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You are on page 1of 37

com

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

Facilitate

Prepared by

Dr. J. Raja Murugadoss

Professor and Head of Civil Engineering

KPR Institute of Engineering and Technology

Coimbatore 641 407

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CHAPTER 1

STRESSES AND STRAINS

1. Define stress?

When a body is subjected to any arbitrary loading, it undergoes deformation.

Consequently some amount of internal force will be set-up in the body to resist the

deformation produced by the external cause. The magnitude of internal resisting force

per unit area is defined as stress.

The unit of stress () is N/mm2.

2. Define strain?

When a solid bar is subjected to an axial load, it undergoes deformation both in

longitudinal and transverse directions. In the longitudinal direction, strain

(engineering strain) can be defined as the fractional change in length. Strain is a

dimensionless quantity and it is denoted by the symbol .

3. Define Hookes law?

Hookes states that, when a material is loaded within the elastic limit the stress is

linearly proportional to strain. Therefore

Stress Strain

Stress = E (Strain)

where, E = Youngs Modulus (N/mm2). E is also called as elastic constant.

4. What do you mean by limit of proportionality or elastic limit?

Limit of proportionality or elastic limit is a point in the stress-strain curve at which

the linear relation between them ceases. (i.e. the point at which the straight line

changes to a curve). Thereafter the stress is not directly proportional to strain and

therefore Hookes law is not valid after the elastic limit.

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Also this is the point at which material undergoes rearrangement of molecular

structure, in which atoms are being shifted to some other stable configuration.

5. What do you mean by the term necking?

When a material is being loaded to its yield point, the specimen begins to neck (i.e.

the cross sectional area of the material start decreasing) due to plastic flow. Therefore

Necking can be defined as the mode of ductile flow of material in tension. Necking

usually occurs where the surface imperfections are predominant.

6. What do you mean by Poissons ratio?

When an axial bar is loaded, it undergoes deformation in both the direction i.e.

longitudinal and transverse directions. Therefore Poissons ratio can be defined as the

ratio of lateral strain to the longitudinal strain or axial strain or linear strain (within

the elastic limit). It is denoted by the symbol and it is a dimensionless quantity.

Table 1 Poissons ratio for few materials

Material

Rubber

Lead

Copper

Brass

Steel

Poissons Ratio

0.48

0.44

0.37

0.33

0.29

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7. When a material is said to be perfectly elastic?

A material is said to be perfectly elastic, when it obeys Hookes law. In other words

the material is said to be perfectly elastic when the stress is directly proportional to

the strain within the elastic limit.

8. What is meant by free body diagram?

A free body diagram is a complete diagram or a simplified sketch that shows all the

external forces with the direction and the point of application of external load. This

includes all the reactive forces by the supports and the weight of the body due to its

mass.

9. What do you mean by volumetric strain?

Volumetric strain can be numerically defined as the change in volume to the original

volume of the material. It is denoted by the symbol V.

10. What do you mean by Bulk Modulus?

The ratio of change in pressure (P) to the fractional change in volume i.e. volumetric

strain is called bulk modulus of a material. It is denoted by the symbol K.

Note:

The reciprocal of the bulk modulus is defined as the compressibility of the material.

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Shear modulus G can be defined as the ratio of shear stress to shear strain.

12. What is strain hardening?

When a material is subjected to tensile test, at a particular load corresponding to the

upper yield point, the material starts flowing or becomes ductile in nature. After that

the material starts taking more load greater than the load corresponding to elastic

limit. This phenomenon is called strain hardening.

13. What is meant by force?

Force is defined as the interaction between bodies which gives rise to an acceleration

or to the deformation of the body.

14. What is shear stress?

The intensity of force per unit area acting tangentially to a particular point is called

shear stress. It is dented by the symbol . It is also called as rigidity modulus or

modulus of rigidity.

Note:

Shear force always act parallel to a cross section.

15. What do you mean by compound bar?

A compound bar is an assembly of more than one bar having same or different cross

sections made of same or different materials.

16. What do you mean by thermal stresses?

If an arbitrary body is allowed to expand or contract freely, with the rise or fall of

temperature no stress is developed but if free expansion is prevented the stress

developed is called temperature stress or strain.

17. What do you mean by strain energy?

The work done in straining the material, within the elastic limit, is known as strain

energy.

Note:

Strain energy is scalar quantity. It is always denoted by the symbol U. Generally it

is a positive quantity. In solid deformable bodies, stresses multiplied by their

respective areas of cross-section are forces and the deformations are distances.

Force = stress x area

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Hence the internal work is defined as the product of force and the deformations. This

internal work is stored in an elastic body as the internal elastic energy of deformation

(or) simply elastic strain energy.

If the strain energy is within the elastic limit, the work done will be completely

transformed into potential energy and can be recovered during a gradual unloading of

the strained material.

or

The potential energy stored in a body by virtue of an elastic deformation, equal to the

work that must be done to produce both normal and shear strains.

