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Paper Title
High Speed and Low Power Pseudo Noise(PN) Sequence Generator
Authors
Kruttika Golwelker, Ritu Kumari, Prof. T. Vigneswaran
Abstract
The Pseudo Noise (PN) sequence has become a significant component in digital communication. A pseudo random code are generated using two techniques namely, gold code and Kasami code. The generation of PN sequence involves the use of Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) as its building block. When compared to other multiplexing methods,gold code and Kasami code techniques are better in terms of power utilization, noise flexibility and frequency efficiency. The generation of these codes involves the use of two maximum length sequence (M-sequence). The auto-correlation properties of gold and Kasami sequences are the basis for this research work. The software used to simulate these methods is NC Launchand the language used is Verilog Hardware Description Language(HDL). The results of the above two methods are compared in terms of power utilization and speed in the CADENCE environment. When comparing Gold code with Kasami code, Gold code consumes 42% less power than the Kasami code. In the modified Kasami code generator, the speed is increased by 8%, when compared to modified Gold code generator.
Keywords
PN sequence, LFSR, Gold Codes, Kasami Codes.
Citation/Export
MLA
Kruttika Golwelker, Ritu Kumari, Prof. T. Vigneswaran, “High Speed and Low Power Pseudo Noise(PN) Sequence Generator”, March 16 Volume 4 Issue 3 , International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 288 - 291
APA
Kruttika Golwelker, Ritu Kumari, Prof. T. Vigneswaran, March 16 Volume 4 Issue 3, “High Speed and Low Power Pseudo Noise(PN) Sequence Generator”, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 288 - 291

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You are on page 1of 4

Volume: 4 Issue: 3

ISSN: 2321-8169

288 - 291

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Kruttika Golwelker1, Ritu Kumari2

Prof. T. Vigneswaran3

VIT University

Chennai, India

Kruttika.golwelker2015@vit.ac.in1

Ritu.kumari2015@vit.ac.in2

VIT University

Chennai, India

Vigneswaran.t@vit.ac.in3

AbstractThe Pseudo Noise (PN) sequence has become a significant component in digital communication. A pseudo random code are

generated using two techniques namely, gold code and Kasami code. The generation of PN sequence involves the use of Linear Feedback Shift

Register (LFSR) as its building block. When compared to other multiplexing methods,gold code and Kasami code techniques are better in terms

of power utilization, noise flexibility and frequency efficiency. The generation of these codes involves the use of two maximum length sequence

(M-sequence). The auto-correlation properties of gold and Kasami sequences are the basis for this research work. The software used to simulate

these methods is NC Launchand the language used is Verilog Hardware Description Language(HDL). The results of the above two methods are

compared in terms of power utilization and speed in the CADENCE environment. When comparing Gold code with Kasami code, Gold code

consumes 42% less power than the Kasami code. In the modified Kasami code generator, the speed is increased by 8%, when compared to

modified Gold code generator.

KeywordsPN sequence, LFSR, Gold Codes, Kasami Codes.

__________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

I.

INTRODUCTION

digits i.e. 0s and 1s. PN sequences are obtained from various

methods such as Maximum length sequence (m- sequences),

Gold codes, Kasami codes, Barker sequences, Walsh codes and

Hadamard codes. This research work discusses in detail about

the Gold code and the Kasami code.A PN sequence generator

is based on the concept of a Linear Feedback Shift Register

(LFSR), where the degree of the polynomial decides the size of

the LFSR.

A. Properties

1) Balance Property

The number of 1s in a PN sequence is always more by one

than the number of 0s in each period.

2) Run property

In every period of a PN sequence, half the runs have a

length of one, one-fourth have length of two, one-eight have a

length of three and so on.

3) Correlation property

The measure of similarity when comparing two sequences

is termed as correlation. When the comparison is between two

distinct sequences, it is called cross-correlation and when the

sequences are a shifted version of the original sequences, it is

called auto-correlation [1].

B. Requirements

To obtain an improvised performance some of

requirements have to be fulfilled by the PN sequence [7].

the

by the PN sequence and its cross-correlation value

must be comparable to zero.

enough to ensure encryption and hence security.

C. Polynomial Selection

For generating PN sequences by methods such as gold codes

and Kasami codes a set of preferred polynomials is

considered. Both the polynomials are of degree n where, n

indicates the size of the LFSR.Preferred polynomials can be

expressed by different formats.

1) A vector listing the coefficients of the selected

polynomial in the decreasing order of its powers. The

first entry and the last entry have to be 1. The vectors

length is always one more than the polynomials

degree.

