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If the system consists of a single connected to a group of loads the speed and the
frequency changes in accordance with the governor characteristics as the load
changes. The frequency normally would vary by about 5% between light load
and full load conditions. On the other hand if constant frequency is required the
operator can adjust the speed of turbine by changing the governor characteristic
as desired. If any change in load is taken care by two machines running in
parallel. The complexity of the system is increased the possibility of the sharing
the load by two machines is, for example there is two stations S 1 and S2 inter
connected through a tie line. If the change in load either at S 1 or at S2 and if
the generation of S1 alone is regulated to adjust this change.

The constant

frequency, the method of the regulation is known as Flat Frequency Regulation

(FFR). Under such situation station S2 is said to operate on the base load.
The major drawback of flat frequency regulation is that S 1 must absorb all
the load changes for the entire system there by the tie line between the two
stations would have to absorb all load changes at station S 2 since the generator
S2 would maintain its output constant.
The operation of generator S2 on base load has the ac voltage. When S 2 is much
sufficient than the other station and it is desirable to obtain the maximum
output of S2.
The other possibility of sharing the change in load is that both S 1 and S2
would regulate their generations to main the frequency constant. This is known
as parallel frequency regulation (PFR).
The third is that the change in particular area is take care by the generator in
that area thereby the tie line loading remains constant. This method of
regulating the generation for keeping the constant frequency is known as Flat tie
line loading control.