The unit of strain energy is Joule or N-m. Strain energy is dependent on the length and

cross-sectional area of the material.

18. What is complimentary energy?

The area between the load-extension curve and the vertical axis is called the

complimentary energy.

19. Define elastic strain energy?

If the material is loaded within the elastic limit and then unloaded to zero stress, the

strain also becomes zero and the strain energy stored in the body in straining the

material is recoverable. However, when the material is loaded beyond the elastic limit

and then unloaded, some permanent deformations will be setup in the body even after

unloading. Therefore, only the partial strain energy will be recoverable and is called

elastic strain energy.

20. What do you mean by strain energy density?

Strain energy density is defined as the strain energy per unit volume of the material. It

is actually the area under the stress-strain curve.

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The maximum load which can be applied to a body without permanent deformation is

called proof load.

22. Define resilience.

Resilience is defined as the capacity of a material to absorb energy upon loading.

23. Define modulus of resilience.

Modulus of resilience is defined as the energy per unit volume that the material can

absorb without yielding.

24. Define toughness of a material.

Toughness is defined as the maximum strain energy that can be absorbed per unit

volume till rupture.

The modulus of toughness is a measure of the resistance of the structure to impact

loading and is dependent on the ductility of the material.

25. What are the major types of deformation?

Thermal deformation (deformation due to temperature variation)

100 kN

50 kN

100 kN

Sum of all the forces acting in left direction = Sum of all the forces acting in right

direction.

Therefore, 100 + P = 100 + 50

P = 50 kN.

27. How will you calculate the total elongation of a compound bar which is connected in

series?

The total elongation of a compound bar connected in series can be computed by the

relation

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= l1 + l2 + l3 ++ ln

P1 L1

PL

PL

2 2 ... n n

A1E1 A 2 E 2

AnEn

28. How will you find the loads taken by individual bars connected in parallel and are

clamped at their ends?

The loads shared by individual bars can be computed by equating the displacements

of each bar. (i.e. both the displacements are equal)

29. State the principle of Superposition?

When a body is subjected to a number of external forces, the forces are split up, and

their effects are considered on individual sections. The resulting deformation, of the

body is equal to the algebraic sum of the deformations of the individual sections.

Such a principle of finding the resultant deformation is called the principle of

superposition.

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CHAPTER 2

PRINCIPAL STRESSES AND STRAINS

1. What is meant by principal plane?

Principal plane is plane in which the stress vector will be wholly normal and there

will not be any tangential or shear stress in that particular plane. Such a plane is

called principal plane. The corresponding stress is called principal stress.

Since the resultant stress is along the normal, tangential or shear stress is always zero.

Therefore the principal plane is called shearless plane

2. What do you mean by state of stress?

The totality of all stress vectors acting on every possible plane passing through a

point is defined to be the state of stress at a point.

3. What is principal stress?

The normal stress which is acting on the principal plane is called principal stress.

4. What do you mean by octahedral plane?

A plane that is equally inclined to all the three principal axes, then that plane is called

octahedral plane. Also the octahedral plane is free from normal stress.

5. What is stress invariant?

A stress invariant is one whose value does not change when the frame of reference is

changed.

For example I1, I2, I3 are the first, second and third stress invariants of three

dimensional state of stress whose value does not change.

6. Give the necessary condition for a pure state of shear.

For a state of pure shear to be exist, the first stress invariant should be equal to zero or

in other words

I1 x y z 0

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If the principal stresses are equal in magnitude, then that state is called hydrostatic or

isotropic.

Note:

Hydrostatic or isotropic causes only a change in volume. (i.e. volumetric strain).

No distortion of material will takes place.

8. What is meant by residual stresses?

In reality, when materials are being manufactured, they are often rolled, extruded,

forged, welded and hammered. In castings, materials may cool unevenly.

These processes can setup high internal stresses called residual stresses.

Note:

This process causes the development of larger normal stresses near the

outer surface than in the middle.

These residual stresses are self-equilibrating. i.e. they are in equilibrium

without any externally applied forces.

In real world problems, such residual stresses may be large and should be carefully

investigated and then added to the calculated stresses for the initially stress-free

material.

9. What is meant by Spherical and deviatoric state of stress?

If a generate state of stress is decomposed into two components, it falls into

categories, i.e. Hydrostatic state of stress (or) Spherical state of stress and deviatoric

state of stress.

Let P = 1/3 I1, I1 is the first stress invariant.

x x y xz P 0 0 ( x p ) x y xz

yx y yz 0 P 0 yx ( y p ) yz

0 0 P ( p )

zx zy z

zx zy z

Here the first term represents the spherical state of stress and the other tangential or

shear stress will be completely zero.

The second term is called deviatoric state of stress or state of pure shear or simply

stress deviator. Deviatoric state of stress at a point is derived by subtracting the mean

of the normal stress components of the stress matrix (i.e. diagonal components) from

each diagonal term of the stress matrix.

