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International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication

Volume: 4 Issue: 3

ISSN: 2321-8169
288 - 291


High Speed and Low Power Pseudo Noise(PN) Sequence Generator

Kruttika Golwelker1, Ritu Kumari2

Prof. T. Vigneswaran3

School of Electronics Engineering

VIT University
Chennai, India

School of Electronics Engineering

VIT University
Chennai, India

AbstractThe Pseudo Noise (PN) sequence has become a significant component in digital communication. A pseudo random code are
generated using two techniques namely, gold code and Kasami code. The generation of PN sequence involves the use of Linear Feedback Shift
Register (LFSR) as its building block. When compared to other multiplexing methods,gold code and Kasami code techniques are better in terms
of power utilization, noise flexibility and frequency efficiency. The generation of these codes involves the use of two maximum length sequence
(M-sequence). The auto-correlation properties of gold and Kasami sequences are the basis for this research work. The software used to simulate
these methods is NC Launchand the language used is Verilog Hardware Description Language(HDL). The results of the above two methods are
compared in terms of power utilization and speed in the CADENCE environment. When comparing Gold code with Kasami code, Gold code
consumes 42% less power than the Kasami code. In the modified Kasami code generator, the speed is increased by 8%, when compared to
modified Gold code generator.
KeywordsPN sequence, LFSR, Gold Codes, Kasami Codes.



The Pseudo Noise (PN) sequence is a stream of binary

digits i.e. 0s and 1s. PN sequences are obtained from various
methods such as Maximum length sequence (m- sequences),
Gold codes, Kasami codes, Barker sequences, Walsh codes and
Hadamard codes. This research work discusses in detail about
the Gold code and the Kasami code.A PN sequence generator
is based on the concept of a Linear Feedback Shift Register
(LFSR), where the degree of the polynomial decides the size of
the LFSR.
A. Properties
1) Balance Property
The number of 1s in a PN sequence is always more by one
than the number of 0s in each period.
2) Run property
In every period of a PN sequence, half the runs have a
length of one, one-fourth have length of two, one-eight have a
length of three and so on.
3) Correlation property
The measure of similarity when comparing two sequences
is termed as correlation. When the comparison is between two
distinct sequences, it is called cross-correlation and when the
sequences are a shifted version of the original sequences, it is
called auto-correlation [1].
B. Requirements
To obtain an improvised performance some of
requirements have to be fulfilled by the PN sequence [7].


1) A sharp auto-correlation function must be achieved

by the PN sequence and its cross-correlation value
must be comparable to zero.

2) The period of the PN sequence should be long

enough to ensure encryption and hence security.
C. Polynomial Selection
For generating PN sequences by methods such as gold codes
and Kasami codes a set of preferred polynomials is
considered. Both the polynomials are of degree n where, n
indicates the size of the LFSR.Preferred polynomials can be
expressed by different formats.
1) A vector listing the coefficients of the selected
polynomial in the decreasing order of its powers. The
first entry and the last entry have to be 1. The vectors
length is always one more than the polynomials
2) A vector expressed in terms of the exponents of x for
all the nonzero terms present in the polynomial.
Consider the following example, the vectors [4 1 0] and [1 0 0
1 1] represent a polynomial 4 + + 1.




Table 1. Preferred Polynomials

Polynomial 1
Polynomial 2
[4 1 0]
[5 2 0]
[6 1 0]

[4 3 0]
[5 4 3 2 0]
[6 5 2 1 0]

The set of the preferred polynomials for a few values of n are

listed in Table 1.

IJRITCC | March 2016, Available @


International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication

Volume: 4 Issue: 3

ISSN: 2321-8169
288 - 291

Spread spectrum techniques such as CDMA systems use PN
sequences and preferably, Gold code and Kasami codes due to
their correlation properties [6]. The key usage of security
using cryptography is in random numbers generation [9].
Speech encryption can be performed using Kasami codes
hence it is used in 3G wireless communication as it ensures
security [8]. Gold codes and Kasami codes are highly
desirable in Ultra-Wideband (UWB) communication as they
can achieve high data rates [5]. PN sequences are used in
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)[10].


A. Gold Code Generator

Gold codes are constructed using LFSRs and modulo-2 adders
which are supported by preferred polynomials [2]. LFSR is a
type of shift register in which output bit of one register is the
input bit of the following register. The Gold code generates a
PN sequence of length 2 1, where m is the degree on the
polynomial [3]. Fig.1 illustrates a Gold code generator with a
set of polynomials as the preferred pair 4 + + 1 and 4 +
3 + 1.

Fig.2 Kasami code generator

Fig.2 illustrates the architecture for the Kasami code
generator. The Kasami code is known for its capability of
ensuring security as it has one level higher encryption when
compared to the sequence generated by the Gold code method.


A. Modified Gold Code Generator

Fig.1 Gold code generator

A design consuming low power has become necessity in the

present day scenario. This work proposes to reduce the power
consumption. Also, the communication field demands high
data rate and high speed. The conventional designing method
contais a pair of LFSRs, with an XOR gate to perform the
modulo-2 addition mentioned in the earlier part of this paper.
This work proposes to replace the XOR gate by a 2:1
multiplexer at the output port to try and reduce the delay in
order to increase the speed and preferably reduce the power
consumption also.

