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1.

0 ABSTRACT
This experiment conducted to study the effect of contamination of Gypsum (CaSO 4
2H2O) to the density, Plastic Viscosity ( p) and Yield Point (Yp) of water based mud. Gypsum is
one of the salts that commonly encountered during drilling, completion or work over operations.
The experiment started by preparing 200ml based mud in a Beaker A and Beaker B and the
drilling fluid initially tested for weight, PV and Yp by using viscometer. Drilling fluid initially
tested for weight, PV and Yp by using viscometer. After the values were recorded, about 5g of
gypsum were added in the beaker that contains water based mud. The mud containing gypsum is
stirred for 3 minutes. The values of viscosity, PV, Yp, density and pH value are recorded. The
experiment was repeated by adding 10, 15 and 20 grams of gypsum into the water based mud.
Basically, the viscosity, pH value, density, yield point, plastic viscosity and the mud weight is
increasing as the amount of gypsum is increase.

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2.0 INTRODUCTION
The drilling fluid system, commonly known as the mud system is the single component
of the well-construction process that remains in contact with the wellbore throughout the entire
drilling operation. Drilling fluid systems are designed and formulated to perform efficiently
under expected wellbore conditions. Advances in drilling fluid technology have made it possible
to implement a cost-effective, fit for purpose system for each interval in the well-construction
process.
Drilling fluid can be divided by three types which are freshwater systems, saltwater
systems, oil- or synthetic-based systems pneumatic (air, mist, foam, gas) fluid systems. The
functions of drilling fluid in drilling operation are to clean the hole by transporting drilled
cuttings to the surface, where they can be mechanically removed from the fluid before it is
recirculated down hole, to balance or overcome formation pressures in the wellbore to minimize
the risk of well-control issues and to support and stabilize the walls of the wellbore until casing
can be set and cemented or open hole-completion equipment can be installed. Besides, drilling
fluid also act to prevent or minimize damage to the producing formations, cool and lubricate the
drill string and bit, transmits hydraulic horsepower to the bit and allow information about the
producing formations to be retrieved through cuttings analysis, logging-while-drilling data, and
wire line logs.
A mud is said to be contaminated when a foreign material enters the mud system and
causes undesirable changes in mud properties, such as density, viscosity, and filtration.
Generally, water-based mud systems are the most susceptible to contamination. Mud
contamination can result from overtreatment of the mud system with additives or from material
entering the mud during drilling.
The most common contaminants to water-based mud systems are solids which are being
added, drilled, active or inert, gypsum or anhydrite, cement or lime, makeup water, soluble
bicarbonates and carbonates, soluble sulfides and salt or salt water flow.

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The calcium ion is a major contaminant to freshwater-based sodium-clay treated mud


systems. The calcium ion tends to replace the sodium ions on the clay surface through a base
exchange, thus causing undesirable changes in mud properties such as rheology and filtration. It
also causes added thinners to the mud system to become ineffective. The treatment depends on
the source of the calcium ion. For example, sodium carbonate (soda ash) is used if the source is
gypsum or anhydrite. Sodium bicarbonate is the preferred treatment if the calcium ion is from
lime or cement. If treatment becomes economically unacceptable, break over to a mud system,
such as gypsum mud or lime mud, that can tolerate the contaminant.
One of the sources of calcium is gypsum. In this experiment, gypsum is used as
contaminator that mixes with water based-mud. Gypsum is ground Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate. It
is typically act as an inexpensive source of calcium and alkalinity in gyp-based drilling muds. It
can raised the pH level. Its solubility will increased at higher chloride levels. In water-based
systems, it can treated trona water and CO2 contamination. Gypsum is a very soft sulfate
mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO42H2O. It can
be used as afertilizer, is the main constituent in many forms of plaster and is widely mined. A
very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum, calledalabaster, has been used for
sculpture.

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3.0 OBJECTIVES
This experiment is to study the effect of contamination of Gypsum (CaSO4- 2H2O) to
to the density, Plastic Viscosity (p) and Yield Point (Yp) of water based mud.

4.0 THEORY
Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals, and transparent,
cleavable masses called selenite. Selenite contains no significant selenium. Gypsum is a common
mineral, with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary rocks. Gypsum
is used in gypsum or lignosulfonate or polymer muds as a source of calcium ions for inhibition
and to convert bentonite to the calcium ion form. This avoids problems that might otherwise
occurs when anhydrite ids drilled. It can also be used as an economical treatment for carbonate
contamination in high pH muds with reaction:

CaSO4 + CO32- CaCO3 + SO42-

Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water, as well as in hot springs,
from volcanic vapors, and sulfate solutions in veins. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is
commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. It is often associated
with the minerals halite and sulfur. Pure gypsum is white, but other substances found as
impurities may give a wide range of colours to local deposits. Because gypsum dissolves over
time in water, gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand.