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Out of nine stress components

i.e. x, y, z, xy, xz, yz, yx, zx, zy, six components are independent

components. These are known as cross-shears.

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CHAPTER 3

THEORIES OF FAILURE

1. List out any five important theories of failure.

Maximum Shear Stress Theory (or) Tresca Yield Theory

Maximum Elastic Strain Theory (or) St. Vanants

Maximum Elastic Energy Theory

Energy of Distortion Theory

According to this theory, the energy absorbed during the distortion of an element is

responsible for failure, not the total energy absorbed.

Note:

The energy of distortion can be obtained by subtracting the energy of volumetric

expansion from the total energy.

3. State the theory of Maximum Elastic Strain Energy.

According to this theory, failure occurs at a point in a body when the maximum strain

at that point exceeds the value of the maximum strain in a uniaxial test of the material

at yield point.

4. State the theory of Maximum Elastic Energy.

According to this theory, failure at any point in a body, subject to a state of stress

begins only when the energy per unit volume absorbed at the point is equal to the

energy absorbed per unit volume of the material when subjected to the elastic limit

under a uniaxial state of stress.

5. State the theory of Maximum Shear Stress Theory.

The maximum shear stress theory (or) simply the maximum shear theory, results from

the observation that in a ductile material, slip occurs during yielding along critically

oriented planes. It is assumed that yielding (plastic state) of the material depends only

on the maximum shear stress that is attained within an element.

6. State the theory of Maximum Principal Stress Theory

According to this theory, the maximum principal stress in the material determines the

failure regardless of what the other two principal stresses are, so long as they are

algebraically smaller.

Note:

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7. Why theories of failure are necessary?

When a material is subjected to any state of stress or strain, failure or fracture occurs

due to many factors or causes. It may be due to principal stress, maximum shear

stress at a point or octahedral shear stress. To understand, to improve the performance

of material under loading condition and to prevent the failure or fracture, knowledge

of theories of failure is much essential.

8. Define dilatation.

In the infinitesimal (small) strain theory, dilatation is defined as the change in volume

per unit volume, is referred to as dilatation.

e x y z

Note:

The shear strains cause no change in volume.

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CHAPTER 4

SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT

1. What is a beam?

A beam is a horizontal member which is always loaded in the transverse direction,

perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the beam.

2. What are the different types of beams?

Simply supported beam (one end hinged and other being roller supported)

Cantilever beam (one end fixed and other end being free)

Fixed beam (both the ends are clamped or fixed)

Over-hanging beam (some loaded portion of the beam extends beyond the

support)

Point Load with some inclination to the transverse axis

Uniformly Distributed Load (U.D.L)

Varying Load

Moment

If the load is acting perpendicular to longitudinal axis of the beam then it is called

transverse loading of beam.

5. List the various types of support.

Simple support (it resist loads which are acting perpendicular to the

longitudinal axis of the beam)

Fixed support (it resists forces in all direction and also restrict the rotation of

the beam)

Hinged support (it can resist forces in two directions but allows rotation about

the axis of the pin, example, hinge)

Shear force is defined as the internal force developed in the material of the beam to

balance the externally applied loads in order to achieve equilibrium of all parts of the

beam.

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Bending moments are internal moments developed in the material of a beam to

balance the tendency for external forces to cause rotation of any part of the beam.

8. What is mean by positive or sagging bending moment?

Bending moment is said to positive if moment on left side of beam is clockwise or

right side of the beam is counter clockwise.

9. What is mean by negative or hogging bending moment?

Bending moment is said to negative if moment on left side of beam is

counterclockwise or right side of the beam is clockwise.

10. Define shear force diagram.

A SFD is a diagram that indicates how a force applied perpendicular to the axis (i.e.

parallel to the cross section) of a beam is transmitted along the length of the beam.

11. Define bending moment diagram.

A BMD is a diagram that indicates how the applied loads to a beam create a moment

variation along the length of the beam.

12. What is meant by point of contra-flexure?

Point of contra-flexure or point of contrary flexure in point in the cross section of

beam at which the shear force becomes zero (i.e. it changes the sign) and the bending

moment is maximum. It is otherwise called as point of inflexion.

13. List out some properties of shear force diagram and bending moment diagram.

The S.F.D. will consist of rectangles or series of rectangles if the beam is loaded with

point loads.

The S.F.D. will consist of inclined lines for the portion of the beam on which the U.D.L.

is acting.

The S.F.D. will consist of parabolic lines for the portion of the beam over which

triangular load distribution is acting.

The B.M.D. will consist of inclined lines, if the beam is loaded with point loads.

The B.M.D. will consist of parabolic lines for the portion over which U.D.L is acting.

The B.M.D will consist of cubic or third degree polynomials if the load distribution is

triangular.

The B.M.D. will consist of fourth degree polynomial if the load distribution is parabolic.

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14. Write the bending equation or classic flexure formula and state its significance.