2) A vector expressed in terms of the exponents of x for

all the nonzero terms present in the polynomial.

Consider the following example, the vectors [4 1 0] and [1 0 0

1 1] represent a polynomial 4 + + 1.

Sl.No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Preferred

Preferred

Polynomial 1

Polynomial 2

[4 1 0]

[5 2 0]

[6 1 0]

[4 3 0]

[5 4 3 2 0]

[6 5 2 1 0]

listed in Table 1.

288

IJRITCC | March 2016, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 4 Issue: 3

ISSN: 2321-8169

288 - 291

_______________________________________________________________________________________

D.Applications

Spread spectrum techniques such as CDMA systems use PN

sequences and preferably, Gold code and Kasami codes due to

their correlation properties [6]. The key usage of security

using cryptography is in random numbers generation [9].

Speech encryption can be performed using Kasami codes

hence it is used in 3G wireless communication as it ensures

security [8]. Gold codes and Kasami codes are highly

desirable in Ultra-Wideband (UWB) communication as they

can achieve high data rates [5]. PN sequences are used in

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)[10].

II.

BACKGROUND STUDY

Gold codes are constructed using LFSRs and modulo-2 adders

which are supported by preferred polynomials [2]. LFSR is a

type of shift register in which output bit of one register is the

input bit of the following register. The Gold code generates a

PN sequence of length 2 1, where m is the degree on the

polynomial [3]. Fig.1 illustrates a Gold code generator with a

set of polynomials as the preferred pair 4 + + 1 and 4 +

3 + 1.

Fig.2 illustrates the architecture for the Kasami code

generator. The Kasami code is known for its capability of

ensuring security as it has one level higher encryption when

compared to the sequence generated by the Gold code method.

III.

PROPOSED WORK

present day scenario. This work proposes to reduce the power

consumption. Also, the communication field demands high

data rate and high speed. The conventional designing method

contais a pair of LFSRs, with an XOR gate to perform the

modulo-2 addition mentioned in the earlier part of this paper.

This work proposes to replace the XOR gate by a 2:1

multiplexer at the output port to try and reduce the delay in

order to increase the speed and preferably reduce the power

consumption also.

a Gold code generator. Each of the LFSRs generate a sequence

of binary bits/digits. The output of the last register in the LFSR

is fed back as the input to the first register. The output

sequences of both the polynomials undergo modulo-2 addition

to generate the gold code.

B. Kasami Code Generator

The Kasami code generator works similar to the Gold code

generator. A PN sequence is generated using three LFSRs. A

set of preferred pair polynomials is used for two LFSRs. The

third polynomial is a decimated from of one of the two

polynomials.

Similar to Gold code, the Kasami code also generates a

sequence of length 2 1 , where k is the degree of the

polynomial. The decimation factor is derived from the

formula2/2 + 1, k is the degree of the polynomial [4]. The

final sequence is computed by the modulo-2 addition of

preferred set of polynomials and the decimated polynomial .

Fig.3 illustrates the Gold code architecture by replacing the

modulo-2 adder at the output side with a multiplexer. The

multiplexer is expected to remove the unwanted switching and

hence reduce the delay in the sequence generation.

289

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 4 Issue: 3

ISSN: 2321-8169

288 - 291

_______________________________________________________________________________________

B. Modified Kasami Code Generator

The large set, modified Kasami code generator consists of

LFSRs using three polynomials, each of degree n. The output

of each of the LFSRs is fed into an XOR gate to obtain the final

PN sequence in the conventional design. However, in the

modified design of the Kasami code generator, the XOR gate at

the output is replaced by two consecutive 2:1 multiplexers. One

of the input is given to the select line of the multiplexer and the

other input along with its complement is given as the inputs to

the multiplexer. Similarly, the output of the third polynomial

and its complement are fed as the inputs to the multiplexer,

while the output of the preceding multiplexer is given as the

select line to the multiplexer at the final stage of the PN

sequence generator.

sequence for a Gold code generator.The power consumption,

area occupied and the delay observed in this design is tabulated

as shown in Table2.

Gold sequence

Area

Power

672

0.109mW

Delay

1734ps

mentioned in Table.2 is calculated with respect to the number

of cells. The area mentioned is the amount of area used by each

cell.

C. Kasami Code

The output is generated at every positive edge of the clock.

Fig.6 shows the simulation for the Kasami code with the input

preferred polynomials 4 + + 1 and 4 + 3 + 1 along with

the decimated polynomial 4 + 2 + 1.

Fig.4 demonstrates the Kasami code architecture with the help

of the 2:1 multiplexer.

