
It is eS,timatedthat 34.4 per cent of the populati6rl ;s
.covered,with water snpply as On March 31, 1980.
Dllrmg the period 1981-1990 a master programme
hilS been. proposed at an estimated cost of Rs. 480
crores, covering a targeted population of 37.777"thousands with safe drinking water including population in
122 urban panchayats. Out of this, it is proposed to
spend about Rs. 168.4 crores during 1980-85 to cover
17.126 thousands of population in all the 8206 problem

The prescribed service levels for Water supply in

'the rilral areas are the followingJ. Piped water supply scheme.:


(ii) 'Fu~


FiiJ.ancing various schemes



Some problems
T. -

IS NOT equipped wi~~ adequate

number of transport matenal to .the
work spot to carry out effectively the enginaring
activities. '




, ~.\'
2. There is no provision in the budget to store
materials such as pipes, pumps, cement and gravel.

3.. When the Panchayat engineer fails to carry out

the works, these have to be entrusted to private ":,ntractors. But the pity .is that they' are not commg
forward to execute the works in remote village areas
as it is a difficult task for them to procure laheur. The
rates offered', are not 'workable and therefore the
contractors are not enthusiastic to carry out the works.



. better life.

safe drinking water will mean a

. .

It is difficult to assess the performance of the departmimt accurately because of mixing np of village
dwellers, settlements and Harijanwadas to whom it
'has provided drinking water facility.

: The programme of identification of problem villages
is taken up ouly in the context of assured external
financial help, be it Central Government or any other

Less money is spent on. open wells even though .they
are to be welComedfrom Ihe point of view of costbenefit ratio.

The tempo of expendilure on borewells is more for/~.
evident reasons,

State-owned rigs are about 60. in number which is
far inadequate. This compels the State Government
Department to hire rigs from private contractors who
may 'not turn out good work from the point of view
of payment of their bills.

However emphasis should be laid on the(i) training facilities for the engineering personnel
currently employed;.
(ii) ensuring adequate supply of material and
equipment for w~ter supply programmes;.
(iii) effective operation and maintenance of th~
services; and'
-(iv) involvemcnt of the local community in the
project planning, programming and implementation.

. (Contd; from p. 5)

participation in delivery administration is neces~ary

to fully utilize the benefits accruing from varIOus
programmes. 'Palternalistic' and 'populist' approaches
to participation are in vogue, but instead of adhering to anyone it is better to strike a balance between
the two. Panchayati raj provided an highly populist participation whereas special economic programmes stanco for patternalistic participation. The
rural poor should be given some share in the decision-making in delivery administration. 'Ibis ensures
'legitimacy' for the delivery system and programme
as a whole. The special economic'programmes such
as SFDA, MFALA, DPAP, IRDP and others have
been failing in providing an adequate participation
to the rural poor. The rural poor are ouly at the
.receiving end in these programmes, In order to comprehend proper!y their aspirations and needs and
identify the problem areas, it is necessary to
associate the rural poor in the delivery system. The
rural poor should be given adequate opportunities to participate in its admiJlistration. In this
! connection once again, social justice committee of
village l1anchayat can be reconsidered.

Procedures and rules of delivery system should
'r be simplified.This aspect should be examined mainly
at programme planning leveL Many' programmes
have complicated and confused procedures for identifying and delivering services to the rural poor. It is
pointed out in the PEa study of the Planning Commission (1974-75) that there were no objective cri.teria to identify beneficiaries, .Thns wrong people
were.identified as berieficiariesand needy people were
left out. TI,e common c<lmplaintwas that well-off

sections had cornered the benefits of development..

.Obviously, such faulty programme planning without
adequate field percep_tionswill impair the effectiveness of delivery system in delivering the required
services. Sometimes inadequate procedures cause undue delay in delivering services. Even it may give
scope for manipulation and thereby nullify the targets
of programmes.

