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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE


INTRODUCTION
This is not a title of a chapter. It is actually a paragraph side-head, which
begins CCHAPTER 1. The statement in this chapter should not only signify the
importance of the topic but should also cause an impact of the reader.

Rationale of the Study


It gives the overview of the chosen study, presents a situationer, explains the
reason for choosing the research topic, and creates the need of the study.

Tips in Writing Rationale of the Study


It may be composed of four paragraphs enabling the readers to see at a
glance the entire contents of the research work.
1. The intention of the first paragraph is to provide the readers a mental warmup, thus giving them information and readiness as to what the research is all
about. It should introduce the study and justify the problem.
2. The second paragraph carries the bulk of the introduction. The statement of
the problem can best be used as frame of preference to write this
paragraph. It is simply telling the readers the scope and coverage of the
study. This will help revolve around mentioning the purpose of the study,
which is to determine the existing or not existing between the independent
and dependent variables.
3. The third paragraph is an intriguing and challenging the readers to become
interested in knowing the results of the study. It is two or three sentences to
link between the introduction and the statement of the problem.
4. The fourth or last paragraph is a sort of closing portion mentioning the
competencies of the researcher in conducting the study.

Theoretical Background of the Study


It discusses related literature and related studies and presents a schematic
diagram either to introduce or to summarize the coverage of this section.

Tips in Writing Theoretical Background of the Study

1. Cite the reasons why you have chosen the topic of your study.
2. Cite the problematic situation which prompted you to conduct the study
from the macro to micro levels, that is, globally, regionally, nationally and
locally, to zero- in on the local setting of the study.
3. Support your discussion with legal bases relevant to your study.
4. Pertinent statistical data should support your claims.
5. Make your presentation emphatic and explosive. It should create an impact
on the reader of your research. It should prod you read to go on and find out
what good is there in your research study.
6. Do reviews of related literature, related studies, and readings. Be sure to
relate to the present study in order to determine the degree of relatedness
and connectedness.

Theoretical Framework of the Study


It shapes the justification of the research problem objectives in order to
provide the basis on its parameters. It is desirable for a researcher to identify the
key concepts that are used in the study for better understanding of the rule of
theory in research. It is a symbolic construction, which uses abstract, concepts,
facts or laws, variables and their relations that explain and predict how an
observed phenomena exist and operate.
An investigation is required to formulate existing theories which link the
study because the theories are useful devices for interpreting, criticizing, and
unifying established scientific laws and facts that guide in discovering new
generalization.

Tips in Writing Theoretical Framework of the Study


1. Look for a core theory with which anchor your study. The core theory should
relate to your dependent variables.
2. Have other supporting theories. The supporting theories should be related
to your independent variables.
3. Theoretical framework should e a well- knit presentation wherein to hinge
your study.

Conceptual Framework of the Study


It presents a specific and well- defined concepts, which are called
constructs. Its function is similar with theoretical framework because the
constructs used are derived from abstract and concepts of the theoretical
framework.

Tips in Writing Conceptual Framework

1. It should be hinged on your theoretical framework. The theories cited


should be clearly explained and operationalized in this portion.
2. The paradigm, which is a schematic illustration of conceptual framework,
should be discussed comprehensively to encompass the parameters of
the investigation.
3. Describe how your variables will relate to each other.
4. The hypotheses to be tested should be clearly explained in this portion
(if there is any)

Tips in Making a Paradigm


1. The paradigm should illustrate or concretize the conceptual framework.
2. The variables should be appropriately placed in their corresponding boxes.
The use of one-headed or two- headed arrows will clarify which variables are
to be correlated.
3. Write the figure number under the whole paradigm and label it.

THE PROBLEM
Statement of the Problem
This is one of the most important parts of a research. This is the focus of the
study and all questions stated should be categorically answered.

Tips in Writing Statement of the Problem


1. The problem should be stated both in general and in specific terms. The
general statement of the problem is usually reiteration of the title of the
study.
2. The problem is always in an interrogatory form, hence, it must ask questions
and sub-problems must follow the main problem which is the key point for
investigation in the research.
3. The problem should be stated in the infinitive to (action words in research)
such as examine, analyze, determine, measure, assess, evaluate, find out,
among others; setting 4 to 5 research objectives is ideal for a research
problem.
4. Specific questions should be stated using the following guide question
words: How, Will, What, Is There.
5. Make a general statement of the problem.

