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cie a levels notes for dynamics

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You are on page 1of 11

DYNAMICS

4.1

Introduction

Dynamics is the science of motion which explain how an object moves, in

terms of the forces which change its motion. The greater the force applied, the

higher is the rate of change of speed of the object.

4.2

The manner of motion of an object may basically be governed by the three

Newtons Laws of Motion.

4.2.1

First Law

The first law states that every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform

motion in a straight line unless acted on by external forces to change that state.

The first law also means that if the vector sum of the external forces acting on

an object is zero, the velocity v of the object remains constant be it v 0. A

moving object experiencing zero net force is said to be in dynamic equilibrium;

in contrast to an object at rest which is said to be in static equilibrium.

This law indicates the presence of inertia in any body. The inertia of a body is

its reluctance to start moving, and its reluctance to stop after it has begun

moving. For example, a passenger in a moving car will continue in its state of

motion even though the vehicle is stopped suddenly unless an external force

causes it to change that state. The inertia of a body is indicated by its mass. The

greater its mass, the greater is its inertia. Mass is the property of a body which

resists motion.

4.2.2

Second Law

The second law states that the change of momentum per unit time [d(mv)/dt] of

a body is proportional to the applied force (F) and the momentum change takes

place in the direction of the force.

That is:

F d(mv)/dt

F ma

F = kma

where the product of the mass and velocity is defined as the momentum

possessed by the body. k is a constant.

With SI units, the newton (N) is the unit of force. The newton is defined as the

force which gives a mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m/s2 giving k = 1.

Page 1 of 11

4. DYNAMICS

Hence,

F = ma

4.2.3

Third Law

The third law states that to every action there is an equal and opposite

reaction.

For example, a body of mass m placed on a table will experience a reaction of

magnitude mg acting on it by the table in the opposite direction to the

gravitational force.

4.3

Weight, W

The weight (W) of a body is the force acting on it by the force of gravity where

W = mg.

Mass is constant everywhere but weight differs according to location. Therefore

a mass of m weights heavier on the earth than in outer space.

4.4

The momentum of a body is the product of its mass and velocity. If an object

of mass m changes its velocity from u to v in time t when a constant force F acts

on it, then

F = (mv - mu)/t

Ft = mv mu is called the impulse

For example, when a person of mass 50 kg jumps from a height of 5 m, the

force F acting on him is the change in momentum per the time period t between

just before landing where his speed is v and after he completely stops. Let the

time taken for him to come to rest on the ground as 1/10 s.

Therefore,

v = (u2 + 2gs) = (0 + 2 x 10 x 5) = 10 m/s

F = (mv - mu)/t = (50 x 10 - 0)/(1/10) = 5000 N

However, if he flexes his knees so that he increases his stopping time to 1

second, then the force acting on him will be reduced to 500 N.

Page 2 of 11

4. DYNAMICS

4.4.1

Under certain circumstances where mass is not constant, force is also defined as

the product of the rate of change of mass and the velocity change. That is,

F = dm/dt x ( v 0 ) = v.dm/dt

For example, suppose raindrops fall vertically on a roof at a steady rate of 0.2

kg/s. If they have a velocity of 10 m/s just before hitting the roof and then come

to rest subsequently, their velocity change is thus 10 m/s. The force F

experienced by the roof is:

F = 0.2 x 10 = 2 N

Worked Example

(1)

A hose ejects water at a speed of 20 cm/s through a hole of area 100 cm2.

If the water strikes a wall normally, calculate the force on the wall in

newtons, assuming the velocity of the water normal to the wall is zero

after collision.

Solution

Volume of water striking the wall per second = 100x20 = 2000 cm3.

mass per second striking the wall = 2000 g/s = 2 kg/s

Velocity change of water on striking wall = 0.20 0 = 0.20 m/s

momentum change per second = 2 x 0.2 = 0.4 N = Force

4.5

Action and reaction forces always occur in pairs. It should be noted that the two

forces act on different bodies. So only one of the forces is used in discussing the

motion of one of the two bodies.

Worked Example

(1)

A

T

3000kg

1000kg

2000N

1000N

8000N

Page 3 of 11

4. DYNAMICS

Figure above shows a truck A pulling a trailer B. The truck engine exerts

a force of 8000N which results in frictional forces of 2000N and 1000N

respectively on B and A. Calculate (a) the acceleration of the truck and

trailer , (b) the tension T in the tow-bar.

