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For any network, three things are associated with it. These are network elements, input

i.e. excitation to the network and output i.e. response from the network.

In the network analysis the network elements are known and the excitation is also known.

Using number of methods, the networks are studied and responses are obtained. Such a response

is unique for a given network and known excitation. So obtaining a response for a known

network and known excitation is called network analysis. Uptill now number of methods and

theorems are studied to analyze the network.

In the network synthesis, the procedure is exactly opposite to the network analysis. The

excitation is known and the response requirements are known. It is necessary to find the network

satisfying the requirements.

Key Points: Thus obtaining a network for known excitation and known response

requirements is called Network Synthesis.

The basic difference between network analysis and network synthesis is shown in the figure..

Another important difference between analysis and synthesis is that the analysis gives the

solution i.e. response which is always unique. But synthesis may give different solutions i.e.

networks satisfying the specifications.

Key Point: The synthesis does not give us the solution

Sometimes it may not give solution. For example, the specification of the network is that its

impedance Z(S) must be 10. Synthesizing of this specification may give the network with only

one 10 resistance or two 5 resistances in series or two 20 resistances in parallel and so on.

So, synthesis solution is not unique. Similarly specifications like Z(S) = -10 cannot be

satisfied using passive elements. Thus synthesis may not give any solution also.

We have seen that driving point impedance and admittance functions for all the networks,

consisting of passive elements are not rational and in the form of ratio of two polynomials in S.

But it is not possible that every ration of two polynomials in S can be synthesized with passive

elements.

3.1. Causality and Stability:

Consider the system function H(S) which is the ratio of Laplace Transform of Output

R(S) to the Laplace Transform of Excitation E(S).

R ( S)

H ( s )=

Eq.1

E(S)

In the synthesis, we are going to obtain a network from the given system function which

may be admittance function or Impedance Function. But before synthesizing H(S) it is necessary

to check whether H(S) is physically realizable or not, using passive elements. For this there are

two important conditions related to a network which are Causality and Stability.

Now there cannot be output without input i.e. there cannot be current without any

voltage. So there exists a cause and effect relationship between input and output. This is nothing

but Causality. To have the given network to be Causal, the impulse response of the network must

be zero for t < 0. The impulse response of the network is the Laplace inverse of H(S) as Laplace

transform of unit impulse is Unity

h ( t )=0, t <0 Eq.2

This is the required condition for the network to be Causal. Thus the impulse response

2t

h ( t ) =e

u ( t ) is causal as u(t)=0 for t < 0 thus h(t) is also zero for t < 0. While the response

2|t|

like h ( t ) =e

is not causal.

Practically in certain cases, the impulse response can be made causal by delaying it.

Consider the response h(t) shown in figure is not causal but by delaying it by T, it becomes zero

for all t < 0 and hence becomes causal.

If the response is delayed by T then it becomes causal and realizable. For a system function to be

causal in frequency domain, it must satisfy the condition that h(t) must possess a Fourier

Transform H(j) and the square magnitude function

+

|H ( j )| d< Eqn.3

If the system function is to be causal then it must satisfy the condition in frequency domain

called Paley-wiener criterion. The criterion states that it is necessary and sufficient condition

for an amplitude function

+

|log |H ( j )||

1+ 2

d < Eqn .4

Similar to causality, the network must be checked for stability. The network is said to be stable if,

1. It produces a bounded output for a bounded input

2. There is no output if input is reduced to zero.

Thus, if e(t) is the excitation and |e (t)|< k 1 for 0 t<

|r (t )|<k 2 for 0 t< . The K1, K2 are real, positive, finite constants.

The Stable network must satisfy the condition that its impulse response must be absolutely

integrable.

+

This gets satisfied when the impulse response h(t) approaches to Zero as t approaches infinity,

lim h(t ) 0 Eqn.6

t

In general, for a stable network, the impulse response must be bounded for all t i.e.

|h(t)|< K

Now the functions like sin (t) and cos (t) are bounded but not absolutely integrable.

Such systems have poles on the imaginary axis. These systems are not stable from integration

definition but stable from bounded definitions. Such systems are called marginally stable

systems.

For the stability of the system function H(S), it must satisfy the following conditions,

1. H(S) should not have a pole in the right half of s-plane.

2. The poles of H(S) on the imaginary axis must be not repeated. There should not be

multiple poles of H(S) on imaginary axis.

3. The degree of numerator of H(S) cannot exceed the degree of denominator by more than

unity.

Thus first step in the synthesis is to obtain the information whether the given function is

realizable or not. For a given function to be realizable it is essential that the network function

should satisfy all the properties of Hurwitz polynomials and those of positive real functions.

Hence before the study of actual synthesis, it is necessary to study the properties of Hurwitz

polynomials and the positive real functions.

3.2.

HURWITZ POLNOMIALS

For a polynomial P(s) to be a Hurwitz polynomial, it has to satisfy following basic properties.

1. The polynomial P(s) is real whens is real.

2. The roots of the polynomial P(s) have real parts which are either zero or negative.

In addition to these basic properties, Hurwitz polynomial has to satisfy few more properties.

3.2.1. Properties of Hurwitz Polynomials

Consider a polynomial P(s) of order n as,

P ( s )=an Sn +a n1 sn1 ++ a1 s+ a0

For the Polynomial P(s) to be Hurwitz,

1. All the coefficients ai are real and nonnegative. Thus all coefficients a n to a0 must be

positive.

2. All the terms starting from highest powers of S to lowest power of S must be present. No

power of S should be missing in between.

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