M f E

I y R

Here,

M is the bending moment, I is the moment of inertia, f is the maximum bending

stress, y is the distance of the fiber from the neutral axis, E is the elastic modulus and

R is the radius of curvature.

15. What is isotropic and orthotropic?

In isotropic, the material property will be same in all mutually perpendicular

directions.

In orthotropic, the material property will be different in all mutually perpendicular

directions

16. What is meant by homogeneous and heterogeneous?

Homogeneous means: the material property remains same in all discrete points.

Heterogeneous means: the material property will vary from one point to other point.

(i.e. the material property will not be same in all points)

17. What is meant by simple bending?

When a beam is subjected to a transverse load in such a way that it develops only

bending. Other actions will be absent. For example

When a beam is subjected to equal and opposite couples, the beam will be

subjected to bending alone.

When a beam is subjected to two point loading, the beam will be subjected to

bending alone.

18. What is meant by section modulus or modulus of section?

The term I/y is called section modulus or modulus of section. The strength or load

carrying capacity of beam depends on this section modulus. It is usually denoted by

the letter Z.

Z=

bd 2

(for rectangular sections)

6

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Z=

Z=

d 3

(for solid circular sections)

32

(D 4 - d 4 )

(for hollow circular sections)

32 D

The bending stress at failure or rupture is called modulus of rupture.

Note:

In theory of simple bending we have assumed that the beam is loaded within the

elastic limit. And when the beam is loaded beyond its proportionality the beam will

fail. The modulus of rupture is used to compare the bending strength of different

beams made of various sizes and materials.

20. What are all the various assumptions made in the theory of simple bending?

Transverse section of the beam remain plane before and after bending

It obeys Hooks law.

The material is homogeneous and isotropic

The beam is initially straight and of constant cross-section

The radius of curvature of the beam is very large when it is compared to the

other dimensions of the beam.

The beam consists of infinite number of longitudinal fibres which is free to expand or

contract during bending

21. Comment on Load Carrying capacity of beams?

The strength of the section or the load carrying capacity of a beam does not depend

upon the sectional area provided but upon the disposition of that area in relation to its

neutral axis. In other words, the strength of beam directly depends on the sectionmodulus Z of the beam.

Shear flow is defined as the longitudinal force per unit length transmitted across the

section at level y1 from the neutral axis.

If the shear stress is multiplied by the corresponding width of the section, the quantity

obtained is known as shear flow. It is denoted by q and is given by q = . z (here z

denotes the width of the section corresponding to that layer)

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23. How will you calculate the value of shear stress at a particular distance from the

neutral axis?

V.A'.y

I.Z

Here, V is the corresponding shear force at a particular distance from the neutral

axis, A is the partial area of the section, y is the moment arm of this partial area

with respect to neutral axis, I is the moment of inertia of the section and Z is the

corresponding width of the layer or fiber and is the shear stress at a particular

distance from the neutral axis.

24. Prove that the maximum shear stress in a rectangular beam is 1.5 times the average

shear stress. [university two mark question]

25. Draw the bending stress variation of a simply supported beam.

The value of bending stress (N/mm2) is zero at the level of neutral axis and maximum

at the extreme fiber of the cross-section of the beam. The bending stress is always

proportional to the distance of the fiber from the neutral axis. The value of bending

stress increases as the distance of the fiber increases.

Above the neutral axis, the beam experiences compressive stress and at the same time

it is subjected to tensile stress below the neutral axis. The bending stresses always

cause the member to bend in the transverse direction.

C

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CHAPTER 5

COLUMNS

1. Define Column.

Column is a vertical, long and slender member which is subjected to only

compressive load. Every discrete cross section of the column will be in a state of

axial compression.

2. What are the major classifications of a column?

Columns are classified into

Long columns and

Short Columns based on the slenderness ratio of the column.

3. What do you mean by slenderness ratio?

Slenderness ratio is defined as the ratio of effective length of the column to its

smallest radius of gyration. It usually denoted by the symbol

EffectiveLength (le )

radius of gyration (r)

Effective length of a column is defined as the distance between the adjacent

points of inflexion in a column. Point of inflexion is the point at which the column

experiences lateral bending.

In other words, it may be defined as the product of actual length of a column and

the end-fixity factor. The end fixity factor is usually denoted by the symbol K.

5. What do you mean by radius of gyration?

Radius of gyration is a measure of slenderness of the column. It can be defined as

I

A

where, I is the moment of inertia of the column and A is the cross sectional area

of the column. I and A are geometric properties of columns cross section. The

value of I changes with respect to axis and therefore if r is minimum at a

particular axis, then the failure of the column will be likely in that axis.

r

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Columns are classified into long columns and short columns based on the

slenderness ratio. In general long columns always fails by buckling and short

columns always fails by crushing of materials in the column.

7. What do you mean by buckling and buckling load?

Buckling is a failure mode of column at which the straight configuration of the

column changes to some other deformed configuration. The minimum load at

which the stable equilibrium transforms to another deformed stable configuration

is called buckling load. Buckling is also called as lateral bending and this

phenomenon is referred as elastic instability.

