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Digital Energy

Multilin

L90 Line Differential Relay

Agenda

AGENDA
Introduction
Product overview
Installation
Percent Current Differential
Lab: setting up 87L
Grouped elements
Control elements
Monitoring & Metering

Introduction

Introduction
Transmission Line Protection Considerations
1) Reliability: has two aspects:
Dependability: the degree of certainty that the relay will operate
correctly.
Security: the relay will not operate incorrectly
2) Speed: Very high power during fault conditions: delays translate into
increased damage: faster protection tends to compromise relay system
security and selectivity.
3) Sensitivity: The minimum operating quantities allows the relay to detect
an abnormal condition. High-impedance ground faults,voltage unbalance
and high source- to- line impedance ratio affect the sensitivity
4) Selectivity: or coordination: ability of the relay system to minimize
outages as a result of a fault by operating as fast as possible within their
primary zone.
5) Simplicity and ergonomics: simple to apply and to obtain maximum
protection for the minimum cost in one box
Terms: Coordination, Unit Protection/None Unit Protection, Primary/Back up

Introduction
Transmission Line Protection Considerations
High voltage transmission lines have extremely high level of fault current and
low impedance characteristics. Over current protection can not be as fast as its
needed.
Solutions:
Current Differential:
Unit Protection
Measure the current phasors at both ends of the line. If you have a line fault
there will be a difference in the current magnitude at each end and/or a change
in current phase angle with respect to applied voltage.
Distance or (Impedance):
None Unit Protection
Impedance known as Distance: The distance relay operates by using both
voltage and current to determine if a fault is in a relays zone of protection. At
time of fault Current increases and voltage decreases which translates into a
change in impedance.

Introduction
Current differential highlights

Communication link

1. 2 relays are required


2. Digital communication channel 64 kbps is
required.

Product overview

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Features
Protection:

Segregated Line current differential (87L)


87L Trip logic
Phase/Neutral/Ground TOCs
Phase/Neutral/Ground IOCs
Negative sequence TOC
Negative sequence IOC
Phase directional OCs
Neutral and negative sequence directional OC
Phase under- and overvoltage
3-zone distance back-up with power swing detect,
load encroachment, POTT and line pickup

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Features
Control:
Breaker Failure (phase/neutral amps)
Synchrocheck & Autoreclosure
Direct messaging (8 extra inter-relay DTT bits exchanged)
UR Metering:
Fault Locator
Oscillography
Event Recorder
Data Logger
Phasors / true RMS / active, reactive and apparent power, power
factor
87L Metering:
actual differential current
local and remote phasors
communication channel status

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Features

52

79

M onitoring
50DD

50P(2)

3V_0

CLOSE
50_2(2)

51P(2)

51_2(2)

TRIP
50BF(2)

Data From/ To Remote End


(via Dedicated Communications)

87L

21P

67P(2)

68

FlexElement

TM

50N(2)

78

M etering

51N(2)

Transducer
Inputs

67N/ G

21G

59P

27P(2)
50G(2)

51G(2)
59N
59X

27X
25(2)

L90 Line Differential Relay


831706AS.CDR

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Line Current Differential
Improved operation of the line current differential (87L)
element:
Dynamic Restraint increasing security without jeopardizing
sensitivity
Line Charging Current Compensation to increase sensitivity
Self-synchronization
Channel Asymmetry Compensation to compensate for
asymmetrical channel delay on multiplexed channels
CT Saturation Detection
Zero sequence current removal for applications on lines with
a tapped transformers with a primary wye neutral grounded.
Relay ID for secure applications on higher order
communication systems.

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Line Current Differential

L90 can be applied


on both 2-terminal
and 3-terminal
apllications:
hardware and
firmware are the
same.

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation

Direct point-to-point Fiber


(up to 100Km)
(64Kbps)
- G.703
- RS422

OR

- G.703
- RS422

Via SONET system telecom multiplexer


(GEs FSC)
(155Mbps)
FSC
(SONET)

FSC
(SONET)

Installation

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
CHANNEL COMMUNICATION OPTIONS

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
DIRECT FIBER

FIBER - LED & ELED


TRANSMITTERS
The above figure shows the 2-Terminal
configuration for the 7A, 7B, & 7C fiberonly modules.

LASER FIBER MODULES


WARNING: When using a 1300/1550 nm
LASER Interface, attenuators may be
necessary to ensure that you do not exceed
Maximum Optical Input Power (-14 dBm) to
the receiver.