6. Cite the specific problems in logical and sequential order as they appear in
your paradigm.
7. The problems must jibe with the paradigm, conceptual framework,
hypothesis (optional), methodology, and research instrument.

Significance of the Study


It mentions who are to benefit the study and how each may be benefited
and discusses the value of the study to individuals, groups or institutions and to
the discipline. In this section, the researcher expresses the value or importance of
the study. It is where the significant contributions of the results of the study are
enumerated. Such contributions may be viewed from the point of the target
beneficiaries like the researcher himself, service providers, client, society,
administrators, planners, decision-makers, implementers, the community, the
educational institutions, legislatures, and practioners.
It may also be viewed on their contributions to the accumulation of
knowledge, solving a problem which improves certain of refinement of concepts
and theories, improvement of research instruments and methods and meeting the
priorities of institutions.

Tips in Writing Significance of the Study


1. Name those who are to benefit from the study- people, institutions,
agencies, etc.
2. Cite how they will benefit from the findings of the research.
3. Do not fail to include the future researchers as beneficiaries and what they
are expected to benefit.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
It refers to the overall process of formulating the theoretical background and
framework, the operationalization of variables, methods of data collection, data
analysis and interpretation. This is not to be confused with research design. A
given research design can employ not just one but a combination or a variety of
methods for collecting and analyzing data.
In writing, the introductory paragraph should specify and justify the type of
research used. The research process may be presented here in a schematic
diagram.

Research Designs
Research design is the arrangement of conditions for the collection and
analysis of data that is relevant to and will best address the research purpose and
with the minimum expenditure of effort, money, and time.

Kinds of Research Design Studies


1. Descriptive studies. To portray accurately the characteristics of a
particular individual, situation or group, with or without some initial
hypothesis on the nature of these characteristics. To determine the
frequency with which something is associated with something, often with a
specific initial hypothesis.
Descriptive studies aim to provide accurate description of a situation or of
an association between variables from which one can then make statements
about a certain group or population, accuracy and reliability become
important considerations.

Types of Descriptive studies


1. Descriptive-survey. This is appropriate wherever the object of any class
varies among themselves and one is interested in knowing the extent to
which different conditions obtain among these objects. The data is used
as basis for inferences that may aid in solving practical problems.
2. Descriptive-normative survey. This is used to ascertain the normal or
typical condition, to practice or to compare results with a state or
national norm or standard.
3. Descriptive-status. This seeks to answer questions to real facts relating
to existing conditions. It stresses current conditions with the assumptions
that things will change.
4. Descriptive-analysis. This determines or describes the nature of an
object by separating it into parts. Its purpose is to discover the nature of
things.
5. Descriptive- classification. This employs collections, identification, and
classification.
6. Descriptive- evaluative. This is to appraise carefully the worthiness of the
current study.
7. Descriptive- comparative. This considers two entities (not manipulated)
and establishes a formal procedure for obtaining criterion data on the
basis of which it can compare and conclude of the two is better.

8. Correlational- survey. This determines the relationship of two variables,


whether the relationship is perfect, very high, or moderate, slight or
negligible.
9. Longitudinal- survey. This involves much time allotted for investigation of
the same subject at two or more points in time.
10.And other types of studies such as Case studies, Surveys, Developmental
studies, Follow-up studies, Documentary analysis, Trend analysis, and
Co-relational studies.
2. Exploratory studies. To gain familiarity with a given phenomenon and
achieve new insights into its processes and dimensions often purposes of
formulating a more precise research problem or developing hypotheses.
3. Experimental studies. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship
between variables. The information, insights and knowledge gained from
descriptive and exploratory studies often from the basis for positing a
hypothesis of a causal order or which asserts that a particular
characteristics or occurrence (x) is one of the determinants of another
characteristics or occurrence (y).
For the most part, the investigation of causal relationship or hypothesis in
social science research is done through quasi- experimental designs.
Quasi- experimental designs (QED) lack some features of the true
experiment. QED may be characterized by:
Absence of control group,
The inability to randomize the selection and assignment of subjects
into study conditions,
The possibility of collecting measures only after but not before the
experimental study.

