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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

Chapters 7 & 8: Techniques and Applications of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)
1. AJC/Promo 08/Q1 −3 −9 x d sin cos −1 ( 3 x ) = cos cos −1 ( 3 x ) . = (a) 2 dx 1− 9x 1 − 9 x2

( (

))

(

)

(b)

dx dy = 1 − cos θ , = sin θ dθ dθ

dy dy dθ sin θ = × = dx dθ dx 1 − cos θ

At point where θ = α ,

2.

sin α 1 = 1 − cos α 2 ⇒ 2sin α = 1 − cos α ⇒ 2sin α + cos α = 1 (shown) DHS/Promo 08/Q7 (i) 8 y 2 + x 2 − 4 x 2 y = −4 Diff wrt x: dy dy ⎞ ⎛ 16 y + 2 x − 4 ⎜ 2 xy + x 2 ⎟ = 0 dx dx ⎠ ⎝ dy 8 xy − 2 x = dx 16 y − 4 x 2 dy 4 xy − x = dx 8 y − 2 x 2 ⇒
(ii) 8 y 2 + x 2 − 4 x 2 y = −4 ---- (1) 1 y = − x ---- (2) 2 Sub (2) in (1): 2 x 2 + x 2 + 2 x 3 = −4 2 x3 + 3x 2 + 4 = 0 From GC, x = −2 ∴ y = 1 and dy 4 ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) −6 = = 2 dx 0 8 − 2 ( −2 )
1 0 =− =0 dy −6 dx ⇒ The normal at x = −2 is a horizontal line with equation y = 1 ⇒−

dy 1 = dx 2

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

3.

JJC/Promo 08/Q2 (a)

1 d 1 1 ⎡ tan −1 ( ln x ) ⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ 1 + (ln x)2 × x = x ⎡1 + (ln x)2 ⎤ dx ⎣ ⎦
y = e − x sin 2 x ⇒ When x =
dy = e − x (2 cos 2 x − sin 2 x) dx

(b)

π π − − dy π π = e 4 (2 cos − sin ) = −e 4 4 dx 2 2 π π Now, (gradient of tangent at x = ) × (gradient of line y = e 4 x ) 4

π

,

= −e Or

π
4

× e 4 = −1 .

π

Gradient of tangent at x = = −e

π
4

π
4

=−

1
π

= −

1 gradient of line y = e 4 x
π

e4

Thus, the lines are perpendicular to each other. 4. MJC/Promo 08/Q7 (a) x = 3t 2 − 6t

dx = 6t − 6 dt dy 12t 2 2t 2 = = dx 6t − 6 t − 1

y = 4t 3 − 5 dy = 12t 2 dt

When the normal is parallel to the x–axis, t −1 gradient of normal = − 2 = 0 2t ⇒ t =1 x = 3(1) 2 − 6(1) = −3 y = 4(1)3 − 5 = −1 ∴ point on curve is ( −3, − 1)

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

(b) (i) A = 4π r 2 ,

dA = 6.4 cm 3s −1 dt

dA = 8π r dr dr dr dA = ⋅ dt dA dt 1 = ⋅ (6.4) (when r = 10) 8π r 2 = = 0.0255 cm s −1 (to 3 s.f.) 25π 4 (ii) V = π r 3 3 dV = 4π r 2 dr dV dV dr = ⋅ dt dr dt = 4π r 2 ⋅ = 1 8π r (6.4)

r (6.4) (when r = 10) 2 = 32 cm3 s −1
5. MJC/Promo 08/Q10 (a) xy 2 + 3e y = 4 x dy dy y 2 + 2 xy + 3e y =4 dx dx dy ( 2 xy + 3e y ) = 4 − y 2 dx dy 4 − y2 = dx 2 xy + 3e y

dv ⎞ ⎛ du ⎜ v dt − u dt ⎟ dx (b) = 2⎜ ⎟ dt v2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ t +1− t ⎞ = 2⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ (t + 1) ⎠ 2 = (1 + t ) 2
Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

dy cos t = dt sin t = cot t

dy dy dt = dx dt dx ⎛ (1 + t ) 2 ⎞ = cot t ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ = 1 (1 + t ) 2 cot t 2

⎛ dy 1 ⎞ 2 x cos −1 x 2 (c) = 1+ 1− x ⎜− ⎟− 2 2 dx ⎝ 1− x ⎠ 2 1− x x cos −1 x =− 1 − x2 x cos −1 x ⎛ 1 − x 2 ⎞ =− ⎜ ⎟ 1 − x2 ⎜ 1 − x2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ x ( y − x) =− 1 − x2 x( x − y) (shown) = 1 − x2

6.