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
DIRECT FIBER

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
DIRECT FIBER OPTICAL POWER BUDGET

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
G.703 CO-DIRECTIONAL INTERFACE

Typical pin interconnection between two G.703 interfaces back-toback.

10

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
G.703 INTERFACE

G.703 module dip switches..

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
G.703 INTERFACE

Connection to higher order system

G.703 Timing Selection

11

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
G.703 INTERFACE

Minimum Remote Loopback Test mode data processing

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
G.703 INTERFACE

Dual Loopback Test mode data processing

12

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
G.703 INTERFACE

Back to Back: Correct

Internal Timing mode

Loop Timing mode

(S1=Off, S5=On, S6=Off)

(S1=Off, S5=Off, S6=Off)

Back to Back : Will work but not ideal.

Internal Timing mode

Loop Timing mode (factory


default for connections to
higher order system

(S1=Off, S5=On, S6=Off)

(S1=On, S5=Off, S6=Off)

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
G.703 INTERFACE

Point to Point using Modems (for example RAD modem):

Octet Timing
Disabled

Rad Modem

Rad Modem

Loop Timing

Loop Timing

mode

mode

Loop Timing

Octet Timing
Disabled
Internal

mode

Only one clock per system


generated by right L90.

13

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
G.703 INTERFACE

Connection via multiplexers (higher order system):

Octet Timing
enabled

Multiplexer

Multiplexer

Octet Timing
enabled

Loop Timing

Loop Timing

mode

mode

The multiplexer provides the clock for all relays: again, one clock per
system:

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
RS.422 INTERFACE

Typical pin interconnection between two RS422 interfaces

14

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
RS.422 INTERFACE

RS422 - Two Channel Applications via


Multiplexers

TIMING CONFIGURATION FOR RS422 2 CHANNEL - 3 TERMINAL APPLICATION


Data Module 1 provides timing to the L90 RS422 interface via the ST(A) and ST(B) outputs. Data
Module 1 also provides timing to Data Module 2 TT(A) and TT(B) inputs via the ST(A) and AT(B)
outputs.
Note: The Data Module Pin Numbers, in the figure above, have been omitted since they may vary
depending on the manufacturer.

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
RS422 INTERFACE

Clock and Data Transitions

Tx Clock

Tx Data

15

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
MIXED INTERFACES

RS422 & FIBER INTERFACE CONFIGURATION

WARNING: When using a 1300 nm LASER Interface, attenuators may be


necessary to ensure that you do not exceed Maximum Optical Input Power
(-14 dBm) to the receiver.

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
IEEE fiber C37.94 INTERFACE
The IEEE C37.94 Standard defines a point to point optical link for
synchronous data between a multiplexer and a teleprotection
device.
Designed to interface with IEEE C37.94 compliant digital multiplexer
and/or an IEEE C37.94 compliant interface converter for use with
L90.

Connected directly to
MUX

Connected to MUX
via converter

16

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
IEEE fiber C37.94 INTERFACE
For the Internal Timing Mode, the system clock is generated
internally; therefore, the timing switch selection should be Internal
Timing for Relay 1 and Loop Timed for Relay 2. There must be only
one timing source configured.
For the Looped Timing Mode, the system clock is derived from the
received line signal; therefore, the timing selection should be in
Loop Timing Mode for connections to higher order systems.

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
COMMS CHANNEL TESTING

Local Loopback Test Mode


G7X

Transmitted
data blocked

Local relay
G7R

17

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
COMMS CHANNEL TESTING

Remote Loopback Test

Received data
echoed back.

G7R

G7X

G7X

G7R

Local relay

Remote
relay

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
COMMS CHANNEL ON-LINE DIAGNOSTICS

Current comms status is available


in Actual Values.

History of comms disturbances is logged


into event recorder.

18

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
COMMS CHANNEL ON-LINE DIAGNOSTICS

MAJOR COMMS ALARMS

MINOR COMMS ALARMS

1. 87L DIFF CH1/2 FAIL

1. 87L DIFF CH1/2 CRCFAIL

2. 87L DIFF PFLL FAIL

2. 87L DIFF CH1/2 LOSTPKT

3. 87L DIFF CH1/2 ID FAIL

3. 87L DIFF TIME CHANGED


4. 87L DIFF ASYM DETECTED
5. 87L DIFF 1/2 ASYM MAX

87L DIFF BLOCKED

6. 87L DIFF GPS1/2 FAIL

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Installation
COMMS CHANNEL ON-LINE DIAGNOSTICS

CHANNEL ID FAIL
1. Each packet carries relay
ID number per channel
2. Each received packet is
compared with ID
programmed L90 Power
System menu.
3. 0 means NO Channel ID
check is required (for
direct fibers).
Protection against:
1.