Buckling load is also called as

Critical load

Crippling load

Bifurcating load

8. What do you mean by real column?

Real column is one which is practically exists in the real world. All these columns

have

Initial eccentricity i.e. the load is not concentric at every cross section of

the column.

Initial crookedness i.e. the column is not perfectly straight

9. Mention any one method of finding the critical load of a long column.

Euler has established one empirical equation to determine the buckling load or

critical load or load carrying capacity of long columns based on certain

assumptions. This buckling load is called Eulers critical load (Pcr).

Pcr

2 EI

le

10. What are the assumptions involved in the derivation of Eulers critical load?

Column is perfectly straight and there is no crookedness or imperfections

in the member

Load is acting concentric at every cross section of the column.

It is valid only for long columns

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11. What is the influence of the assumptions of Euler on the load carrying capacity of

a real column?

Euler has assumed that the column is initially straight and there is no eccentricity

in the column. But in actual practice there is no such real columns which have

zero eccentricity and perfect geometry.

Therefore the Eulers critical load is always higher than the actual critical load of

a long column.

12. What do you mean by eccentricity?

Eccentricity is defined as the perpendicular distance between the point of

application of load to the longitudinal axis of the column. It is usually denoted by

the symbol e.

13. Draw the relation between slenderness ratio of the column against the critical

stress of the column.

14. How the slenderness ratio of the column, affect the strength of column?

The strength of column depends upon many parameters. But the length of column

plays a major role in determining the strength of column. If the slenderness ratio

of the column increases, the strength of the member generally decreases. Also the

critical stress of the column also decreases.

15. List out the effective length (s) of column for different boundary conditions.

Both ends being fixed: le = 0.5 l

One end fixed and other end free: le = 2 l

One end fixed and other being pinned: le = 0.707 l

16. Discuss the effect of initial imperfections and eccentricity in the column.

In the derivation of Euler Buckling load for long columns, the member is assumed

to be straight and loading is assumed to be concentric at every cross section.

However, in real world engineering practice, the members are not perfectly

straight and moreover the load is not concentric at every cross section.

Unlike the perfect column, which remains straight up to the Euler load, the

initially deformed member begins to bend as soon as the load is applied. The

deflection increases slowly at first and then rapidly increases. In eccentric loaded

columns, bending begins as soon as the load is applied. The deflection increases

slowly in the beginning and then rapidly increases.

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Columns with large eccentricities deflect considerably at loads well below the

Euler load, whereas the column with small eccentricities of loading do not bend

significantly until the load is fairly close to the Euler load.

Excessive bending of the column sometimes leads to complete collapse of the

member. Column with small eccentricities of loading can therefore be expected to

support loads only slightly less than the Euler loads.

The load carrying capacity of a real column is always less than that of Euler s

column due to the presence of initial imperfections and eccentricities.

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CHAPTER 6

TORSION OF CIRCULAR SHAFT & SPRINGS

1. What is power?

Power can be defined as the rate of transferring energy. It is calculated as

P = T x n

where, P is the power, T is the torque and n is the rotational speed.

2. What do you mean by Torsion?

Torsion refers to the loading of a circular or non-circular member that tends to

cause it to rotate or twist. Such a load is called torque, torsional moment,

rotational moment, twisting moment or simply couple.

3. What are the assumptions made in Torsion equation

The material of the shaft is homogeneous, perfectly elastic and obeys

Hookes law.

Twist is uniform along the length of the shaft

The stress does not exceed the limit of proportionality

The shaft circular in section remains circular after loading

Strain and deformations are small.

4. Write the governing equation for torsion of circular shaft?

T G

J R

L

the shaft; - Shear stress; R- Radius of the shaft.

loading?

Shear Stress. The variation of shear stress is linear and it vary from zero at the

neutral axis and reaches the maximum value at the extreme fiber of the shaft.

i.e. shear stress radius

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6. Define polar moment of inertia and establish the equations for a solid and hollow

circular shaft.

Polar moment of inertia can be defined as

D 4

J

(solid circular shaft)

32

(D 4 d 4 )

J

(hollow circular shaft)

32

7. Define polar modulus?

Polar modulus can be defined as

D3

Zp

(solid circular shaft)

16

(D 4 - d 4 )

Zp

(hollow circular shaft)

16D

8. Why the shear stress is maximum at the outer surface of the shaft than the inner

core?

When the circular shaft is subjected to torsional loading, the shear stress is

maximum at the extreme fiber of the shaft. This is due to the reason that, the

extreme fibers are much strained than the inner surface near centroidal axis of the

member. This is the reason why the shear stress is maximum at the extreme fiber

of the shaft. Also the materials inside the shaft are not that much utilized at the

time of torsional loading. Also it this is the reason why hollow circular shafts are

preferred rather than the solid one for practical use.

9. Why hollow circular shafts are preferred when compared to solid circular shafts?

The torque transmitted by the hollow shaft is greater than the solid shaft.

