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L Ph Trn

L Ph Trn (??) was a general of the Trn Dynasty chancellor Trn Th to give up the position of Emduring the reigns of three successive emperors: Thi press Consort of the Trn Dynasty for her elder sister
Tng, Thnh Tng, and Nhn Tng.[1]
Thun Thin, for the reason that she could not give birth
a child for Trn Thi Tng.[8][9][10] Like the 1237
As a skilled general on the battleeld, he was one of the
event, the marriage between L Ph Trn and Princess
few commanders of the Trn Dynasty army during the
three Mongol invasions of i Vit who did not come Chiu Thnh was criticized in historical books for the
lack of moral code in marriage during the Early Trn
from the Trn clan. Besides his military activities, L
Ph Trn also took charge of the position royal professor period. Princess Chiu Thnh deceased in C Php
for crown prince Trn Khm who eventually became the in March 1278 at the age of 61. With the second husband
Marquis L Tng and
Emperor Trn Nhn Tng. For his merits, the Emperor L Ph Trn, she had two children,
Trn Thi Tng decided to grant L Ph Trn a marriage
with the former empress L Chiu Hong.

Right after the marriage, Trn Thi Tng chose L Ph

Trn and Chu Bc Lm as the Emperors envoys to the
Yuan Dynasty in 1258. In this voyage, Chief Ambassador L Ph Trn was able to negotiate with the Yuan
Dynasty for a 3-year period of paying tribute instead
of the confused demand of tribute from the Yuan Dynasty before.[11] After the coronation of Trn Thnh
Tng in February 1258, L Ph Trn was promoted to
commander-in-chief of i Vits navy (Thy qun i
tng qun) in June 1259[14] as a part of the Emperors
plan of reinforcing the Trn Dynasty by several recruitements and reorganization of the military division so that
the operating and ghting ability of i Vit army could
be improved.[6][15]


There was only a brief account about L Ph Trn (L

who serves the Trn Dynasty) in historical books as the
exact dates of his birth and death were unknown. It
was said that his former name was L Tn ( ) and
that he was of i Chu origin.[2] According to i Vit
s k ton th, L Ph Trn was appointed by the Emperor Trn Thi Tng as middle-ranking court counsellor
(Vietnamese: Ng s trung tng) in 1250.[3]

Besides his military activities, L Ph Trn was also

a renowned scholar,[16] in 1274, Trn Thnh Tng appointed him for the position of royal professor (Tr cung
gio th) for crown prince Trn Khm, who eventually became the Emperor Trn Nhn Tng, with two famous scholars Nguyn S C and Nguyn Thnh Hun as

In 1257, the Trn Dynasty had to face with the rst

Mongol invasion of i Vit.[4] In the beginning, the
i Vit army suered several defeats by an overwhelming force which had already conquered vast areas of
Asia. Several high-ranking ocials of the Trn Dynasty
were so afraid that Prince Khm Thin Trn Nht Hiu,
younger brother of Thi Tng, even suggested the Emperor that they might escape from i Vit to the Song
Dynasty.[5] Despite the hardships, L Ph Trn always
proved to be not only a courageous general on the battleeld but also a sound ocial who rightly advised the
Emperor retreating in order to preserve the army for a
counterattack. It was L Ph Trn who ercely protected
the Emperor from the Mongol army in this retreat, hence
he became a close advisor of the Emperor who could discuss with Thi Tng the most important and secret matters about the war.[4] Finally, the Trn Dynasty was able
to drive back the invasion and re-established the peace in
i Vit in December 1257.[6][7]

2 References
2.1 Notes
[1] K. W. Taylor A History of the Vietnamese 2013 Page 125
Relying upon the counsel and battleeld prowess of Le
Phu Tran and others, Tran Canh rallied his men and returned to the oensive, attacking and pushing back the
Mongol force at Thang Long.
[2] National Bureau for Historical Record 1998, p. 205

For his merits during the war of resistance, in 1258 the

Emperor Trn Thi Tng decided to grant L Ph Trn a
marriage with the former empress L Chiu Hong who
was downgraded to princess Chiu Thnh after the 1237
event in which L Chiu Hong was forced by grand

[3] Ng S Lin 1993, p. 170

[4] Ng S Lin 1993, p. 173
[5] Ng S Lin 1993, pp. 172173

[6] Chapuis 1995, p. 81

[7] Trn Trng Kim 1971, p. 51
[8] Trn Trng Kim 1971, p. 49
[9] Ng S Lin 1993, pp. 164166
[10] National Bureau for Historical Record 1998, pp. 195196
[11] Ng S Lin 1993, p. 174
[12] Shrines demise angers residents.
2009-04-14. Archived from the original on April 19,
2009. Retrieved 2009-12-03.
[13] Ng S Lin 1993, p. 185
[14] Ng S Lin 1993, p. 176
[15] Ng S Lin 1993, p. 180
[16] Ng S Lin 1993, p. 231
[17] Ng S Lin 1993, p. 182



Ng S Lin (1993), i Vit s k ton th (in Vietnamese) (Ni cc quan bn ed.), Hanoi: Social Science Publishing House
National Bureau for Historical Record (1998),
Khm nh Vit s Thng gim cng mc (in Vietnamese), Hanoi: Education Publishing House
Trn Trng Kim (1971), Vit Nam s lc (in Vietnamese), Saigon: Center for School Materials
Chapuis, Oscar (1995), A history of Vietnam: from
Hong Bang to Tu Duc, Greenwood Publishing
Group, ISBN 0-313-29622-7


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