The polynomial indicates the position of the modulo-2 adder in

a Gold code generator. Each of the LFSRs generate a sequence
of binary bits/digits. The output of the last register in the LFSR
is fed back as the input to the first register. The output
sequences of both the polynomials undergo modulo-2 addition
to generate the gold code.
B. Kasami Code Generator
The Kasami code generator works similar to the Gold code
generator. A PN sequence is generated using three LFSRs. A
set of preferred pair polynomials is used for two LFSRs. The
third polynomial is a decimated from of one of the two
Similar to Gold code, the Kasami code also generates a
sequence of length 2 1 , where k is the degree of the
polynomial. The decimation factor is derived from the
formula2/2 + 1, k is the degree of the polynomial [4]. The
final sequence is computed by the modulo-2 addition of
preferred set of polynomials and the decimated polynomial .

Fig.3 Modified Gold Code Generator

Fig.3 illustrates the Gold code architecture by replacing the
modulo-2 adder at the output side with a multiplexer. The
multiplexer is expected to remove the unwanted switching and
hence reduce the delay in the sequence generation.

IJRITCC | March 2016, Available @


International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication

Volume: 4 Issue: 3

ISSN: 2321-8169
288 - 291

B. Modified Kasami Code Generator
The large set, modified Kasami code generator consists of
LFSRs using three polynomials, each of degree n. The output
of each of the LFSRs is fed into an XOR gate to obtain the final
PN sequence in the conventional design. However, in the
modified design of the Kasami code generator, the XOR gate at
the output is replaced by two consecutive 2:1 multiplexers. One
of the input is given to the select line of the multiplexer and the
other input along with its complement is given as the inputs to
the multiplexer. Similarly, the output of the third polynomial
and its complement are fed as the inputs to the multiplexer,
while the output of the preceding multiplexer is given as the
select line to the multiplexer at the final stage of the PN
sequence generator.

Fig.5 contains the simulation waveform and the generated PN

sequence for a Gold code generator.The power consumption,
area occupied and the delay observed in this design is tabulated
as shown in Table2.

Gold sequence

Table.2. Gold Code



The number of cells utilized by this design is 12 and the area

mentioned in Table.2 is calculated with respect to the number
of cells. The area mentioned is the amount of area used by each
C. Kasami Code
The output is generated at every positive edge of the clock.
Fig.6 shows the simulation for the Kasami code with the input
preferred polynomials 4 + + 1 and 4 + 3 + 1 along with
the decimated polynomial 4 + 2 + 1.

Fig.6 Kasami Code Simulation

Fig.4 Modified Kasami Code Generator

Fig.4 demonstrates the Kasami code architecture with the help
of the 2:1 multiplexer.

The area, power consumed and the delay calculations are

tabulated in Table.3. The area mentioned in Table.3 is in terms
of the number of cells used during simulation.


A.Simulation Tool
This entire work is carried out in the CADENCE
environment. The tool NC Launch is used for getting the
output waveform and to display the PN sequence generated by
the Gold and Kasami code. The waveform is generated for
every positive edge of the clock. The power consumed, delay
and the area utilized is obtained from the RC Compiler. Both,
the conventional and the modified design of Gold and Kasami
codes are compiled in using the CADENCE tools.


Table.3 Kasami Code



It is observed that the area utilized by the Kasami code

generator is more when compared to the Gold Code generator.
D. Modified Gold Code Generator

B. Gold Code

Fig.5 Gold Code Simulation

Fig.7 Modified Gold Code Simulation


IJRITCC | March 2016, Available @


International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication

Volume: 4 Issue: 3

ISSN: 2321-8169
288 - 291

The waveform and the PN sequence generated for the modified
Gold code is shown in Fig.7.
Table.4 Modified Gold Code

Gold Code




Table.4 explains the power consumed, area occupied and the

delay of the modified Gold code generator.
E.Modified Kasami Code Generator
The simulation waveform and the PN sequence generated for
the modified Kasami Code generator is illustrated in Fig.8

Comparing the conventional Gold and Kasami codes, the Gold

code is more efficient. However, after modification, the power
consumed by modified Gold code method is less and the speed
of the modified Kasami code is better. But this achieved at the
cost of increase in area.
In order to improve these factors further, in future, all the
XOR gates in the design can be replaced with multiplexers.
The multiplexer removes the unwanted switching from the
circuit which occurs due the XOR gates. This, therefore
reduces the power consumed and the delay when compared to
the conventional method.





Fig.8 Modified Kasami Code Simulation


The results of the power consumption, area and delay for

modified Kasami code are charted in Table.5.


Table.5 Modified Kasami Code


The Gold code is better than Kasami code by 42% in terms of

power consumption. When comparing modified Gold code
with modified Kasami code, the speed of modified Kasami
code is better by 8%.The power consumption is decreased in
the modified Gold Code method whereas the delay is reduced
in the modified Kasami method.


The conventional method of obtaining the Gold code requires

minimum area when compared to Kasami code and modified
Gold code. The power consumed by Gold code is less when
compared to others. Also the delay is less in gold code.






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