Most of the rural' development programmes are
implemented through the bureaucracy and as such
delivery system has become the part and parcel of
governmental bureaucracy. Naturally, the weakness
of bureaucratic admiuistration entrench the delivery
system. Problems of red-tapism, rule-orientation,
impersonal orders etc. are .also .found in delivery
system. These problems should be miriimised if not
totally rednced. Commitment to serve the weaker'
sections of rural society should be inculcated among
the bureaucrats. especially at lower echelons.

on Indian administration, Paul
Appleby states that when a new programme is
undertaken it is better to implement it through an.'
existing organisation by suitably stre..ngtheningit rather
than starting a new administrative structure altogether.
In this connection, the village panchayats can be reconstitutcd with adequate 'changes in their structural
and functional aspects. These bodies can also be
strengthened by providing adeqnate manpower and
money. Then only these bodies caD become effective
and responsive delivery-agencies for the rural poor,
thereby bringing about rural development with social



..' KURUKSHETRA March 1, 1983\ (

'How to fun f.d. programmes

in a' better way,
Giri Institute of Development Studies, Locknow



stress has been laid

on development through planned economy. In terms
of agricultural aud industrial production, the level
attained over a period of thirty years was satisfactory,
But still we are bound to thiuk and discuss develop"
ment, especially rural development, problems, on the
basis of existing disparities and the poor living staudard
of the majority. In our country, more than 76 pe~ ceut
of the population resides in its 5,76,383 villages, and
of, these 60 per cenf live at subsistence level (about
48 per cent of the ,people are liviug below poverty
Their per capita income is only Rs. 65 per
month. About 50 per cent of the population in rural
India do not get enough to eat to lead an active and
,healthy life. The rural areas is by and I"rge isolated
from national stream and rural sector can be characterised as the land of unemploymeut, poverty, illiteracy
arid lower living stimdards. As far general awareness
and literacy" most of the poor villagers are 110t even
aware bf the existing developmental programmes and
the recipients' of the facilities as such still usc tbe
marks of thumb impression. To trace out the rootcause of predicament we are, here, evaluating the planning priorities; different ingredients of rural ecouomy
and the rural development programmes. To fiud
a way out au attempt has been made to inter-link iirid
integrate all the associated factors of rural development.

A kind sight
THE INCEPTIONof five year plans in India,
the efforts are being made for the development
in various fields of economy including rural economy,
which is one of the major fields. Detailing the strategy,
the First Five Year Plan clearly stated, 'Agriculture,
including irrigation and power-must
have the top. "KURUKSHETRA

March 1, 1983

most priority'.
Unfortunately, our planners became
reluctant to agricultural sector after the First Plan observing self-sufficiency in agricultural sector. The
agriculture and allied occupations which contributed to
the national income between 42 per cent and 52 per
cent, was allotted only about 20 per cenLof the resources during the previous five Plans. Apart from
self-sufficiency in agriculture which ruled out priority
towards rural development during this period, it was'
also felt that country's scarce resources were applied
more towards the development of industrial sector than
to agricultural one. Other reason for the preference
of industrial sector over that of agriculture was heavy
pressure of population on land and its low productivity.
Shifting of surplus rural population from agriculture to
industrial sector was considered a method in Our plans
to reduce pressure on land and raising average agri'cultural productivity. During the course of plamIing
policies,' though the growth was achieved but the process of development in rural sector' could not get the
desi~ed stimulation and it dithered a~ a result. ,
THE STARTOF the' Fourth Five Year Plan,
some emphasis was given to rural development in
terms' of 'a package of d~veloPIP-entprogrammes' such
etc. During the Fourth Plan, 46 Small Farmers Development .Agen~ies (SFDP) and 41 Marginal' Farmers
and Agricultural Labourers (MFAL)
projects were
initiated to improve the economic eonditiom of the
weaker sections and to generate better self-employment
opportunities. These projects seek to tackle the problems of weaker 'sections through special agencies 'set
up for the purpose. In the Fifth Plan, all the SFDAI
MFAL projects were made composite and each agency
was required to assist the. small and margiaal farmers

and agricultural labourers in its areas of operation.