MI/Promo 08 PU2/P2/Q5 dx dy (a) = 2t , = 12t 3 + 24t 2 dt dt

dy 12t 3 + 24t 2 = = 6t 2 + 12t 2t dx
At t = −1 , x = −3 , y = −5 ,
dy = −6 dx

Equation of tangent is (b) 3 x 2 + 3 y 2 At ( 2, − 1) ,

y+5 = − 6 ⇒ y = − 6 x − 23 x+3

dy dy + 3 y + 3x =0 dx dx

dy = −1 dx −1 = 1. −1 y +1 =1 ⇒ y = x −3. x−2

Gradient of normal at ( 2, − 1) is Equation of normal at ( 2, − 1) is

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

7.

NYJC/Promo 08/Q3 d x d (i) ln( ) = [ln x − ln(1 + x 2 )] 2 dx 1 + x dx 1 2x = − x 1 + x2 1 + x2 − 2 x2 1 − x2 = = x(1 + x 2 ) x(1 + x 2 ) d 2 (ii) ( x cos x3 ) = 2 x cos x3 − x 2 sin x3 (3 x 2 ) dx = 2 x cos x3 − 3x 4 sin x 3 d 1 (iii) tan −1 ( 5 x 4 ) = (20 x3 ) dx 1 + (5 x 4 ) 2

=
8.

20 x3 1 + 25 x8

PJC/Promo 08/Q1 2 2 2 d (a) ( xe x ) = x(2 xe x ) + e x dx 2 2 = 2 x 2e x + e x

= e x (2 x 2 + 1)
(b)
d ( sin 3 2 x ) = (3sin 2 2 x)(2 cos 2 x) dx = 6 sin 2 2 x cos 2 x

2

9.

PJC/Promo 08/Q3
⎛ h ⎞ A = 2π rl = 2π ( h tan 30 ) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ cos 30 ⎠ 3⎞ 4 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ = 2π h ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ h ÷ 2 ⎟ = 3 π h (shown) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝ ⎠

dA dA dh 8 dh = = πh dt d h dt 3 dt h = 8,

dA dA dh 8 = = π ( 8 )( −0.36 ) = −7.68π cm2 s −1 dt dh dt 3

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

10.

PJC/Promo 08/Q10

(i) x = 2u 2

2 u dx dy −2 = 4u , = du du u 2 dy dy du −2 1 1 ∴ = × = 2× =− 3. dx du dx u 4u 2u dy 1 At u = 1, = − , x = 2, y = 2. dx 2 1 Eqn of tangent: y − 2 = − ( x − 2) 2 1 y = − x+3 2 2 Alternative : u = y , y=
2

⎛2⎞ x = 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ y⎠ 8 y2 = x dy ⎛ 8 ⎞ Diff wrt x , 2 y = −⎜ 2 ⎟ dx ⎝x ⎠ dy 1 At u = 1, = − , x = 2, y = 2. dx 2 1 Eqn of tangent: y − 2 = − ( x − 2) 2 1 y = − x+3 2 (ii) At pts of intersection between the tangent and the curve, 2 1 = − ( 2u 2 ) + 3 u 2 4 = −2u 3 + 6u u 3 − 3u + 2 = 0 (u − 1)(u 2 + u − 2) = 0

( u − 1)( u + 2 )( u − 1) = 0
u =1 u = −2 or ∴ the tangent will intersect the curve again.
Alternative : Solve y 2 =
8 1 and y = − x + 3 simultaneously 2 x

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

6

Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

Obtain y 3 − 3 y 2 + 4 = 0 y = 2, 2, −1 and u = 1 , −2
∴ the tangent will intersect the curve again.

(iii)
gradient of normal = 2u 3 1 2u 3 = 4 1 u= 2
11. SRJC/Promo 08/Q7 (i) ( x + 2 y ) 2 + 3( x − y ) 2 = 27 dy dy 2( x + 2 y )(1 + 2 ) + 6( x − y )(1 − ) = 0 dx dx
( x + 2 y + 3 x − 3 y ) + (2 x + 4 y − 3 x + 3 y ) (4 x − y ) + (− x + 7 y ) dy =0 dx dy =0 dx

dy y − 4 x = (shown) dx 7 y − x (ii)

(a) Tangent parallel to x-axis: y − 4x = 0 y = 4x ( x + 8 x) 2 + 3( x − 4 x) 2 = 27
81x 2 + 27 x 2 = 27 1 1 ; x=± 4 2 Eqns of tangent: y = ±2 x2 =

(b) Tangent parallel to y-axis: 7y − x = 0 x = 7y (9 y ) 2 + 3(6 y ) 2 = 27
189 y 2 = 27 1 y=± 7 Eqns of tangent: x = ± 7

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

12.