For same material, length and given torque, the weight of the hollow shaft

will be less compared to solid shaft.

10. What is torsional stiffness?

The measure of torsional stiffness is the angle of twist of one part of a shaft

relative to another part when a certain torque is applied.

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Flexural rigidity (EI)

Torsional rigidity (GJ)

Plate rigidity

12. Define spring?

A spring is an elastic member, which deflects under the action of load and regains

its original shape after the removal load.

13. What are the various types of springs?

Leaf spring

Spiral spring

Helical spring

Open coil helical spring

Closed coil helical spring

14. State any two major functions of a spring.

To absorb the shock energy

To measure forces in spring balance and engine indicators

15. Define pitch?

Pitch of the spring is defined as the axial distance between the adjacent coils in

uncompressed state. Mathematically it can be calculated as

Pitch = (length/ (n-1))

where, n is the number of turns available in the coil.

16. What is spring index (C)?

The ratio of pitch or mean diameter to the diameter of wire for the spring is called

the spring index.

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The length of a spring under its maximum compression is called its solid length.

It is the product of total number of coils and the diameter of wire. It is usually

denoted by the symbol Ls.

18. Define free length.

Free length of the spring is the length of the spring when it is free or unloaded

condition. It is equal to the solid length plus the maximum deflection or

compression plus clash allowance.

Lf = solid length + Ymax + 0.15 Ymax

19. Define stiffness of spring or spring rate.

The spring stiffness or spring constant is defined as the load required per unit

deflection of the spring

20. Define helical springs.

The helical springs are made up of a wire coiled in the form of a helix and are

primarily intended for compressive or tensile load. Closed coil springs are meant

for taking tensile load (springs balance) and the other one is for taking

compressive load (Shock observer).

21. What are the differences between closed coil & open coil helical springs?

Meant for tensile load

Meant for compressive load

The spring wires are coiled very The wires are coiled such that

closely, each turn is nearly at right there is a gap between the two

angles to the axis of helix

consecutive turns.

Helix angle is less than 10o

22. What are the various stresses induced in the open coil helical spring?

Torsional shear stress

Direct shear stress

Stress arises due to curvature

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The helical compression spring behaves like a column and buckles at a

comparative small load when the length of the spring is more than 4 times the

mean coil diameter

24. What is buckling of springs?

The helical compression spring behaves like a column and buckles at a

comparative small load when the length of the spring is more than 4 times the

mean coil diameter.

25. What is surge in springs?

The material is subjected to higher stresses, which may cause early fatigue failure.

This effect is called as spring surge.

26. Define active turns.

Active turns of the spring are defined as the number of turns, which impart spring

action while loaded. As load increases the no of active coils decreases.

27. Define inactive turns.

An inactive turn of the spring is defined as the number of turns which does not

contribute to the spring action while loaded. As load increases number of inactive

coils increases from 0.5 to 1 turn

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CHAPTER 7

DEFLECTION OF BEAMS

1. Why deflection of beams is needed for engineering applications like mechanical

engineering?

The spindle of a lathe or drill press and the arbor of a milling machine carry

cutting tools for machining metals. Therefore the deflection of the spindle would

have an adverse effect on the accuracy of the machine output. The manner of

loading and support of these machine elements behave like that of a real beam.

This is the reason why deflection of beams is necessary for engineering

applications like mechanical engineering.

2. Name the various methods of determining slope and deflection of beams.

Macaulays method

Moment Area method

Conjugate Beam method.

3. Describe the boundary conditions that can be used for finding out the values of

the constants of integration in case of common type of beams.

Support

Fixed end

Free end

Roller (i.e. pinned or hinged)

Deflection

Zero

Yes

Zero

Slope

Zero

Yes

Zero

Moment

Yes

Zero

Zero

Flexural rigidity is defined as the product of Youngs Modulus and the moment of

Inertia (I) of the section

5. Define the term slope.

Slope is defined as the rotation of the beam axis from its original position.

6. Define deflection.

The displacement of a particular point located in the longitudinal axis of the beam

in the vertical direction is called deflection. Deflection may be either upward or

downward depending upon the direction of the load which is acting on the beam

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d2y

EI 2 M

dx

where M is the bending moment, EI is the flexural rigidity and y is the

deflection of the beam.

8. Explain the procedure of finding the slope and deflection of a beam using

Macaulays method?

Find the reaction at the supports

Take a section at a distance x from the left support such that it covers all the

loads in the beam.

Form the moment curvature expression that relates the bending moment

Integrate the moment curvature expression twice to obtain the expressions for

slope and deflection.

Apply the boundary conditions and the find the constants involved in the

moment curvature expression.

Find the slope and deflection at various points by substituting the value for

x.

9. List out the relationship exists between slope, deflection, bending moment and the

load.

Slope

dy

dx

Bending Moment EI

d2y

dx 2

d3y

dx 3

d4y

Load 4

dx

Shear Force

The angle between the tangents at two points A and B of a deflection curve is

equal to the area of the M/EI diagram between A and B.