The number of agencies had increased to 168 in the
Fifth Plan.
Though the programmes were good from the viewpoint of their objectives, but suffered from selection,
coverage and percolation problems. The main reason
for inferior performance was that the programmes
proved an imposition on rural population. That is
why the target groups have not been benefited by the
programmes. Strittegy for development! mnst be 12lanned so as to provide strong foot-hold for weliker
masses of the rural areas. The inherent rural problems
can be' solved through participation of weaker sections
in development programmes meant for them. Policymakers will have to think in terms of villagers and
their aspirations. The rural problemS are complicated
and cannot 1>esolved through one particular plan, the
requirements of the villagers are complex in nature
which need an integrated approach, becaus" a villager
is not only a farmer, he is probably a carpenter, mason,
co1?b)er and a non-agricnltural worker as well in the
oll'-erop months. Hence the importance of flexibility
as an lem.ent of planning. Fertilizer, water, health,
educatioJl and employment are all equally important.
Thus we will have to think in terms of the villager and
all the basic services that are required must be provideg tei him and IJis family.

Suggested guidelines

of programmes, we
. find that existing develoPIl!ent programmes suffer
frolJl itnplementation problems.
To get rid of these
bottlenecks, ~0!l'e j:>asicguidelines' are to b!, kept il1
mind at the outset.


Only fOJlllulation of programm!'S for rural development is .not !,nough b"t the invplv!,ment of young
prof~sionals such as doctors, teachers and engineers
.is. also required .in programmes of rural development.
As volUllteers, they can play a pipneering role in
achieving the goal of rural development. An assistance to the trained volunteers by local para-professional and village level worker will further lead to a
. better performance.

The facility of institutional finance must be provided
to the marginal and small farmers, scheduled castes,
scheduled tribes, rural artisans and agricultural
labourers. Actuallv
. ~ some
~- classes of rural society~
--7':"- .
even do not know about the various programmeS\,'
and schemes as also henefits from these programmes.
Village level workers must be there to help and encourage the poor to participate in the various
develppment programmes.
There can be a number of fields to illustrate the
integrated approach for rural development based on
the above-stated guidelines. But from the view-point
of the maxi.mum coverage of rural activities we are
taking here a few of them. They are agricultural exterision, health schemes, education for drop-outs, adult
education and vocational education, for men and
women both etc.

Agricultural extension
areas, water for irrigation and
. drinking is a problem, specially for the poor. For
the identification of well-site, a gronp of geologists
should be in operation and remain serving the individnal farmers to locate suitable place for the weIls. For
the drilling of the tubewells a . parallel set equipped
with sophisticated machinery should be reagily available. These works should be performed preferably
by the voluntary organisations and assisted by the
local popnlace. This wiII prevent political interference
and biased distribntion of facilities. Generally entire
facilities viz" technical advice to farmers and distribu- .
tion of inputs like seeds, fertilizers, chemicals and
pe~ticides provided under government schemes are
availed by the big farm!,rs because the. poor households
cannot spend the initial cost of wells and other agricultural inputs. The facilities provided by' the government often bypass the weaker sections.' Big farmers
and the local political leaders are always in touch with
the officials who implement the sc!lemes. They spend
enough time and money to divert facilitie~ towards
thel)l. The poor farmers WJ:lO "'main busy from dawn
to dusk in search of their daily bread. are often unaware of these programm!'S.

The choice of the development programmes ought
to .be initiated by the community' itself, i.e. programmes 'should not be imposed over the population
as 'vested interests could not' find place there. In
the process of rural development, the professionals
would' eventually leave the village and let the villagers perform their functions.' The rural ~ommuriity will automatically get.' trained due to their
direct involvement in programmes and they wiIl~ot
COIlliider'it as an .Jmpositicw..