Inadvertent loopback

2.

Inadvertent connection to a
wrong L90 relay.

19

Percent Current Differential

L90 Current Differential Function


ACTUAL VALUES

SETTING

VAG

To Remote Relays
channel 1 & 2

L90 POWER SYSTEM


XC0 & XC1:

VBG
VCG

Compute Charging
Current

SETTING

DATA FROM
LOCAL END

CURRENT DIFF
SOURCE:
IA

Charging Current
IA 2 @Timestamp

IB

IB @Timestamp

IC

IC @Timestamp

RUN
OR

RUN

Compute
Phasors
& Variance
(Local)

IA
Process
Phasors
IB
Computations IC

IA

FLEXLOGIC OPERANDS

87L DIFF OP

IB
87L DIFF OP A
IC
87L DIFF OP B

SETTING
L90 POWER SYSTEM
NUM. OF TERMINALS:

87L DIFF OP C
SETTINGS

AND

3 = 1
OR

CURRENT DIFF
PICKUP:

87L DIFF RECVD DTT A

CURRENT DIFF
RESTRAINT 1:

87L DIFF RECVD DTT B

CURRENT DIFF
RESTRAINT 2:

87L DIFF RECVD DTT C

SETTING
AND

L90 POWER SYSTEM


NUM. OF CHANNELS:

OR

2 = 1

SETTING

AND

CURRENT DIFF
TAP 1:

DATA FROM
REMOTE 1
Channel 1 OK=1

OR

87L DIFF CH1 FAIL

AND

Channel 1 ID Fail
IA 2 @Timestamp

Compute
Phasors
& Variance
(Remote 1)

IB 2 @Timestamp
IC2 @Timestamp
DTT PHASE A

AND

DTT PHASE B

AND

DTT PHASE C

AND

Compute
Phasors
& Variance
(Remote 2)

IB 2 @Timestamp
IC @Timestamp
2

AND
AND

IB

IA Restraint

IB Operate

IB Restraint

IC Operate

IC Restraint

87L DIFF CH2 FAIL


87L DIFF CH1 LOSTPKT

IC

OR

87L DIFF CH2 LOSTPKT


87L DIFF CH1 CRCFAIL

>1

RUN

Channel 2 ID Fail
IA 2 @Timestamp

AND

>1

OR

DTT PHASE C

IA Operate

>1

CURRENT DIFF
TAP 2:

AND

DTT PHASE A

IA

SETTING

DATA FROM
REMOTE 2
Channel 2 OK=1

DTT PHASE B

87L DIFF PFLL FAIL

CURRENT DIFF
BREAK PT:

RUN

87L DIFF CH2 CRCFAIL

IA
AND

IB

87L DIFF CH1 ID FAIL

RUN

87L DIFF CH2 ID FAIL

IC

87L BLOCKED

AND

OR

AND

87L DIFF KEY DTT

OR
AND

AND
OR

OR

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

AND

STUB BUS OP
AND

SETTING
CURRENT DIFF
DTT:
Enabled=1

AND

To Remote Relays
channel 1 & 2
OR

OR

SETTING
CURRENT DIFF
KEY DTT:

AND

OR
827056A9.CDR

Off

20

Operate Current

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Traditional Restraint Method

K2
K1

Restraint Current

Traditional method is STATIC


Compromise between Sensitivity and Security

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Dynamic Restraint
Dynamic restraint uses an estimate of a
measurement error to dynamically increase the
restraint
On-line estimation of an error is possible owing to
digital measuring techniques
In digital relaying to measure means to calculate or
to estimate a given signal feature such as magnitude
from the raw samples of the signal waveform

21

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Digital Phasor Measurement
The L90 measures the current phasors (magnitude
and phase angle) as follows:
1. digital pre-filtering is applied to remove the
decaying dc component and a great deal of high
frequency distortions
2. the line charging current is estimated and used
to compensate the differential signal
3. full-cycle Fourier algorithm is used to estimate
the magnitude and phase angle of the
fundamental frequency (50 or 60Hz) signal

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Digital Phasor Measurement
Sliding Data Window
32 samples for
Transmission
of one phaselet

32 samples for
Transmission of
next phaselet

present
time

windo
w

time
waveform

time
magnitude

22

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Digital Phasor Measurement
Sliding Data Window
32 samples for
Transmission
of one phaselet