The displacement of B from the tangent at A is equal to the moment of the M/EI

diagram between A and B about the point B.

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11. State the principle involved in finding the slope and deflection of beams using

Moment-Area theorem.

Moment Area method uses the elastic curve equation or moment curvature

expression, but the integration is carried out by doing so, the kinematic boundary

conditions are not considered.

12. What is conjugate beam?

Conjugate beam is a fictitious beam which has the same length as the real beam,

but supported in such a manner that when it is loaded with M/EI diagram of the

real beam, the shear and bending moment at a section in the conjugate beam give

the slope and deflection at the corresponding section of a real beam.

13. Explain, how the load is applied in Conjugate beam method and its applicability

to different types of beam?

In conjugate beam method, the beam is loaded with elastic weight M/EI

corresponding to the actual load.

For cantilever beams, fixed beams and continuous beams, if this method is

applied, the fixed ends behave like that it is subjected to rotations and translations.

Hence for this type of beams some artificial restraints have to be applied to the

conjugate beam, so that it is supported in a manner consistent with the constraints

of the real beam.

14. Why deflection of beams is needed for engineering applications like mechanical

engineering?

The spindle of a lathe or drill press and the arbor of a milling machine carry

cutting tools for machining metals. Therefore the deflection of the spindle would

have an adverse effect on the accuracy of the machine output. The manner of

loading and support of these machine elements behave like that of a real beam.

This is the reason why deflection of beams is necessary for engineering

applications like mechanical engineering.

15. Give the conjugate beam for the cantilever shown below.

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CHAPTER 8

UNSYMMETRICAL BENDING

1. Define unsymmetrical bending?

Unsymmetrical bending is defined as the bending caused by the loads that are

inclined to the principal planes of bending.

Note:

For the analysis of unsymmetrical bending, the applied forces must be

resolved at the shear centre parallel to the principal axes of the crosssection.

In unsymmetrical sections, the neutral axis does not pass through the

geometrical centre of the section.

Example: purlin of a roof truss.

2. Define Shear Centre?

Shear centre is defined as the point of intersection of the bending axis and the

plane of the transverse section. (or)

Shear centre of a section can be defined as the point about which the applied

forces is balanced by the set of shear forces obtained by summing the shear

stresses over the section. (or)

Note:

Shear centre is also known as centre of twist.

In case of unsymmetrical section the shear centre does not coincide with

the centroid of the given section.

When the load passes through the shear centre then there will be only

bending and no twisting will be there.

3. What are the two reasons for unsymmetrical bending?

The section is symmetrical (rectangular, circular, I-section) but the load

line is inclined to both the principal axes.

The section itself is unsymmetrical (angle section, channel section) and

the load line is along the centriodal axis.

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In real world problems of practical importance, when there is an abrupt change in

the cross-section such as at the roots of threads of a bolt, at a section of a beam

(or) plate having a hole, the stresses are no longer uniformly distributed.

The stresses will be higher in magnitude, usually occur at the discontinuities.

Such stresses are called stress concentration.

Note:

It is often referred as Localized Stresses

In theory of elasticity, it is called St. Venants principal and according to

this principle the stress will be higher near the vicinity of the hole or

discontinuities or the point of application of the load and it will diminish

or vanish as distance from the hole increases.

5. What is stress concentration factor (k)?

The ratio of average nominal stress (max) to the maximum stress (n) is called

stress concentration factor. It is generally denoted by the symbol k.

6. For unsymmetrical bending. Write the equation to find the inclination of Neutral

axis if the load is acting in a plane inclined at an angle of to vertical.

tan = - (Ivv / Iuu) tan

Note:

The equation of the Neutral Axis (N.A.) can be found by finding the locus

of the points about which the resultant stress is zero.

The maximum stress will occur at a point which is at the greatest distance

from the neutral axis.

All the points of the section on one side of the N.A. will carry stresses of

the same nature and on the other side of its axis, of opposite sign.

In addition to bending stress if there is any direct stress, the N.A. will be a

straight line but it will not pass through centre of Gravity G. Then for

finding the equation of the N.A. the resultant stress which is the algebraic

sum of direct and bending stresses will be equated to zero.

7. What do you mean by Curved beams?

Curved beams are the structural members or beams which are having some initial

curvature.

Note:

A simple flexure formula may be used for curved beams for which the

radius of curvature is more than five times the beam depth.

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For deeply curved beams, the N.A. and the centroidal axes do not coincide

and hence the simple bending formula is not applicable. Thats why the

Winkler-Bach formula is widely used.

8. What are the basic assumptions in the derivation of bending stress equation of

Winkler-Bach formula?

Limit of proportionality is not exceeded.

Radial strain is negligible.

The material considered is isotropic and obeys Hookes Law.

9. Define Fatigue?

A phenomenon loading to fracture under repeated (or) fluctuating cyclic stresses

below the tensile strength of the material is called Fatigue.