Land reforms
to improve the life conditions of the poor people, was land allotment for
cultivation. In 1975-76, substantial stress was laid
on land reforms. The scheme in itself was ,:ery good,
laridless 'people got land but it did not always prove
all well becanse either the land was not suitable for
cultivation or the alloted land was full of disputes and
other constraints.
An 'outside agej)cy (voluntary
prganisation) should extend a helping hand to' assist
the poor in the success of snch schemes. Fat example,




KURUKSHETRAMEU'ch 1,.1983 ~ ~

there is an identification of 500 agrjcultnra1 iabourers

in a block who had been allotted land by the government. It is possible that 45 per cent of them might
be involved in land disputes. Of the remaining 55 per
., ,cent, many even could hardly locate their land. Some
~ .might be having their land on the side of a hill, near
a mountain, in the deserted area, ~ear a river or on
the national highway. In general, such sort of land
. distributed through this scheme is not perfectly suitable
and land size is not economic for cultivation. The land
allottee who simply is an agricultural la!Jourer whose
daily income is Rs. 5 !o 7 per day cannot afford to
spend a single rupee because his income is not sufficient to feed himself. To make the received land cultivable, he needs at le~sJ Rs. 4P.Q to 500. So the from the Minis!ry of Agriculture or
from other development agencies must 1:.>e
off~red as a
grant or easy term loan. At the time of land allotment,
, the quality of land should be mind to assess
J the financial and other input requirements of the land
'allottee. Also, 'the agency can solve'other allied problems of .the farmers with. the belp 'of the local population.

Farmers can take technical guidance to build water

conservation !Jarriers to keep water in. the land, soil
testing to asses. the type of land and other formalities
for signing the procedural papers in connection with
the g[ant of government loans. On a landless agricultural labourer having been allotted land, he has to
\ obtain and produce so many papers and certificates to
~ the revenue officials. It is not expected of him to do
all this Without the help of an agency: The help
provided to the new f",mer at an initial stage will do
away with the traditional dependence of sinall and
marginal 'farniers over the' landlord and the bil: land
holding class. Thus it may prove to be a successful
weapon against. vicious' circle of poverty prevailing in
rural economy..

Educa.tion for adults and children


WE HAVE DISCUSSED earlier, all the

lems and requirements are allied and
A health worker visiting the villagers for
ment can. also do other jobs relating to

rural probinterlinked.
their treatagricultural
extnsion programme;.:in. the eveningJ he can COll.duct adult educat.ion classes. One doing something
for the education in rural areas must keep in mind
that students (adults and children both) would not
. be in a position to spare themselVes. during the day
particularly in harvesting seasons or other busy agri- _
cultural days. Thus. 'the primary, evening classes
should be conducted for drop-outs.. Generally, it

is' said that rural guardians do not give propet

attention to their childrens' education, that is why
they encourage their absence from schools. But this
is not the sale reason for negligenCein education.

Special attention should be given to the vocational

education-it must be combined with the 'T'RYSEM'
(Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment) Programme. Villagers including female members should
be trained vocationally in different trades. To promote the participation of females in different .trades
and other vocational fields, exclusive arrangements will
have to be made., Village level workers comprising
of female workers should visit the villagers to m'aIce
them widerstand the utility of participation of female
members in economic and social life.
To educate
them, drama, fairs, movies and personal motivations

can play a significant role in this direction. In a shOrt

period, the vocational education can lead to generate
additional income for the village people (including female members). To develop an .appropriate technology.,-a shift from traditional way of pro'ductionthrough development and use of new production techniques in rural economy is essential. .A leather craftsman (cobbler), who originally belonged to a Harijan,
'traditional and backward cOinmunity, suffered from
an inferiority complex due to caste structure and social
'ta15oos. Now, with. the .use of modem prcduction
techniques and belter social status due to earnings
.and education, he can develop a sense of dignity .and
economic independence. After the successful starting
of these programmes, a process of social change would
lead to an economic betterment on future dates.