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In order to conducted the experiment, the properties that be measured surely known in
term of theory which means, what the relation between the properties and the mud. Yield Point
(yp) is one of parameters that be measured. Basically, it is resistance of initial flow of fluid or the
stress required in order to move the fluid. The parameter usually referred to the ability of drilling
mud where act as to carry cuttings to surface. Plastic Viscosity (PV) is referred to the resistance
of fluid to flow. It can be measured by using viscometer. The unit of PV is Centi- Poise (CP)
while for Yp is lb/100 ft2.

Plastic Viscosity (PV) = viscosity at 600 rpm viscosity at 300 rpm


Yield Point (Yp) = viscosity at 300 rpm PV
Apparent Viscosity = Viscosity at 600 rpm /2

5.0 APPARATUS
To test for density use the mud balance.
1) Lid and Cup

4) Rider

2) Level bubble

5) Counterweight

3) Graduated arm

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Figure 5.1 Mud Balance


To test for viscosity use viscometer.
1) Motor

5) Propeller

2) Gearhead

6) Transformer

3) Shaft coupling

7) Power supply

4) Extension rod

Figure 5.2 Viscometer

Material
1) Water Based Mud
2) Gypsum

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6.0 PROCEDURE
For viscometer
1. The power supply is first switched on then the mud sample is filled into the mud cup.
2. The thermocouple is plugged in.
3. The bob is screwed into the bob shaft until it is tight.
4. The sleeve is tightening onto the rotor shaft.
5. The mud sample is placed on the stage by positioning the alignment stem over the
corresponding hole on the stage.
For unit measurement
i.
ii.

Go button- After enter the test step, Press 1.


Set up button- Press 2 will display the test set up screen, enter the parameter for
the temperature and rotational speed for the first step of the test. Enter twice to

iii.

return to main screen.


Review button- After running the test, press 3 to allow to allow review the test
result.

6. The speed of the viscometer is set to 300 rpm and the data is recorded. Step 1-6 is
repeated using 600 rpm.

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Experimental procedure
1. A 200 ml water based mud is measured in a beaker.
2. The base mud for weight, Plastic Viscosity (PV) AND Yield Point (YP) are tested
using viscometer. The value was recorded in a proper table.
3. The base mud is contaminated with 5 grams of Gypsum.
4. The sample was stirred for 3 minutes. The sample is aged for 15 minutes and stirred
again for 2-3 minutes.

Then, the viscosity, yield point, density and PH are

determined. The density is measured by mud balance, while the pH is measured by


pH meter. The viscosity is measured by the viscosity and yield point is measured by
Viscometer.
5. Another sample of base mud was (200 ml) prepared in a beaker.
6. Step (3) to (4) is repeated by using 10, 15, and 20 grams of Gypsum.
7. The data is recorded and proper graph of density, PV, and Yp are plotted versus
amount of Gypsum added to see the effect of Gypsum contamination to the mud
properties.

7.0 RESULT

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INITIAL

WATER BASED MUD + GYPSUM

WATER
5g

10g

15g

20g

0.573

0.544

0.494

0.523

0.5759

20

13

13

17

19

51.0

44.5

46.5

48.5

50.5

10.85

10.29

9.35

9.9

10.9

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

40.50

32.00

33.00

37.00

39.50

61.00
81.00

51.00
54.00

53.00
66.00

57.00
74.00

60.00
79.00

BESED
MUD
MUD
WEIGHT
(lbm)
PLASTIC
VISCOSITY
(p)
YIELD
POINT, YP
(lb/100 ft2)
DENSITY
(ppg)

pH
APPARENT
VISCOSITY
(a)
300
600

8.0 SAMPLE CALCULATION


5g gypsum added
Apparent viscosity

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= 600 rpm reading 2

= 64 cp 2
= 32 cp
Plastic viscosity

= 600 rpm reading 300 rpm reading


= 64.00 cp 51.00 cp
= 13.00 cp

Yield point

= 300 rpm reading plastic viscosity


= 51.00 cp (13x0.5) cp
= 44.5 lb/100 ft2

9.0 DISCUSSION

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The graph of density versus mass of gypsum


11.5
11
10.5
density (ppg)

10
9.5
9
8.5
0

10

15

20

mass of gypsum (g)

Graph 9.1 shows a graph of density against the mass of gypsum.

The graph of plastic viscosity versus mass of gypsum


25
20
15
plastic viscosity (p) 10
5
0
0

10

15

Mass of gypsum (g)

Graph 9.2 shows a graph of plastic viscosity against the mass of gypsum.

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20

The graph of yield point versus mass of gypsum


52
50
48
yield point (Yp)

46
44
42
40
0

10

15

20

The mass of gypsum (g)

Graph 9.3 shows a graph of yield point against the mass of gypsum.