Note:

Fatigue fractures are progressive starting as minute crack developing under the

action of fluctuating stresses.

10. What is Fatigue life?

The number of cycles of stress that can be sustained prior to failure of a specified

nature for a stated stress condition.

11. What is Fatigue or Endurance Limit?

The maximum stress below which a material can presumably endure an infinite

number of stress cycles. If the stress is not completely reversed, the value of the

mean stress or the maximum stress or the stress ratio, should be mentioned.

12. What is Fatigue or endurance ration?

The ratio of the fatigue limit to the tensile strength is defined as endurance limit.

13. What is Fatigue Strength?

The limiting stress below which a material will withstand a specified number of

cycles of stress without fracture.

14. What is Overstressing?

The damage to fatigue properties of a material by cycling for a time at a stress

above the fatigue limit.

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An improvement in the fatigue behavior of a material as a result of initial cyclic

stressing below the normal fatigue limit and then subjected gradually to the

designed stress range.

Apparently due to strain aging of effects it may double the number of reversals to

failure in the case of steels, above their normal fatigue limit.

16. What is Corrosion Fatigue?

The Fatigue caused (or) aggravated by corrosion.

17. What is cumulative damage law (or) linear damage (or) Miners law?

In a fatigue test employing various stress ranges and frequencies sometimes with

rest periods between successive application of stress on a single specimen, failure

occurs when the sum of damage ratios (cycle ratios) attains unity, that is

n/N = 1

where,

n = number of cycles at stress actually performed

N = average number of cycles to failure at the stress .

18. What is meant by Laminated Spring or Leaf Spring?

Laminated Spring or Leaf Spring is defined as the a structural system which is

made of a number of plates which are attached one over the other. Laminated

springs are supported at the middle instead of ends. In Laminated beams the load

is subjected at the ends of the beam.

Note:

Laminated springs are fabricated with some initial curvature, so that the central

deflection will disappear when the spring is loaded with its full load carrying

capacity.

19. What is cycle ratio?

The ratio of the number of cycles (n) of stress applied to a specimen (or structure),

to the number of cycles to failure (N) at the same stress, that is n/N

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The ratio of the difference between the fatigue life N of the material at a

particular stress stepped-off from -N curve and the number of reversals (n)

actually endured, to the fatigue life (N) is called damage ratio.

Therefore, Damage Ratio = (N-n)/N

21. What are the different types of Fatigue Stress?

Direct Stress

Plane bending

Rotating bending

Torsion

Combined Stress

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CHAPTER 9

PRESSURE VESSELS

Pressure vessel is usually a spherical or cylindrical container intended for the

storage of liquids and gases under high internal pressure.

2. What are the types of stresses induced in a pressure vessel due to its internal

pressure?

Longitudinal stress i.e. stress acting in the direction of longitudinal

axis of the pressure vessel

Hoop stress (Circumferential stress or tangential stress) i.e. the stress

developed in the circumferential or radial direction

3. What are major classifications of a pressure vessel?

Pressure vessels are classified into

Thin walled pressure vessels

Thick walled pressure vessels

If the mean radius (average of outer and inner radius) to the thickness of the

pressure vessel is greater than or equal to 10, it is called thin walled pressure

vessels otherwise it is called thick walled pressure vessels.

4. Explain the variation of stress over the thickness of wall of a thin walled pressure

vessel.

In case of thin walled pressure vessel, the thickness of the wall is very small

compared to the radius of the vessel. Also there is no variation of stress and it is

only a constant.

5. What are the general shapes of pressure vessels in practice?

Cylindrical

Spherical

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Cylindrical Shells

Circumferential stress is twice the longitudinal stress.

It withstands low pressure than spherical shell for the same diameter.

Spherical Shells

Only hoop stress presents.

It withstands more pressure than cylindrical shell for the same

diameter.

7. Define hoop stress.

The stress is acting in the circumference of the cylinder wall (or) the stresses

induced perpendicular to the axis of cylinder.

8. Define longitudinal stress.

The stress is acting along the length of the cylinder is called longitudinal stress.

9. What is the effect of riveting a thin cylindrical shell?

Riveting reduces the area of offering the resistance. Due to this, the

circumferential and longitudinal stresses are more. It reduces the pressure

carrying capacity of the shell.

10. What do you understand by the term wire winding of thin cylinder?

In order to increase the tensile strength of a thin cylinder to withstand high

internal pressure without excessive increase in wall thickness, they are sometimes

pre stressed by winding with a steel wire under tension.

11. State some of the points to be considered while designing the pressure vessels?

Cylindrical vessels are often made with domed ends in order to establish

more resistance to internal pressure. In such cases the ends of the straight

portion of the pressure vessel should be carefully connected to the domed

end portion.

Large pressure vessel may be reinforced with strands to increases the

stiffness of the vessel.

Pressure vessels intended for chemical storage should be provided with

view ports.

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