we may say that rural development
Tobe achieved through
the integration of the varoius

schemes of rural devdopment and other agencies. A

proper .implementation of programiI)es after' better
understanding of real.rural problems can help in achieving the goal. Meagre size of land necessitates more
stress on rural industrialization.
For industrialization,
. already over-populated and. well developed industrial
areas should not be considered. A shift of developI]1entaIexpenditure from urban to rural areas can serve
the purpose. Resources must necessarily be allocated
,to rural infrastructural and other development heads.
Existing rural resources and traditional artisans are full
.of potential for future development. They must be
fed with proper financial,.training and marketing assistance. This will generate a social' transformation and
process of speedy development in our rural economy
through abiding structural cbanges.'



Postgraduate Deptt. of BWiiness Admn., MSJ College, Bharatpur (Raj.)

of State Forest Ministers'. Con I, .ference in October last, the Prime Ministet, Smt.
Indira Gandhi, had rightly expressed he~. grave concern over the rapid depletion of the forest wealth in
thc couniry"and gave a call for laun9hing a drive for
planting;trees, It is not for the first,time when ,Sm!.
Indira Gandhi has emphasised the need to plant trees
as a sequel to economic development and as a measure
of rectifying, and m'.!intainipg the, ",<,?\ogical balance
and envirorunental protection. In her call which she
made a year ago, she rightly pointed out that we shall
have "to take care of our forests if we want to care
for our future." There is no doubt that forest wealth
is perhaps the most useful possessi~n o~ a country' and
any threat toJorests is a threat not ouly to onr dwindling fauna but also to man who is faced with the problem of soil erosion, drought, annual floods of unprecedented magnitude and other 'natural' calamities.
,As \people continue to cut trees and misuse forests,
the top in the catchment areas is exposed to rain
water. Erosion. deprives farm areas of rich top soil
and creates many long-range problems posing a
serious .threat to our economy, - Indiscriminate cutting of. trees is gradually pushing the country towards
forest. poverty.



Trees were among primitive man's first deities,

.They were ilOt only the place of shelter and source of but also vital sources of food for the primitive people. Forests were also the devotiomu places
,of the sages; and saints where they .spent their lives in
the service of humanity and in the attairunent of heavenly. peace. In the words of Lord Buddha, 'the. forest
is .peculiar orgainsm of unlimited benevolence that
makes no demand for sustenance and extends generous.1ythe products of its life actiVity, It affords protection
to all things, offering ~hade even to the axeman who
,.destroys it." Even today; besides religious importance
and medicinal value, trees aTe considered important as

pare-setters of economic development of a country suc-lt....

as ours which has rural base. Forests feed a large number of cottage and small scale industries and offer precious inputs t~ large scale industries. Traditionally the
tribals collect a variety of fruits, flowers, leaves, barks
etc, from the trees for several uses, Trees no doubt
.have tremendous energy potential, They have been and:
will continue to be an important source of energy in
India far into the foreseeable future. The problem today
is that land is being denuded in the process of extracting energy from trees, But the planned and managed
scientifically trees can become a perennial, ren.ewable
sourCe of energy specially for the poor. For everyI.
tree cut down and used as fuel or to produce char-)(
coal, as maqy as '10 more must be planted.