32 samples for
Transmission of
next phaselet

windo
w

time

present
time

time

waveform

magnitude

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Phasor Goodness of Fit
A sum of squared differences between the actual
waveform and an ideal sinusoid over last window is a
measure of a goodness of fit (a measurement error)

window

time

23

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Phasor Goodness of Fit
The goodness of fit is an accuracy index for the digital
measurement
The goodness of fit reflects inaccuracy due to:
transients
CT saturation
inrush currents and other signal distortions
electrical noise
The goodness of fit is used by the L90 to alter the
traditional restraint signal (dynamic restraint)

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Operate-Restraint Regions
ILOC local current
IREM remote end current
Imaginary (ILOC/IREM)

OPERATE
OPERATE
RESTRAINT

Real (ILOC/IREM)

OPERATE
OPERATE

24

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Dynamic Restraint

Dynamic restraint signal =


Traditional restraint signal + Error factor
Imaginary (ILOC/IREM)

OPERATE

Error factor is high


Real (ILOC/IREM)

REST.
Error factor is low

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Charge Current Compensation
The L90 calculates the instantaneous values of the
line charging current using the instantaneous values
of the terminal voltage and shunt parameters of the
line
The calculated charging current is subtracted from
the actually measured terminal current
The compensation reduces the spurious differential
current and allows for more sensitive settings

25

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Charge Current Compensation
The compensating algorithm:
is accurate over wide range of frequencies
works with shunt reactors installed on the line
works in steady state and during transients
works with both wye- and delta-connected VTs
(for delta VTs the accuracy of compensation is
limited)

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Effect of Compensation
Local and remote voltages
Voltage, V
200
150
100
50

Time of
energization

0
-50

Time of out of zone fault

-100
-150
-200

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

time, sec

26

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Effect of Compensation
Traditional and compensated differential
currents (waveforms)

Current, A

Actual none compensated


current

0.3
0.25

Theoretical compensated
current

0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05

Time of
energization

0
-0.05
-0.1
-0.15
-0.2

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

time, sec

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Effect of Compensation
Traditional and compensated differential
currents (magnitudes)
Current, A
0.08

Actual none compensated


current after filtering and
Fourier algorithm

0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04

Actual compensated current


after filtering and fourier
algorithm

0.03
0.02
0.01
0

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

time, sec

27

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Self-Synchronization
RELAY 1

Forward t0
travel
time
Return
travel
t3
time

RELAY 2

tf
t1 Relay
turn-around
t2 time

ping-pong

tr

t f tr

t3 t0 t2 t1
2

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Ping-Pong (example)
Relay 1
Send start bit
Store T1i-3=0

Relay 2

Initial clocks mismatch=1.4ms or 30

Communication path

Send start bit


Store T2i-3=0

0
8.33 ms

Capture T2i-2=2.3
5.1

Capture T1i-2=5.1

2.3
8.33 ms

Send T1i-2=5.1

8.33
8.33

Store T1i-2=5.1

8.33 ms

13.43
Store T2i-2=2.3

Send T2i-2=2.3

10.53
8.33 ms

Send T1i-1=16.66

16.66
16.66

Send T2i-1=16.66

8.33 ms

21.76

Store T2i-1=16.66
Capture T1i=21.76
T1i-3=0
T2i-2=2.3
T2i-1=16.66
T1i=21.76

Store T1i-1=8.33
Capture T2i=18.96
18.96
T2i-3=0
T1i-2=5.1
T1i-1=16.66
T2i=18.96

a1=2.3-0=2.3
b1=21.76-16.66=5.1
1=(2.3-5.1)/2=
= -1.4ms (ahead)

a2=5.1-0=5.1
b2=18.96-16.66=2.3
2=(5.1-2.3)/2=
= +1.4ms (behind)

Speed up
Slow down
30

t1

t2

28

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Ping-Pong (example continued)
Relay 1

Relay 2

33.32

Store T1i-3=33.32

33.32

Store T2i-3=33.32

8.52 ms

38.28
Capture T1i-2=38.28

Capture T2i-2=35.62
35.62
8.14 ms

41.55

Send T1i-2=38.28

41.55

Send T2i-2=35.62

8.52 ms

Store T1i-2=38.28

Store T2i-2=35.62
8.14 ms

Send T1i-1=50.00

50.00

8.52 ms

54.03

49.93

Send T2i-1=49.93

53.16
Store T1i-1=50.00
Capture T2i=53.16

Store T2i-1=49.93
Capture T1i=54.03

8.14 ms

T1i-3=33.32
T2i-2=35.62
T2i-1=49.93
T1i=54.03

T2i-3=33.32
T1i-2=38.28
T1i-1=50.00
T2i=53.16

a1=35.62-33.32=2.3
b1=54.03-49.93=4.1
1=(2.3-4.1)/2=
= -0.9ms (ahead)

a2=38.28-33.32=4.96
b2=53.16-50.00=3.16
2=(4.96-3.16)/2=
= +0.9ms (behind)