For B only,

T - 2000 = 3000a ...(1)

For A only,

8000 - 1000 - T = 1000a (2)

where a = acceleration

(1) + (2),

8000 - 1000 -2000 = 4000a giving a = 5/4 m/s2

From (1),

T = (3000 x 5/4) + 2000 = 5750 N

4.6

Worked Examples 1

(1)

the balance is suspended vertically from the roof of a lift. What is the

reading on the spring-balance when the lift is (a) going up with an

acceleration of 0.2 m/s2, (b) going down with an acceleration of 0.1 m/s2,

(c) ascending with a uniform velocity of 0.15 m/s (g = 10 m/s2).

(2)

The total frictional force on the car is 1000N. Calculate the force P due to

the engine when the car is (a) accelerating at 2 m/s2, (b) moving with a

steady velocity of 15 m/s.

Solution

(1)

(a) For going up,

T - mg = ma

T = ma + mg = 2 x 0.2 + 2 x 10 = 20.4 N

(b) For descending

20 - T = ma

T = 20 - ma = 20 - (2 x 0.1) = 19.8 N

(c) When ascending with uniform velocity, a = 0

T = 20 N

Page 4 of 11

4. DYNAMICS

(2)

1000N

300

mg

= mg.sin300

= 1000 x 10 x 1/2

= 5000 N

P = 8000 N

(b) Since velocity is steady, a = 0;

Resultant force = 0

4.7

The principle of the conservation of linear momentum states that, if no

external forces act on a system of colliding objects, the total (algebraic sum)

momentum of the objects in a given direction before collision is always equal to

the total (algebraic sum) momentum in the same direction after collision.

Whilst the momentum of system is always conserved in interactions between

bodies, some change in kinetic energy always takes place.

4.7.1

Let

m = mass of a body, kg

u = its initial velocity, m/s

v = its final velocity, m/s

Case 1

u1

m1

A

u2

m2

B

m1u1 +(-m2u2) = m1v1 + m2v2

m1

v1 m2

A

v2

B

Page 5 of 11

4. DYNAMICS

Case 2

v

m1

u1

u2

m2

m1

m2

A

Worked Example

(1)

head on with an object B of mass 1 kg moving in the opposite direction

with a velocity of 4 m/s. After collision both objects stick, so that they

move with a common velocity v. Calculate v.

m1u1+(-m2u2) = (m1 + m2)v

(2 x 3) (1 x 4) = (2 + 1)v

2 = 3v v = 2/3 m/s

4.8

A perfectly elastic collision is one where the total kinetic energy of the colliding

system before and after collision are always equal. An inelastic collision is one

where the total kinetic energy is not conserved. The kinetic energy for the latter

is normally lost as heat and sound.

Consider an object of mass m travelling at velocity u collides with a stationary

object of mass M. After collision, both masses travel in the same original

direction of m with velocity v and V respectively

Applying the principles of the conservation of momentum and kinetic energy,

we have:

mu + 0 = mv + MV (1)

mu2 + 0 = mv2 + MV2 .. (2)

From (2),

m(u2 v2) = MV2 . (3)

From (1),

m(u v) = MV ..(4)

(3)

gives,

( 4)

Page 6 of 11

4. DYNAMICS

(u 2 v 2 )

= V

(u v)

u+v=V

where

u 0 = V v . . (5)

u u1 = V v . . (6)

Equation (6) also means that, for a perfectly elastic collision, the relative

velocity of approach (u u1) is equal to the relative velocity of separation (V

v).

Worked Examples

(1)

In a gas a hydrogen molecule, mass 2.00 u and velocity 1.88 x 103 m/s,

collides elastically and head-on with an oxygen molecule, mass 32.0 u and

velocity 405 m/s. Determine (a) the velocity of separation of the two

molecules after the collision, and (b) the velocity of both molecules after

the collision.

Solution

(a)

(b)

= 1880 (-405) = 2285 m/s

Let v = velocity of H2 after collision

V = velocity of O2 after collision

V - v = 2285

V = v + 2285

By the principle of conservation of momentum,

(2 x 1880) (32 x 405) = (2 x v) + [32 x (v + 2285)]

37660 12960 = 2v + 32v + 73120

v = -2420 m/s

V = v + 2285 = -2420 + 2285 = -136 m/s

(2)

into the back of an unloaded lorry of mass 3000 kg travelling at 25 m/s.

How much kinetic energy does the car lose in the crash if both vehicles

stick together?

Page 7 of 11

4. DYNAMICS

Solution

Momentum before collision = Momentum after collision

(1200 x 40) + (3000 x 25) = (1200 + 3000) x v

where v is the common speed of car and lorry after the crash

4800 + 75000

v

= 4200 v

= 29.3 m/s

Kinetic energy after collision = x 1200 x (29.3)2 = 520,000 J

Therefore the car loses 440,000 J in the crash.