Importanc;;e of trees


~T.H' IN,DIA the ,rate of,tree,.f~Uin,"(or cutting).has

".' . .',peen f')Sterthan treecplanting resulting,into,speedy
, qeple~ionof,forests. , IJi,t!Ie country forests,cover,67
million hectares of the total land area. of 32<:1million
hectares. This represents a dismal 20. per cent against
the optimum level of 33 per cent required to 'maintain an appropriate ecological balance. The steady
_depletion~of"forests.has, ,resulted. -into.recurring flash
floods, growing expanse of the deserts and dramatic
changes in the. climate thereby causing gross distur,~,:m~esin the ,~co!Qgi~ljJalance. ,Accor~ing to ',experts, ,nearly 60.0.0.million tonnes of (op' soils is.~as4e
. ur ,blown .away,,repr~senting a loss of 6 million acres
of cultivable soil every year. It is for, these reasons
,!Ilat the Union Government h'.!s substantially stepped
,up outlay. on forestry. :t:'9W greater attyntion ,.,has
been given .in the Sixth Plan on .the. development of
social forestry through mixed plantation
lands ancI ,refqrestation of ,degraded forest .l~nds.
-The state governments are being encouraged to, implement special social forestry programmes with


foreign assistance also.

....GKURUKSHETRA:March 1;c1983 f

Under the social forestry schemes, stress will be

laid on planting of qnick-growing species with a rotation of five to ten years. To bridge the large gap
between projected prodnction and estimated consump"
, , tion of fuelwood by the turn of the century, efforts
being made to plant quick growing species which
are more acceptable ,to common man. The social
forestry programme includes raising , fuelwood plantations on village wastelands, railway strips, canal
bnnds and road sides, supply of seedlings to farmers
and fruit-tree, saplings to children under "a tree for
each child" programme. The choice of tree species
will depend mainly on the agro-ecological conditions
of the area. Social rorestry thus embodies operations connected with the growing of trees for the benefit of the people in many ways. The direct benefit
may be in the form of fuel, sman timber, fodder and
manure-leaf. The indirect benefits may be in the
shape of climatic, 'amelioration;, maintenance. stream,
~ows, social conservation; preservation of,wild~Iifeand
provision of =eational

Tree plantation in Haryana

in 'Haryana is in for a major
change through social forestry. IIi. Haryana' at
present there is hardly 3.4 per cent of the geographical area under the forests. Agricnlture, on the other
hand, covering about 83 per cent'of the land area is
a'typical example. of ruralyeconomy and intensive
land use: In these circumstances, Haryana could not
,increase area' under forests.- Interestingly, Haryana is
, 'one'ofthe few states which has utilised the-marginal
lands and farm boundarics',fonplanting of. trees in the
most effective manner.' Wind, erosion',has been, the
greatest menace in the state. Mobile sand gets deposited and engulfs the fertile land and habitations.
Besides damage to the .agricultural land, wind erosion
is a serious threat to proper functioning of the irrigation system and Hnes of communi_cation. Rainfall, on
the' otherhand,- in. large. parts' ofothe state,-particularly
Gurgaon; Mahendragarh,' Bhiwani, Rohtak, Sirsa and,
Hissar;' is not enough: Trees help to a great. extent.
in" this' regard, Trees. which. acLas" windbreaks and
sheIter belts reduce wind'velocity by more than 50 percenLand evaporation losses by 25 per cent. Air temperature and humidity, are also modified. favourably


_ ,whichrresults in moisture.conservation


agricultural production.. The, rural, economy of Haryana is essentially dependent on wood and wood products. Scarcity of fuelwood in rural areas has resuited- in burning of cow-dung cakes which' could
otherwise be used as manure.
The Government'of Haryana has initiated a number
of measures to check thesprcad o[ desert, to arrest
soil erosion and augment the supply of timber, firewood and other forest products. Under the World
Bank aided 5-year social forestry project, trees would