Speed up
Slow down
0

19.5
30

t1

t2

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Digital Flywheel

Virtual Shaft

clock 1

clock 2

If communications is lost, sample clocks continue


to free wheel
Long term accuracy is only a function of the base
crystal stability

29

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Peer-to-Peer Operation
Each relay has sufficient information to make an independent
decision
Communication redundancy
L90-2
L90-1

L90-3

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Master-Slave Operation
At least one relay has sufficient information to make an
independent decision
The deciding relay(s) sends a transfer-trip command to all other
relays
L90-2

L90-1

L90-3

Data (currents)
Transfer Trip

30

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Zero-sequence Current Removal
The L90 protection system could be applied to lines with tapped
transformer(s) even if the latter has its windings connected in a grounded
wye on the line side and the transformer(s) currents are not measured by
the L90 protection system..

L90-1

L90-2
I_0

L90 Current Differential Relay:


CT Saturation Detection
Current differential protection is inherently dependent on adequate CT
performance at all terminals of the protected line especially during
external faults. CT saturation, particularly if happens at one terminal of
the line only, introduces a spurious differential current that may cause the
differential protection to misoperate.

31

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Breaker-and-a-half
The L90 has
advantages on
systems with breakerand-a-half or ring bus
configurations. In these
applications, each of
the two three-phase
sets of individual
phase currents (one
associated with each
breaker) can be used
as an input to a
breaker failure
element.

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Breaker-and-a-half
Benefits:
For restraint forming, maximum of 2 (or more currents is
used). Conventional sum might not provide enough
restraint.
CTs matching is done
internally, different CT
ratios possible
Current are available
individually for BF,
metering etc

32

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Breaker-and-a-half
Distributed bus
differential
Up to 4 CTs can be
processed
individually and
summed up with
L90. For application
where buses are
located remotely,
this is beneficial as
CT leads dont allow
applying bus
differential.

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Channel asymmetry

ADM-2

ADM-3

RELAY 2

RELAY 1
Rx

Tx

ADM-1
Tx

ADM-4
Rx

On SONET/SDH system, transmit and receive channel


delays can be different. Normally, Tx_delay=Rx_delay.
If one path is broken, it can be re-routed to another
physical fiber, resulting in Tx_delayRx_delay.

33

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Channel asymmetry
Difference in transmit-receive paths is causing
incorrect synchronization between relays as pingpong is operating based on assumption that transmitreceive delays are the equal.
That results in apparent differential current,
proportional to the value of the channel asymmetry.
If currents and channel asymmetry are high enough,
relay misoperates.
IDIFF
IA
IB

Half of the channel


asymmetry in
electrical degrees

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Channel asymmetry
L90 can cope with channel asymmetry as high as up
to 10 ms using GPS signal.
No additional input is required-GPS clock is
connected to the regular IRIG-B UR input, providing
accurate clock to both events time-stamping and
channel asymmetry compensation algorithm.

ADM-2

ADM-3

GPS clock

GPS clock

Rx

Tx

ADM-1
Tx

RELAY 1

ADM-4
Rx

RELAY 2

34

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Channel asymmetry
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
IRIG-B FAILURE
To Remote Relays
Channels 1 and 2

SETTINGS

87L GPS Status Fail

OR

L90 POWER SYSTEM:


BLOCK GPS TIME REF:
Off = 0
REAL TIME CLOCK:
IRIG-B SIGNAL TYPE
None = 0

GPS COMPENSATION

Off = 0

RUN

DATA FROM REM OTE


TERM INAL 1

Use Calculated
Correction, Establish and
Update Memory

87L GPS 2 Status (OK=1)

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
87L DIFF GPS FAIL

SETTINGS

AND

87L Ch 2 Status (OK=1)

Use Memorized
Correction

OR

DATA FROM REM OTE


TERM INAL 21

OR

87L GPS 1 Status (OK=1)

AND

87L Ch 1 Status (OK=1)

OR

L90 POWER SYSTEM:


CHNL ASYM COMP:

L90 POWER SYSTEM:


MAX CHNL ASYMMETRY:
L90 POWER SYSTEM:
ROUND TRIP TIME
CHANGE:
AND

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
87L DIFF GPS 1 FAIL

RUN

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
87L DIFF 1 MAX ASYM

ACTUAL VALUES

| Ch1 Assymetry | > MAX

Ch1 Assymtery
RUN
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

ACTUAL VALUES

|Ch1 T-Time New Ch1 T-TIME Old| > CHANGE

Ch1 Round Trip Time


FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
87L DIFF GPS 2 FAIL

ACTUAL VALUES

AND

GPS function

87L DIFF 1 TIME CHNG

RUN
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
| Ch2 Assymetry | > MAX

87L DIFF 2 MAX ASYM

Ch2 Assymtery
RUN
ACTUAL VALUES
Ch2 Round Trip Time

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
|Ch2 T-Time New Ch2 T-TIME Old| > CHANGE

87L DIFF 2 TIME CHNG

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Channel asymmetry
Important consideration is fallback mode if GPS signal is
lost: for example, relay can be programmed to continue
to provide sensitive differential function using memorized
value of last measured channel asymmetry until step
change in the communications path is detected.

35

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Channel asymmetry

Asymmetry-disabled
(about 3 ms of
asymmetry present)
Diff. Current
high

Asymmetry-enabled
(about 3 ms of
asymmetry present)
Diff. Current
low

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Channel asymmetry
Its beneficial to monitor
differential current to
raise an alarm if it
becomes relatively high.
This can happen due to
asymmetry is present,
problems in CT
secondary. Flexelements
are used for that.

36

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Synchronization
RELAY 1

Compute
Frequency
Deviation

f f1

+
+
+

System
Frequency

_
f1

RELAY 2

_
f2

Compute
Frequency
Deviation

f f2

Phase Frequency
Loop Filter

Phase Frequency
Loop Filter
1

+
+
+

(2 1)/2

Ping-Pong
Phase
Deviation

time stamps

Ping-Pong
Phase
Deviation

(2 1)/2

(2 1)/2

GPS
Phase
Deviation

time stamps

GPS
Phase
Deviation

(2 1)/2

GPS
Clock

GPS
Clock

Overall Relays synchronization


diagram

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Synchronization

37

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Frequency Tracking
1. It is important for current differential to track the
frequency to fit exactly 64 samples within one power
cycle and to provide synchronized sampling at each
L90 relay.
2. L90 starts tracking the frequency if current at any
terminal is above 0.125 pu
3. L90 tracks the frequency from positive- sequence
current from all terminals.
4. If positive-sequence current is below 0.125 pu, all
relays track to nominal frequency, 50 Hz or 60 Hz.
5. Tracking frequency is displayed in Actual
Values\Metering menu.

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Benefits
Increased Sensitivity without sacrificing Security:
Fast operation (11.5 cycles)
Lower restraint settings / higher sensitivity
Charging current compensation
Unique precise synchronization with frequency tracking
Channel Asymmetry Compensation
CT saturation detection
Dynamic restraint ensures security during noise, harmonics,
CT saturation or transient conditions
Reduced CT requirements
Direct messaging
Increased redundancy due to master-master configuration
Reliable CRC-32 communication packet protection against
noise
Breaker-and-a half applications

38

Lab: setting up 87L

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Lab 1: Setting up 87L
Test Set 1

Test Set 2

Direct point-to-point Fiber


Rx

Tx

(64Kbps)
Tx

Rx

39

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Lab 1: Setting up 87L

L90 system is
chosen
Charging current
enabled/disabled

Channel ID
enabled/disabled

Channel ID
enabled/disabled

L90 Power System menu.

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Lab 1: Setting up 87L

87L enabled

Source chosen
Pickup
CT Tap

87L Current Differential menu.

40

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Lab 1: Setting up 87L

Slope 1

Slope 2
DTT
External DTT

87L Current Differential menu.

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Lab 1: Setting up 87L
1000/1

2000/5

Rx

Tx

(64Kbps)
Tx

Rx

L90 can accommodate CT ratios mismatch


up to 5 times even if CTs secondary
nominal current is different.

41

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Lab 1: Setting up 87L

Restraint 2

Current Differential major


settings
Restraint 1
Pickup
Breakpoint
(200% of I nominal)

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Lab 1: Setting up 50DD
This portion of logic will not
reset for a continuous
disturbance.