A mud is said to be contaminated when other materials enters the mud system and causes
undesirable changes in mud properties such as to the density, Plastic Viscosity (p) and Yield
Point (Yp) of water based mud. Comparing between water based mud and oil based mud, water
based mud systems are the most susceptible to contamination of various types. Mud
contamination can result from overtreatment of the mud system with additives or from material
entering the mud during drilling. Based on this experiment, it can be resolved that the objective
of this experiment which is to study the effect of contamination of Gypsum (CaSO 4 2H2O) to
density, Plastic Viscosity and Yield Point of water-based mud has been achieved. From the
experiment, it can be stated that density, Plastic Viscosity (p) and Yield Point (Yp) of the mud
can be influenced by the gypsum.

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The experiment is run by using 5g, 10g, 15 g and 20 g of gypsum which are added as
contamination into the water based mud. The mud balance is used to measure the mud density.
Density of the mud is taken before added with gypsum. Gypsum is substances that have solid
properties. Some expectation has been made that the density of the drilling mud will increase
when the amount of gypsum was added to the drilling mud where the solid contents increased.
Based on the graph 7.1, density versus the number of gypsum, it showed that it is almost same as
theory which states that the density will increase as the amount of gypsum is higher. This is
because as the number of gypsum is increase 5g for each experiment, the weight must be
increase as well and same goes to the density which is the unit is in specific gravity. In
cementing, normally chemical additives are usually used to decrease the density when the
density is too high which then can cause the formation to break at lower pressure zones. The
results also proved the theory by which increased in solid contents will then increase the mud
properties.

The pH of the mud constant as the amount of gypsum was added. As the contamination in
the mud is higher, the pH value must be more to be alkaline. But in the experiment pH value is
taken by using pH indicator. So it doesnt show much difference.

For apparent viscosity which is 300rpm and 600rpm, both readings show an increasing
when the amount of gypsum is increase too. Viscosity is a measure of a fluid resistance to flow.
It describes the internal friction of a moving fluid. A fluid with large viscosity resists motion
because its molecular makeup gives it a lot of internal friction and vice versa. In this experiment,
both reading even in different rpm, shows that the mud is hard to move and have a lot of internal
friction when there is contamination in it. With that, the mud is more viscous as the gypsum is
added and it actually a treatment to the mud to make it more alkaline and make it more effective.

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For graph 7.2, which is the graph of plastic viscosity versus the amount of gypsum in the
mud, the value of the plastic viscosity itself can be determine by using a calculation in the theory
part. According to the theory, as the amount of gypsum is increase, plastic viscosity should be
decreasing. In this experiment, the value of plastic viscosity is decrease and keeps increasing at
10g, 15g and 20g. This is probably due to the error during taking the viscosity of the mud using a
viscometer. The value doesnt keep constant yet the reading already been taken. With that, there
is an error in the result.
For graph 7.3, which is the graph of yield point versus the amount of gypsum, it tells that
after adding some amount of gypsum, the graph increasing. Before the gypsum was added, the
mud is higher point which is 51.0 lb./100ft2. Yield point is actually a resistance of initial flow of
fluid or the stress required in order to move the fluid. Theoretically, after adding a calcium ion,
the value of yield point should be increasing and it is proven in this experiment. The yield point
value can be calculated from the formula that is stated in the theory part.

10.0 CONCLUSION
The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of contamination of Gypsum
(CaSO4 2H2O) to the density, Plastic Viscosity (p) and Yield Point (Yp) of water based mud.
From the result obtained, it can be shown that all the data were recorded in the table and the
necessary graph were plotted. In this experiment, there is some error and mistake that affect the
result and make the reading not totally accurate. However, as expected, the density of drilling
fluid increased as the amount of Gypsum added increase because the increased in solid contents
will then increase the mud properties. For PV, it is decreases and increase when the amount of
Gypsum increased. For yield point, it is increasing when amount of gypsum increases. Therefore,
the objective is achieved.

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11.0 RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Wear a fully PPE when conducting the experiment as it can be harmful to the students.
2. The amount of gypsum must be weight accurately in order to prevent an error happen
during taking the data of the experiment.
3. The water based mud must be filter first before conducting the experiment as to filter the
impurities. This is to prevent the data for measuring the mud weight, the viscosity and
others.
4. The mud must only contain gypsum as if other contaminant is involved in this
experiment, the result will be not consistent.
5. During run the viscometer, make sure the time taken for each sample of mud is
consistent as the longer the viscometer rotate, the viscosity of the mud will be higher
thus, it will affect the reading.

12.0 REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

http://petrowiki.spe.org/Drilling_fluids
http://petrowiki.spe.org/Mud_contamination
http://www.drillingahead.com/profiles/blogs/yield-point-yp
http://www.slb.com/~/media/Files/miswaco/product_sheets/gypsum.ashx
http://www.princeton.edu/~gasdyn/Research/T-C_Research_Folder/Viscosity_def.html

13.0 APPENDICES

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Eletric balance

Mixer

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Mud balance

Viscometer