TJC/Promo 08/Q7

(i)

dx 1 = − 1+ t2 dt 2

(

)

3 2

( 2t ) =
2 3

−t

(

1+ t2

)

3

;

dy = 3t 2 dt

dy = −3t dx

(1 + t )
3

(ii) Substitute the parametric equations into y =
t +1 = 1+ t − 2 ⇒ t − t + 2 = 0 Using GC, t = −1
3 2 2

1 x2

−2 :

(iii) When t = −1, x =

1 dy 3 , y = 0 and = −3 ( −1) (1 + 1) = 3 8 = 6 2 dx 2 1 ⎞ ⎛ Equation of tangent is y = 6 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ = 6 2 −6 2⎠ ⎝

13.

TPJC/Promo 08/Q7

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

14.

YJC/Promo 08/Q11

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

15.

YJC/Promo 08/Q13

16.

ACJC/Promo 08/Q12 dx dy x = at 2 ⇒ = 2at , y = 2at ⇒ = 2a dt dt dy dy dx 1 / ∴ = = dx dt dt t Gradient of normal at the point with parameter t is −t

Equation of normal at the point with parameter t is y − 2at = −t ( x − at 2 ) i.e. y + tx = 2at + at 3 At P ( 9a, 6a ) , t = 3. Equation of normal at P is y + 3 x = 33a Solving, 2at + 3(at 2 ) = 33a ⇒ 3t 2 + 2t − 33 = 0

⇒ ( 3t + 11)( t − 3) = 0
⇒ t=− 11 22 ⎞ ⎛ 121 or t = 3 (rej) ∴ Q ⎜ a, − a ⎟ 3 3 ⎠ ⎝ 9

17. 18.

Not Available Not Available

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

19.

IJC/Promo 08/Q5
⎛πx ⎞ 2 ln ( x − y ) + sin ⎜ ⎟ − 4 xy = 2 − 8e 4e ⎠ ⎝ Diff. wrt x, 1 ⎛ dy ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ π x ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ π ⎞ dy ⎜ 1 − ⎟ + ⎢cos ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎜ ⎟ − 4 x − 4 y = 0 x − y ⎝ dx ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ 4e ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ 4e ⎠ dx At A ( 2e, e ) ,

1 ⎛ dy ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ π ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ π ⎞ dy ⎜1 − ⎟ + ⎢cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ − 4 ( 2e ) − 4e = 0 e ⎝ dx ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ 4e ⎠ dx dy ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎜ + 8e ⎟ = − 4e dx ⎝ e ⎠ e 1 − 4e dy e = dx 1 + 8e e 1 − 4e2 = 1 + 8e2
20. IJC/Promo 08/Q6 (i) f ' ( x ) = 0 ⇒ x = − a , a.

x

( −a ) −
+

−a
0

( −a )+

f '( x)
OR

f '' ( −a ) < 0 .

∴ when x = − a , the pt is a max. pt.

x f '( x) OR

a− −

a 0

a+ +

f '' ( a ) > 0 .

∴ when x = a , the pt is a min. pt. (ii) (a) f ' ( x ) > 0 ⇒ x < −a or x > a (b) f '' ( x ) < 0 ⇒ x < 0

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

21.

JJC/Promo 08/Q8 (a)

Given x 2 + 3 y 2 + 2 xy = 3 − k Differentiating w.r.t. x: 2 x + 6 y

----- (1)

dy dy + 2 x + 2 y = 0 ----- (2) dx dx dy For tangent parallel to x-axis, = 0. dx From (2): 2x + 0 + 0 + 2 y = 0 ⇒ y = − x ----- (3)

Sub(3) into (1):

x 2 + 3(− x) 2 + 2 x(− x) = 3 − k 2 x2 = 3 − k 3−k There is no real solution for x if <0 2 ⇒ C does not have any stationary points if k > 3.

(b) x = 2 − sin 2 θ ⇒

dx = −2sin θ cos θ dθ dy y = 2 + cos 2θ ⇒ = −2sin 2θ dθ dy −2sin 2θ = dx −2sin θ cos θ 2sin 2θ =2 = sin 2θ

Since

dy π = 2 > 0, G is increasing for 0 < θ < . dx 2

22.