4.9

When a bullet of mass m1 is fired from a rifle of mass m2 with a velocity u, the

rifle recoils with a velocity v. The momentum change for the whole system is

calculated as follows:

Initial momentum = 0

Final momentum = m1u + m2v

4.10

Worked Examples 2

(1)

the centre of a block of wood of mass 1 kg which is suspended by light

vertical strings 1 m in length. Calculate the maximum inclination of the

strings to the vertical. (Assume g = 9.8 m/s2.)

(2)

with a stationary disc Q of mass mq.

Q

P

Fp

Fq

mp

mq

Page 8 of 11

4. DYNAMICS

Figure above shows Fp, the force exerted on P by Q, and Fq, the force

exerted on Q by P.

(a) State, in words, the relation between Fp and Fq.

(b) The discs are in contact for time t. Write down expressions, in terms

of Fp and t, for: (i) the loss of momentum of P; (ii) Hence show how

the principle of conservation of momentum applies in this situation.

(c) A bullet of mass 0.05 kg moving at a speed of 300 m/s enters a

stationary block of wood of mass 2.5 kg and becomes embedded in it.

The block is freely suspended as shown below.

300 m/s

0.05 kg

2.5 kg

Calculate (i) the speed of the block immediately after the impact; (ii)

the kinetic energy lost from the system as a result of the impact.

(3)

produces an approximately constant pressure on the base of the bullet.

(a) The barrel is 0.80 m long and has a cross-sectional area of 4.5 x 10-5

m2. The mean pressure exerted by the propellant is 1.7 x 108 Pa.

Neglect atmospheric pressure. Calculate the work done on the bullet

by the propellant.

(b) The bullet has a mass of 0.05 kg. Calculate the speed of the bullet as

it leaves the barrel. Assume that all energy of the propellant is

transferred to the bullet.

(c) The rifle has a mass of 12 kg. Calculate the recoil speed of the rifle

immediately after firing. Neglect any external forces which act on

the rifle.

Solution

(1)

Page 9 of 11

4. DYNAMICS

Let

M = mass of block + bullet

By conservation of momentum,

(1 + 0.02)v = 0.02 x 100

v = 2/1.02 = 1.96 m/s

(1-h)

Using v2 = u2 + 2as where v = 0, a = -g,

u2 = 2gh

h = (1.96)2 / (2x9.8) = 0.196

= 370

(2)

(b) (i) Loss of momentum of P = Fpt

Gain of momentum of Q = Fpt

(ii) Loss of momentum of P is equal to gain of momentum of Q, so

total momentum remains constant.

(c) (i)

v = 5.9 m/s

= 2250 44 = 2200 J

(3)

(b)

mu2 = 6120

u = (6120 x 2 / 0.05)

= 494.8 m/s

v = recoil speed of rifle

0 = Mv + mu

v = - (mu/M) = - (0.05 X 495)/12 = 2.1 m/s

Page 10 of 11

4. DYNAMICS

4.11

Assignment 4

(1)

The mass of gas emitted from the rear of a toy rocket is initially 0.1 kg/s.

If the speed of the gas relative to the rocket is 50 m/s, and the mass of the

rocket is 2 kg, what is the initial acceleration of the rocket? [ 2.5 m/s2 ]

(2)

on to a vertical wall. The cross-sectional area of the jet is 5 x 10-4 m2. If

the density of water is 1000 kg/m3, calculate the force on the wall

assuming the water is brought to rest there.

[ 200 N ]

(3)

velocity v horizontally on a stationary helium nucleus B of 4 mass units.

After collision, A moves with a velocity v/2 in the direction BC making at

an angle of 600 with AB upwards and the helium nucleus moves along BD

making an angle of with AB downwards. Calculate the velocity of

3

[

v ; 300 ]

rebound of the helium nucleus along BD and angle .

2

(4)

collides with a nucleus of an oxygen atom of mass 2.56 x 10-26 kg (which

may be assumed to be at rest initially) and rebounds in a direction at 900 to

its incident path. Calculate the velocity and direction of motion of the

recoil oxygen nucleus, assuming the collision is elastic and neglecting the

relativistic increase of mass.

[ 2.57 x 106 m/s at 43.20 ]

(5)

block of mass 2.0 kg resting on a smooth horizontal plane. The bullet

passes through the block and emerges undeviated with a velocity of 90

m/s. Calculate: (a) the velocity acquired by the block, (b) the total kinetic

energy before and after penetration and account for their difference.

[ 0.60 m/s; 225 J & 81.4 J ]

(6)

position by imparting a uniform downward velocity to a cylinder of air

below it of effective diameter 6 m. Assuming the density of air to be 1.2

kg/m3, calculate the downward velocity given to the air. [ 17.2 m/s ]

Page 11 of 11

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