IV.

tabulated in Table.3. The area mentioned in Table.3 is in terms

of the number of cells used during simulation.

A.Simulation Tool

This entire work is carried out in the CADENCE

environment. The tool NC Launch is used for getting the

output waveform and to display the PN sequence generated by

the Gold and Kasami code. The waveform is generated for

every positive edge of the clock. The power consumed, delay

and the area utilized is obtained from the RC Compiler. Both,

the conventional and the modified design of Gold and Kasami

codes are compiled in using the CADENCE tools.

Kasami

sequence

Area

Power

978

0.1552mW

Delay

1871ps

generator is more when compared to the Gold Code generator.

D. Modified Gold Code Generator

B. Gold Code

290

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 4 Issue: 3

ISSN: 2321-8169

288 - 291

_______________________________________________________________________________________

The waveform and the PN sequence generated for the modified

Gold code is shown in Fig.7.

Table.4 Modified Gold Code

Modified

Gold Code

Area

978

Power

0.155mW

Delay

17341ps

delay of the modified Gold code generator.

E.Modified Kasami Code Generator

The simulation waveform and the PN sequence generated for

the modified Kasami Code generator is illustrated in Fig.8

code is more efficient. However, after modification, the power

consumed by modified Gold code method is less and the speed

of the modified Kasami code is better. But this achieved at the

cost of increase in area.

In order to improve these factors further, in future, all the

XOR gates in the design can be replaced with multiplexers.

The multiplexer removes the unwanted switching from the

circuit which occurs due the XOR gates. This, therefore

reduces the power consumed and the delay when compared to

the conventional method.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

modified Kasami code are charted in Table.5.

Modified

Kasami

Code

Area

Power

Time

1254

0.216mW

1734ps

power consumption. When comparing modified Gold code

with modified Kasami code, the speed of modified Kasami

code is better by 8%.The power consumption is decreased in

the modified Gold Code method whereas the delay is reduced

in the modified Kasami method.

V.

CONCLUSION

minimum area when compared to Kasami code and modified

Gold code. The power consumed by Gold code is less when

compared to others. Also the delay is less in gold code.

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

REFERENCES

Muhammad Baqer Mollah, Md. Rashidul Islam ,

Comparative Analysis of Gold Codes with PN Codes

Using

Correlation

Property

in

CDMA

TechnologyInternational Islamic University Chittagong,

Chittagong, Bangladesh, International Confrerence on

Computer Communication and Informatics, IEEE 2012

Menahem Lowy, Krishna Anne, A High Speed Low

Power Spread Spectrum Code GeneratorUniversity of

Texas at Arlington, IEEE1995

T.M Nazmul Huda, Syed Foysol Islam, Correlation

Analysis of the Gold Codes and Wash codes in CDMA

blekinge instituteof Technology, kralskrona ,swedwn,

IEEE 2009.

Yuh-Ren Tsai, Member ,Ieee, and Xiu-Shengli, Kasami

Code Shift-Keying Modulation for Ultra-wideband

Communication

syatemsIEEE

transaction

on

communications Vol-55,june 2007.

Takuya Sakamoto, Member ,IEEE ,and Toru Sato,

Member ,IEEE, Code- Division Multiple transmission

for High-Speed UWB Radar Imaging With an Antenna

Array IEEE transaction on Geosciences and Remote

sensing ,vol.47,April 2009.

Rodrigo Carvjal ,Kaushik mahata,and juan C. Aguero,

Low Complexity Wiener Filtering in CDMA systems

using a class of pseudo-noise spreading codesIEEE

communication latter , vol.19, IEEE 2012.

Zhang Xinyu, Analysis of M-Sequence and GoldSequrence in CDMA System 2011 IEEE, International

school

,Beijing

University

of

posts

and

telecommunications.

Mau-Lin Wau, Kuei-Ann Wen,and- Wang Huang,

Efficient Pseudo noise Code Design for Spread Spectrum

Wireless Communication Systems IEEE transactions on

Circuit and System, vol. 48,JUNE 2001.

Miroslav Peri, Predrag Milievi, Zoran Banjac,

Vladimir Orli, Saa Milievi, High speed random

number generator

for section key generation in encryption

devices , 21st Telecommunication forum, IEEE,2013

Linglong Dai, Jian Fu,Jun Wang, and Jian Song A

Multi-user Uplink TDS-OFDM System Based on Dual

PN Sequence Padding IEEE Transactions on Consumer

Electronics,Vol. 55, No. 3,AUGUST 20

291

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