be planted 011 67,000 hectares of land to increase fuelwcod supply to rural areas and to provide small timber, poles, fodder grass, fruits and oilseeds, Under
the scheme of social forestry, 10.94 million tonnes
fuelwoOd, 9:29 million tonhes of timber, 6.02 million
[annes of tree fodder, 860,obo tonnes of grass, 400,000
.tonnes of fruit besides 60,000 tonnes of dry fallen
5rewood and 40,000 kg 6f castorseeds. According'
to the plan 30,000 hec'4es of private land under
farm forestry, strip planting along roads, canals and
railway lines in 9500 heetates, sand dune stabilisation
in 15,000 hectares, setting ~p of woodlots in 12,000'
hectares besides plantations in 500 hectares of alka. line lands wi\] be taken up during 1981-86.
Eucalyptus, shisham and kikkar trees are being
planted in Ambala, Kamal and Kurukshetra districts,
while khair and spine trees have been planted in Shlwalik ,hills running across he state, For the desert
areas of, Bhiwani; Hissar, s\rsa, Mahendragarh and
parts, of Rohtak, districts israeli kikkar, deshi kikkar
and .jand trees, have been fohnd. suitable. As a resnlt
of these activities under ,the scheme of soci"l forestry,
the revenue of the Forest Department has moved from
Rs16 lakh in 1966 to R~ 3.80 crore in 1981-82.
What is however more' si~cant
is the fact that 70
pcr cent of felling of trees' is now'being undertaken
by the Forestry Department of Haryana Government
itself to avoid illicit cutting by private contractors.

People:s:participationnecessary.,the involveI'mcnt_of people .is.,suchof as,sbcial.forestry,

viW importance to its sucN'A .PROGRAMME

cess" People's ,participation lcan only. be obtained by

assuring ,them .thatthe, benefits,from planting ,of trees
w,lI accrue to them and that 'the economic profitability
in choosing the alternative ofl growing trees is superior
to other. uses of land:' On.the'other
hand" efforts
will also have to' be 'directed ,to 'do away the widespread misgi}'ingsa",:ut gr0+ng trees on ,farm lands.
A normal farmer believes'that ,as trees harbour birds
they can destroy crop;.tree..ican.reduce yield due to
shadow or shade; they abso*, water and can make
the land'larid" Most. of,,the fears .and doubts are, only
half4ruths:.' While!there. is 'dOndoubl. that trees, harbour birds which .in"tum .caJ.damage. the crop but it
is' dso a fact. that, ~irds alsolc\~stroy harmful insects,
larve' and, grubs whIch are cJnsldered responsible for
ditn~ging,sizeable crop ev.eryIyear,. Further ,judicious
plantmg and proper selectron bf tree~speeiescan reduce the much,dreaded shadf effect by the 'farmers.'
It may also be pornted'ont iliat the tree, draw ,,,oisture from much 'deeper strata lor'soil and do not compete' with agiicnltntal crops. The general public will
alse haye to offer fuller cooperation to make the programme of social forestry a .!nccess as it is for thcir
own good in the long run,


KURUK!SIffi'l'RN Marcli, 1';'1983>!


They,' show tile way

This feature is based on success stories viz. aphievements gained in '~'arious
spheres of rural development by farmers, institution~, experimenters and individuals. There is IUJrdly an argument over the fact that dedicatio;z'and zeal' to'
put in hard work can achieve anything. And one achievement {nspires and shows
the way 10 others!
We hope our esteemed repders will send- us theil' own experiences in. the
field so that other can benefit by them to usher in a better, lite for' our rural
people. (Editor),

The 'kamadhenu'
in a' small thatched hut in an obscure
village called Mallapura in Chitradurga (Karnataka). all seven of, them, the middle-aged Parvat1zamma, her ailing mother, three sons, a daughter and
a son-in-law., With only three, bread~winners in the
family, life was dreary for Parvathamma, until the
day of surprise came for her.
They worked as agricultural labourers; the ouly
maJe in the family earned Rs .. 5 a day while the two
women earned Rs. 3 a day. If she could calculate
accurately, Parvathamma could have made. out that
her ,total family income for a year fell a htt!e short
of Rs. 3,000. '