Disturbance Detector-logic
diagram

42

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Lab 1: Setting up 50DD

Disturbance Detector-elements menu

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Lab 1 Comms Channel Check

Channel Status menuActual


Values\Statis\Channel Tests

43

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Lab 1: Faults Simulation
Test Set

87L should
operate at the
current

Direct point-to-point Fiber

Rx

Tx

(64Kbps)
Tx

Rx

Test Set

Rx

87L should
NOT operate

Direct point-to-point Fiber

Tx

(64Kbps)
Tx

Rx

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Lab 1: 87L Characteristics Check
Test Set 2

Test Set 1

Direct point-to-point Fiber


Rx

Tx

(64Kbps)
Tx

Rx

Operate /
Restraint
Characteristics

44

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Lab 1: 87L Characteristics Check
User 87L settings
Operate current
Restraint current

Relays response
Injected currents

L90 Current Differential Relay:


87L Trip element

SETTING
87L TRIP FUNCTION:

Disable=0
Enable=1
SETTING

SETTING

87L TRIP SOURCE:

87L TRIP SEAL-IN PICKUP:

IA

IA > PICKUP

IB

IB > PICKUP

IC

IC > PICKUP

SETTING
87L TRIP SEAL-IN:
Enable=1
AND
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

87L and DTT


are OR-ed

87L DIFF OP A
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
OR

AND

87L TRIP OP A

OR

87L RECVD DTT A


AND
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
OR

AND

87L DIFF OP B

87L TRIP OP B

OR

87L RECVD DTT B


AND

Mode is hosen:

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

1P or 3P

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
OR

AND

87L DIFF OP C

87L TRIP OP C
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

OR
OR

87L RECVD DTT C

87L TRIP OP

OR
SETTING
87L TRIP M ODE:
1-Pole=0
3-Pole=1
AND
SETTING
AND
87L TRIP SUPV:
50DD SV

Supervising
element 50DD

AND

OR

OR
50

AND
OR

SETTING
87L TRIP FORCE 3- :

OR

Off=0
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

87L Trip Logic

AND
OR

OPEN POLE OP

45

L90 Current Differential Relay:


87L Trip element

SETTING
87L TRIP FUNCTION:

Disable=0

Seal-in outputs if

Enable=1
SETTING

SETTING

87L TRIP SOURCE:

87L TRIP SEAL-IN PICKUP:

IA

IB > PICKUP

IC

IC > PICKUP

Outputs per
phase or 3-phase

desirable

IA > PICKUP

IB

SETTING
87L TRIP SEAL-IN:
Enable=1
AND
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
87L DIFF OP A
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
OR

AND

87L TRIP OP A

OR

87L RECVD DTT A


AND
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
OR

AND

87L DIFF OP B

87L TRIP OP B

OR

87L RECVD DTT B


AND
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
OR

AND

87L DIFF OP C

87L TRIP OP C
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

OR
OR

87L RECVD DTT C

87L TRIP OP

OR
SETTING

Logic to detect
multi-phase
evolving and
sequential faults

87L TRIP M ODE:


1-Pole=0
3-Pole=1
AND
SETTING

Open Pole
forces 3P trip
if another
fault occurs
during open
pole
conditions

AND
87L TRIP SUPV:
50DD SV

AND

OR

OR
50

AND
OR

SETTING
87L TRIP FORCE 3- :

OR

Off=0
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

87L Trip Logic

AND
OR

OPEN POLE OP

Grouped elements

46

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Grouped elements

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Grouped: Stub bus

Line disconnect
switch 52b contact

IOC trigger

47

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Grouped: Stub bus
Stub Bus
zone

Breaker

Line

Breaker

IOC

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Grouped: Distance

L90 phase and ground distance is the same as D60 elements.

48

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Grouped: Distance

L90 backup distance is complimented by line pickup, power swing


detection, POTT and load encroachment.

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Grouped: Breaker Failure

49

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Grouped: Breaker Failure

3- Pole Breaker Failure

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Grouped: Breaker Failure

3- Pole Breaker Failure

50

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Grouped: Breaker Failure

3- Pole Breaker Failure

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Grouped: Breaker Failure

3- Pole Breaker Failure

51

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Grouped: Breaker Failure
1- Pole Breaker Failure

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Grouped: Breaker Failure

1- Pole Breaker Failure

52

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Grouped: Open Pole Detector

Control elements

53

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Control Elements

Control elements
available in L90

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Control: Synchrocheck

Synchrocheck
Logic

54

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Control: Synchrocheck

3-phase
line VT
1-phase
bus VT

Time that the two


voltages remain within
the admissible angle
difference

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Control: AutoReclose

AutoReclose sequence

55

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Control: AutoReclose

SETTING
AR FUNCTION:
Enable=1
Disable=0
D60 Relay Only
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
LINE PICKUP OP

AND

FLEXLOGIC OPERANDS
AR ENABLED

SETTING

AR DISABLED

OR

AR INITIATE

AR BLOCK:

(To page 2, Reset AR TRANSFER TIM ER)

Off = 0
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

SETTING

AR RIP

0.5 cycle

AND

SETTING

AR BKR MAN CLOSE:

To: AR FORCE 3P TRIP

AR BLK TIME UPON MAN


CLS :

Off = 0
OR

BKR MANUAL CLOSE:

(Evolving fault)

(From sheet 3)

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

AND

SETTING

AR 1-P RIP
LO

AR 1P INIT:
Off = 0

TRIP 1-POLE

AR EXTEND DEAD TIME


1:

AR 1-P DEAD TIM E:

OR

OR

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
D60 Relay Only From Trip Output

SETTING

SETTING

Off = 0
AND

OR

0
SETTING

SETTING
AR 3P INIT:

AR 3-P/1 RIP

Off = 0

SETTING

OR
OR

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

OR

AR DEAD TIME 1
EXTENSION:

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

AND

AR 3-P DEAD TIM E 1:

TRIP AR INIT 3-POLE

OR
AND

OR

SETTING

AR 3P TD INIT:
Off = 0
SETTING
CLOSE (to page 2)

BKR ONE POLE OPEN:

OR

From sheet 3

Off = 0
OR
BKR ONE POLE OPEN
SETTING
BKR 3 POLE OPEN:

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
AR 3-P/2 RIP

Off = 0

OR
SETTING

BKR 3 POLE OPEN

OR
AND

RESET
CLOSE BKR1 OR BKR2

From Sheet 2

AR 3-P DEAD TIME 2:

OR

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

0
AND

OR

AR SHOT COUNT>0
SETTING

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
AR INCOM PLETE SEQ

BKR FAIL TO RECLS


(from sheet 2)

AR PAUSE

827089AD.CDR

Off = 0
SHOT COUNT = MAX

AND

SETTING

AND
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

AR M0DE:

AR LO

AND

1 Pole

SETTING

3 Pole - A
3 Pole -B

AR INCOMPLETE SEQ.
TIMER:

OR

OR

1 & 3 Pole
AND

D60 Relay Only From Phase Selector


FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

AND

PHASE SELECT MULTI-P

OR

OR

0
5ms

SETTING

AND

OR
AR MULTI-P FAULT:

RESET (to sheet 2)


Off = 0
FLEXLOGIC OPERAND
SETTING
AR RESET:

OR

AR FORCE 3P TRIP

OR

AR ZONE 1 EXTENT

AutoReclose
logic

Evolving fault

OR

Off = 0

AR DISABLED

FLEXLOGIC OPERAND

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Control: AutoReclose
AND

AND

OR

OR

AND

AND
LO
AND

To sheet 3
AND
OR

AND

2ms

LO

OR

AND

AND
OR

OR

AND
S
Latch
OR

R
RESET

LO
AND

LO
AND

2ms

OR

AND

BKR CLOSED (from page 3)

827090A9.CDR

AND

OR

AutoReclose
logic

56

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Control: AutoReclose
This piece of the AR is
reading status of
breaker(s) and feeds
main AR logic to
proceed action further
accordingly number of
breakers, mode chosen
and sequence chosen.

AutoReclose
logic

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Control: AutoReclose
AutoReclosure Function

Breaker Function
Breakers are set in
System Setup\
Breakers

AR is set per users


requirements (reads
breakers status
automatically)

LEDs are needed to


know AR ststus

LEDs

57

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Control: CT Fail Detector

CT Fail Detector is designed to detect


failures in CT secondary circuitry

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Control: VT Fuse Fail

58

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Control: POTT

POTT scheme requires 1-bit


comms channel, for example
PLC.

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Direct Inputs and Outputs
Line 1
B5

C60 3

Ethernet
Ethernet
B1

B3

Line 2
L90 2

L90 1
Substation 1
B2

B4

Substation

L90 1-2 LAN

59

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Direct Inputs and Outputs
Default
means state
when
channel is
broken

Direct
Outputs are
assigned with
Flexlogic
operands

This is active
in 3-terminal
only

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Direct Inputs and Outputs

Channel status
controls either
Direct Input is read
from the received
data or set to
default

60

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Direct Inputs and Outputs
Example
Local Relay

Remote Relay

Breaker Fail is
assigned to Direct
Output 1-1

Direct Input 1-1 (BF


at remote S/S) is
assigned to a trip
gate.

Monitoring & Metering

61

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Metering: 87L

L90 Current Differential Relay:


Oscillography: 87L analogs

62

Overall L90 functional diagram

L90 test program is available on GE Multilin web site

63

Thank you.

64