Support Conditions

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Support Conditions

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 9

Supports

Supports

Different types of structural

supports are shown in Table 1.

Some physical details for the

idealized support conditions of

Table 1 are shown in Figs. 1 5.

TYPES OF FORCES

External Forces actions of

other bodies on the structure

under consideration.

NOTE:

couples exerted on a member

or portion of the structure by

the rest of the structure. Internal forces always occur in

equal but opposite pairs.

are assumed to be

capable of resisting

normal displacement in

either direction

Beam Support

3

Column Support

5

Beam Support

6

Coped Beam

Concrete Column Support

7

Floor Beam (beam 1) to

8

Girder (beam 2) Conditions

A structure is considered to be in

equilibrium if, initially at rest, it

remains at rest when subjected

to a system of forces and

couples. If a structure is in equilibrium, then all its members and

parts are also in equilibrium.

For a plane structure lying in the

xy plane and subjected to a

coplanar system of forces and

couples, the necessary and

sufficient conditions for equilibrium are:

9

Equations of condition

involve known equilibrium

results due to construction.

Fx = 0

Fy

= 0

Mz = 0

These three equations are

referred to as the static equations

of equilibrium of plane structures.

10

Support Reactions

zero

moment

at hinge

11

12

Support Reactions

RUL = 50.91 kips

Influence of Reactions on

Stability and Determinacy of

Structures

Internally Stable (rigid)

structure maintains its shape

and remains a rigid body when

detached from the supports.

Internally Unstable structure

cannot maintain its shape and

may undergo large displacements under small disturbances

when not supported externally.

13

14

Structures

Examples of Internally

Unstable Structures

15

16

Statically Determinate

Externally If the structure is

internally stable and if all its

support reactions can be

determined by solving equations

of equilibrium.

Statically Indeterminate

Externally If the structure is

stable and the number of support

reactions exceeds the number of

available equilibrium equations.

External Redundants number

of reactions in excess of those

necessary for equilibrium,

referred to as the degree of

17

external indeterminacy.

Structure:

R < 3 Structure is statically

unstable externally

R = 3 Structure may be statically

determinate externally

R > 3 Structure is statically

indeterminate externally,

but may not be stable

R number of support reactions

18

R < 3+C Structure is statically

unstable externally

R = 3+C Structure may be statically determinate externally

R > 3+C Structure is statically

indeterminate externally, but

may not be stable

C number equations of

conditions

Ie = R - (3 + C)

degree of external

indeterminacy

19

20

Determinate Plane Structures

External Geometric Instability in

Plane Structures

21

Examples of Statically

Indeterminate Plane Structures

22

INTERIOR HINGES IN

CONSTRUCTION

Equations of Condition

used to join flexural members at

points other than support points,

e.g., connect two halves of an

arch structure and in cantilever

bridge construction. Such

structures are more easily

manufactured, transported, and

erected. Furthermore, interior

hinges properly placed can result

in reduced bending moments in

flexural systems, and such

connections may result in a

statically determinate structure. 24

Arch Structures

Arch structures are usually formed

to support gravity loads which

tend to flatten the arch shape and

thrust the supported ends outward. Hinge or fixed-end supports

are generally used to provide the

necessary horizontal displacement restraint. The horizontal

thrust forces at the supports

acting with the vertical loading

tend to develop counteracting

moments that result in low

bending stresses.

Interior Hinge

25

26

Cantilever Construction

Cantilever construction represents a design concept that can

be used for long span structures.

If spans are properly proportioned, cantilever construction

can result in smaller values of the

bending moments, deflections,

and stresses as compared with

simple support construction.

Examples of Cantilever

Construction

27

28

highway overpass structure

designed as a series of simple

spans (a), a statically indeterminate

continuous beam (b), and a cantilevered construction beam (c)

along with their respective bending

moment diagrams for a uniform

load of 2 kips/ft. Note that the

bending moments are most evenly

divided into positive and negative

regions for the three-span continuous beam and that the location of

the internal hinges for the cantilevered constructed bridge resulted

in a more even moment distribution

as compared to the overpass

analyzed as three simple spans. 29

Continuous Spans

30

hinges towards the interior supports results in a reduction of the

negative moment magnitudes at

the supports and an increase in

the mid-span positive bending

moment. Ideal placement occurs

when the each interior hinge is

approximately 109 ft from an end

support, this location of the internal hinges results in a maximum

negative and positive bending

moments of 5000 ft-kips.

Cantilever Construction

31

32

Cables

Use to support bridge and roof

structures; guys for derricks, radio

and transmission towers; etc.

Assumed to only resist loads that

cause tension in the cables.

Shape of cables in resisting loads

is called funicular.

Resultant cable force is

T=

H2 +V2

component and V = vertical cable

force component.

33

Principle of Superposition on a

linear elastic structure, the combined effect of several loads acting

simultaneously is equal to the algebraic sum of the effects of each load

acting individually.

Principle is valid for structures that

satisfy the following two conditions:

(1) the deformation of the structure

must be so small that the equations

of equilibrium can be based on the

undeformed geometry of the structure; and

(2) the structure must be composed

of linearly elastic material.

34

conditions are referred to as

linear elastic structures.

35

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