MI/Promo 08 PU2/P2/Q4 r = x tan 60 = 3 x
1 1 V = π r2x = π 3 3

(

3x

)

2

x = π x3

(i) Let V1 be the volume of coffee in the coffee pot when the depth of coffee is y cm.
V1 = π ( 42 ) y = 16π y .

dV1 dV1 dy = × dt dy dt
2π = 16π dy dt

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

dy 1 = or 0.125 cm s–1 dt 8

(ii)

dV = 3π x 2 dx

dV dx = 3π x 2 dt dt
⎛ 5 ⎞ dx −2π = 3π ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ dt dx 6 =− = −0.24 cm s–1 dt 25
2

23.

NJC/Promo 08/Q1 V = x2 y

Surface Area: 4 xy + x 2 = 48 ∴y = 48 − x 2 4x x x y

1 ⇒∴V = x(48 − x 2 ) 4 V

.
4 x

Using GC, max volume occurs when x = 4 and hence y = 2 . Dimension of box is 4 cm x 4 cm x 2 cm.
24. PJC/Promo 08/Q2

y

y = f ′( x)
y = f(x)

3.824

x

−0.519

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

For f(x) to be concaved downwards, x <
25. PJC/Promo 08/Q7 (i) π r 2h = V V h= 2 πr
A = 2π r 2 + 2π rh ⎛ V ⎞ = 2π r 2 + 2π r ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝πr ⎠ ⎛ 2V ⎞ = 2π r 2 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ r ⎠ dA 2V (ii) For min A, = 4π r − 2 = 0 dr r 3 4π r = 2V

5 or 1.67 3

⎛ V ⎞3 r =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2π ⎠
26. SAJC/Promo 08/Q6
2 y + x = 12 ⇒ y = 6 −
x 2

1

h= = = =

y2 − ( 1 x) 2
2

2

(6 − 1 x) − ( 1 x) 2 2 ( 6 − 1 x − 1 x )( 6 − 1 x + 1 x ) 2 2 2 2 (6 − x) 6
2

= 36 − 6 x
1 Area of triangle, A = × base×height 2 x = 36 − 6 x 2

dA 1 x⎛ −6 ⎞ = 36 − 6 x + ⎜ dx 2 2 ⎝ 2 36 − 6 x ⎟ ⎠ 36 − 6 x − 3x = 2 36 − 6 x 36 − 9 x = 2 36 − 6 x

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

When

dA =0 dx 36 − 9 x = 0

x=4
4 x 4− + 0 dA dx Alternative solution: d2A = −1.30 (3 sig . fig ), dx 2 Hence area is max. when x = 4. Since 2 y + x = 12 ⇒ y = 4 ∴ Area is a maximum when triangle is equilateral.
27. SRJC/Promo 08/Q10 sin −1 2 x (i) y = e ( )

4+ -

ln y = sin −1 ( 2 x )
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ dy ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎝ y ⎠ ⎝ dx ⎠ 1− ( 2x)
dy 2y (shown) = dx 1 − 4x2

At the point x = 0, y = 1 , dy 2(1) =2 = dx 1 − 4(0) 2 (ii) From (i),
dy 2y = dx 1 − 4x2 dy 1 − 4x2 = 2y dx 1 2 − 1 (1 − 4 x2 ) 2 ( −8x ) dy + 1 − 4 x 2 d y = 2 dy 2 dx dx 2 dx 2 ⎛ 2y ⎞ −4 x dy d y + 1 − 4 x2 2 = 2 ⎜ ⎟ 2 dx 1 − 4 x 2 dx ⎝ 1− 4x ⎠ dy d2y −4 x + (1 − 4 x 2 ) 2 = 4 y dx dx 2 d y dy (1 − 4 x 2 ) 2 − 4 x = 4 y (shown) dx dx

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

28.

TPJC/Promo 08/Q3

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

29.

VJC/Promo 08/Q4

30.

HCI/Promo 08/Q7

Distance between (1, 1) and (x, y), W = Since (x, y) lies on the curve, then y = e Thus, W =
x 2

( x − 1) + ( y − 1)
2

2

( x − 1)
2

2

+ e 2 −1
x

⇒ W 2 = ( x − 1) + e 2 − 1
Differentiating w.r.t. x, 2

(

(

x

)

)

2

2

x x dW = 2 ( x − 1) + e 2 e 2 − 1 dx

(

)
17

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics
x dW 1 x = ( x − 1) + e 2 e 2 − 1 dx 2 dW 1 x2 x2 When = 0, ( x − 1) + e e − 1 = 0 dx 2

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

(

)

(

)

From GC, x = 0.70160785
dW dx

0.70160785-ve

0.70160785 0 –

0.70160785+ +ve /

\ Thus, W is minimum when x = 0.70160785
2 When x = 0.70160785, y = −e = 1.4202 The point is (0.702, 1.420) [to 3 d.p.] 0.70160785

31.