Mallapura village' got

shot in the arm when it
was selected as the cluster village in the IRDP Scheme.
Parvathamma was one ~f' the families identified for
assistance under the scheme. At the survey and'
credit camps, she was ;"ked ,to choose a scheme that
would generate 'additional inereaise to sustain her family'
and her choice fell on the Buffalo Scheme.
The Buffa]" Scheme consisted, of giying a pair of
bnffaloes to the beneficiaries in. succession to each
other after the first goes dry. 1 l'arvathamma got a,

, loan of Rs. 3,000 'from Syndicate Bank with the ceded

society of Mallapura V.S.S.N. She also got a subsidy of Rs. 1,000 from D.R.D.S., Chitradurga. With
this money, a buffalo was purchased by the Purchase '
Committee and handed over to Parvathamma. It was
a day of rejoicing for the' old lady.
Parvathamma looked after the animal well. The
milk yield was four litres, netting Rs. 10 a day. Her
maintenance cost was Rs. ~ and net income generated
was Rs. 8, a steady and assured income.
Even as she tended the buffalo, the working members
in her family continued their work as labourers. No,,",
the income of the family was doubled.
There was
visible evidence of impwvement of the standard
living as stainless steel utensils and decent clothes made
their appearance in the household. The little ones were
now ready to go to school, an unthinkable proposition
in the days when Parvathamma's family was doomed to)' "
eke out a living as impoverished coolies.
Life has become a little more pleasant for Parvatham-,
maand her family. Almost in one stroke, she crossed,
the' poverty line.

Information Bureau

, I

,KURUKSHETRA March 1,1983" '


Fish Production has incrca cd from

7.S2lakh tonnes in 1950.5 to about
23 .36lakh

tl.>nnes in .1979.80.


There has been a significqnt increase in the development affisheries during 1980-8 .. ,Necessary
arrangements are being mad,efor exploration of fishing harbours, training, imifi,rastruc\/ral facilitie.'
for ex/ending fishing activities.
A scheme has been 'approved to set up Fish Farmers Development Agencies (FFDA) i each State.
About 58 F.FDAs have beel;'established in different States to demonstrate and popular efish q.ltiJre
activit/esand'offer necessary financial assistancefor fishfarm impMvement. Besides FFDAs haYe
carried out extension and al/ied operations and its approach has been recognised,
in lin inland fisheries project .to develop 1,17,000 hectares of water area in five staJeviz.,
Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.


. A big catch

is always

flsbennan'. delight.




Regel. No. D(DN)j39

(Licensed under U(DN)-54 to post without prepayment at Civil Lines Post Office, Delhi).




Processed marine foods fr<JmIndia are very popular abroad and earn valuable fur.::ign-exchange for the COuntry.

Fisheries development


Fisheries de\'elopme1l1 has made significant progress Ol'er the sllccessb'e Five Year Plans.. Total
fish production ill the country has increased/rom
7 .52lakh 10nl1es ill 195!}.51 to about 23 .36 lakh
tmmes in 1979-8!}. Target a/production by the ('Ild 0/1984-85 has beellfixed at 35 lakh to/wes.
Tire Jhree major inst{wtes bll'olred in research Gnd del'elopment o/marine and inland fisheries include
Central Instilute oj Fisheries Education, Bombay and ilf unit al In/and Fisheries Training Centre,
. Barrackporc
prol'iding training facilities:
a Central Fisheries Extension Training Centre at
Hyderab,ad where train;'lg fdciUties for l!)!nsion .techniques exist and Central Institute of Fisheries,
Nautical and Engineering Training COChilllritl1 its un;ts at J\fadrasjor training candidates/or
fishrries cooperatirC's/or manning the fishing l'esse1s and shore establishments.

A number of il\!ititutcshavc beenestabli~

shed to conduct research into; fish-rearing
and dcvelO!Jl' bot b i.marine and inland





.DIVI~.IO~,.~i!W DEUU~ll000l,

AND PR.Uoo.-n.p'





MA.."'iAOER: S. L.

(p) ;