General types of Research Designs


1. The Deductive Mode of Research in a Quantitative Study
This is also called the Top-Down Model. At the top of the hierarchy is a
theory which the researcher tests.
The survey method is an example of a quantitative research.
2. The Inductive Mode of Research in a Qualitative Study
This is also termed as the Bottom-Up Model. The theory or model
which you have developed now becomes your contribution to knowledge.
This is what makes qualitative study seemingly difficult to pursue why
researchers opt to undertake quantitative researches than qualitative
ones.
3. Quantitative and Qualitative Study
This is also termed as the mixed method approach. It is a research
strategy integrating different methods. It is a way to come up with
creative alternatives to traditional research methods.

Tips in Writing Research Design


1. Decide on what research design to use. Your decision should be based on
the purpose of your research. Will you do it to search a theory? To test a
theory? Or to solve a problem?
2. Make a justification why you are going to use it, why you think it is
appropriate, and how you are going to do it, etc.
3. Cite authorities to support your choice of research design.

Tips in Writing Research Instruments


1. Decide on the type of research instruments that will best gather the data
and information needed in your study. Will you use the questionnaire,
opinionnaire, interview guide, observation? Will you use the triangulation
method or a combination of other research methods?
2. From whom will you adopt your research instruments? Have they been
validated? If so, are they reliable and valid? Is there a need to revalidate
them?
3. Do they possess the basic characteristics of a good research instrument?
4. How about measurement and scaling of these research instruments? Are
they explicitly stated?
5. Make sure the instructions are clear and explicit. Erroneous instructions will
affect the respondents responses and likewise your data.

Research Environment
This is a brief description of the place where the respondents or participants
in the study are to be obtained.

Tips in Writing Research Environment


1. Describe the locale or place of the study accurately. It can be represented
through sketch, map or pictures, etc.
2. If your study is about the educational practices of certain locality, present
some educational statistics. If the topic is about health, present some health
statistics and so on.

Research Respondents
The researcher has to explain how and where the respondents are taken.
The agency and frequency of respondents must be mentioned.

Tips in Writing the Research Respondents

1. Describe your respondents of their characteristics and profile, as well as


how are you going to identify them.
2. Present a non-prose material depicting your total respondents, the
population, and sample sizes, type, number, and so on through table and
graphs presentation.

Tips in Sampling Procedure


1. Describe your sampling procedures and how you will derive the sample size
of your respondents, and what sampling techniques you will use.
2. The sampling procedure should be scientific, avoid arbitrariness.
3. Sampling procedures and sample size determination should pass the test of
representatives.

Research Instruments
It mentions the research instruments or tools for gathering the data,
describes the content and preparation of each instrument. Formulation and
formatting must be based on the sequence of specific problems.

Research Procedures
This is the narration of the entire research processes particularly in the data
gathering from drafting the research tools, administering the tools, and retrieving
the tools etc. this section describes the details of data gathering employing the
research tools described.

Tips in Data Gathering Procedure


1. Describe the step-by-step process in your data gathering, what you
actually intend to do and the individuals who will act as research aid.
2. Take note of unusual events, occurrences, or comments of the
respondents in the course of your data gathering.
3. If using the triangulation method be extra observant of whatever that
happens during the data gathering process.

Treatment of Data
This explains the statistical procedures used in order to compute the data
with authenticity.
Tips in Statistical Treatment of Data
1. Describe the statistical tools you are going to sue and for what purpose
you are going to use the.

2. Indicate the different formula and the legend for the symbols used.
3. Indicate also at what level of significance the interpretation shall be
based.

Validation of Research Instruments


1. Research instruments which have been adopted from previous studies
usually do not need to be revalidated. But when changes or revisions have
been made to suit the needs of your study, there is a need for you to
revalidate them.
2. Research- made instruments need to be validated.
3. Decide on how you are going to validate your research instruments. Will you
employ field testing? Expert validation? Or a combination of the validation
techniques?
4. If you are going to frame your testing instruments, will you do test the items
to item analysis?
5. Cite your justification why you will no longer validate them.
6. Where will you validate your instruments? Who will be your pretest group?
How many will be involved?