JJC/Promo 08/Q12 (a) (i)

2 r

h

6

r h h = ⇒ r= 2 6 3 2 1 ⎛h⎞ 1 V = π r 2h = π ⎜ ⎟ h 3 ⎝3⎠ 3 1 = π h3 [shown] 27

(ii)

Diff:

dV 1 2 = πh dh 9 dV π = , h = 2, Given dt 16 dV dV dh = × dt dh dt π 1 dh ⇒ = π (2)2 × 16 9 dt dh 9 ⇒ = (cm/s) dt 64

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

(b)

S 10 O P

R

⎛x⎞ QR = 10 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠
2
2

2

⎛x⎞ p = 2( x + 10 − ⎜ ⎟ ) ⎝2⎠

2

= 2 x + 400 − x 2

Q 2 ⎞ ⎛ x ⎛x⎞ A = x ⎜ 102 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ = 400 − x 2 [shown] ⎜ ⎝2⎠ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠
1 − dA x ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛1⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ 400 − x 2 2 (−2 x) + 400 − x 2 ⎜ ⎟ dx 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 2 x 1 400 − x 2 =− + 2 2 2 400 − x dA For stationary value of A, =0 dx x2 1 400 − x 2 ⇒ = 2 2 2 400 − x

(

)

⇒ ⇒

x 2 = 400 − x 2 x = 10 2 ( ∵ x > 0)

∴ p = 2(10 2) + 400 − 200 = 30 2 (cm)

32.

RJC/Promo 08/Q3 (i) Let a = π r 2 be the area of the smaller circle.

Then π R 2 − a = 25 ⇒ a = π R 2 − 25 . ⇒
da dt = 2π R dR dt da

= 2π R . (since

dR dt

= 1)

= 2π (5) = 10π . dt Hence, required rate = 10π cm 2 /min dr dr da 1 5 (ii) = (10π ) = . = r 2π r dt da dt

When R = 5,

π R 2 − 25 Now, a = π r = π R − 25 ⇒ r = . (since r > 0) π
2 2

Hence,

dr dt

=5

π π R − 25
2

.

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

19

Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

When R = 5,

dr dt

=5

π π . = 25π − 25 π −1
π π −1
cm/min .

Hence, required rate =
33. RJC/Promo 08/Q7 y

B(5,4) A(0, 3)

O

P(x, 0)

N

x

By Pythagoras’ Theorem,

f ( x) = AP + PB = (OA)2 + (OP) 2 + ( NP) 2 + ( NB) 2 . = x 2 + 32 + (5 − x) 2 + 42 (Shown)
−0.5(2)(5 − x) df(x) 0.5(2 x) = + = dx x 2 + 32 (5 − x) 2 + 42 = Let x 2 + 9 (5 − x) 2 + 16 x x 2 + 32 + x−5 (5 − x) 2 + 42

x (5 − x) 2 + 16 + ( x − 5) x 2 + 9

df(x) = 0 , and hence we are solving dx

x (5 − x) 2 + 16 = −( x − 5) x 2 + 9 ⇒ x 2 ((5 − x )2 + 16)) = (5 − x)2 ( x 2 + 9) On simplification, we have 16 x 2 = 9(5 − x) 2

7 x 2 + 90 x − 225 = 0 (7 x − 15)( x + 15) = 0 When

df ( x) = 0, x = 15/7 (since x > 0) satisfies the quadratic equation given. dx

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

20

Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

Using the 1st derivative test, x df ( x ) dx

⎛ 15 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝7⎠
−ve

⎛ 15 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝7⎠

⎛ 15 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝7⎠
+ve

+

0

Or alternatively using the second derivative test, −1 −1 ( x)(2 x) 2( x − 5) 2 2 d f(x) 1 1 = + 2 + + 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 dx 2 x +3 (5 − x) + 4 ( x 2 + 32 ) 2 ((5 − x) 2 + 42 ) 2 = = x2 + 9 − x2 (x + 3 ) 9
2 2 3 2 2

+ +

((5 − x) 2 + 42 ) − ( x − 5)2 ((5 − x) + 4 ) 16
2 3 3 2 2

(x + 3 ) ((5 − x) 2 + 42 ) 2 which is greater than zero when x = 15/7. Hence f(x) is minimum when x = 15/7, and on substituting x gives f(x) = 3.s.f)

3 2 2

74 or 8.60 (to

Chapters 7 & 8 Techniques & Application of Differentiation (Worked Solutions)

21