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Sol.1 Potato (stem) and sweet potato (root) = storage Sol.11 (a) Menarche : It is the first menstruation that
organ occurs in the life of a young girl. Menarche
Sol.2 Lipase, amylase. is indication of the attainment of sexual
maturity and beginning of fertile period.
Sol.3 Cyclosporin.
(b) Menopause : It is the cessation of
Sol.4 The bilobed anther can produce 1600 male menstruation in the life of a women that
gametophytes. marks the end of fertile period due to

Sol.5 Pollen grains can be stored in viable condition nonrelease of ova.

in pollen bank for many years in liquid nitrogen
(196C) and can be used in crop breeding Sol.12
programmes. Tube Male
Exine Intine nucleus gametes
Sol.6 It states that only 10% energy of a trophic level
is transferred to the next higher trophic level.
Pollen tube
Sol.7 Inflated pod. Male gametophyte

Sol.8 Helper T-cells. Sol.13 1. Antipodals, 2. Polar nuclei,

3. Central cell, 4. Egg cell
Sol.9 Yes. Amnicoentesis (alongwith sonography) is
being misused to determine the sex of the
foetus. Due to small family norm, along with Sol.14 (i) Cauliflower varieties Pusa shubhra and
religion and social practices, every family wants Pusa Snowball K-1
a male child. The female foetus is destroyed. (ii) Brassica varieties Pusa Swarnim(karan rai)
This has resulted in decline in female
population to less than 50 per 100 males in (iii) Wheat varieties Himgiri
certain areas. Such an imbalance in sex ratio is (iv) Rice varieties Jaya and Ratana
bound to create social problems for the future
(v) Chilli varieties Pusa Sadabahar.
generations. Therefore, the test has been
Sol.15 Crassulacean Acid Metabolism.
Sol.10 Biofortification is a crop breeding programme
that is aimed at increasing nutritional quality of Sol.16 The pyramid is inverted because the biomass of
the crop like high vitamin content, more fishes is much more than that of the
minerals, complete proteins and healthier fats,
e.g., lysine and tryptophan rich Maize, vitamin phytoplanktons.
A enriched Carrot.

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T3 Fishes (vi) New pharmaceutical and other commercial
T2 Zooplanktons products, e.g., Flavr Savr Tomato, Bt
T1 Phytoplanktons Cotton, Golden Rice
GM Microbes :
(i) Biochemicl factories, e.g., insulin, human
Sol.17 growth factor, interferon.
Red coloured Pink coloured (ii) Environmental protection, e.g.,
RR Rr Pseudomonas, Trichoderma.
Gametes R R, r GM Animals :
(i) Greater yield
Progeny RR (Red) and Rr (Pink)
(ii) Biological products.
The progeny will have the (iii) Study of diseases and vaccine safety
Genotype RR 1 : Rr 1 testing.
Phenotype Red1 : Pink 1 Sol.23 (i) Slower decline in birth rate and sharper
decline in death rate.
Sol.18 Contact Inhibition is the property by which (ii) Improved health facilities and longer life
contact with other cells inhibits their span.
uncontrolled growth. Sol.24 The cross between two individuals of different
This phenomenon is absent in cancer cells. species of the same genus is called interspecific
hybridisation. Saccharum officinarum sacchaum
Sol.19 According to Darwin, only fittest individual barbari. Advantage is that a disease resistance
which shows adaptiability can undergo natural variety high yielding variety can obtained.
selection process end can produce large number Sol.25 The process of mating more closely related
of projeny. According to him, adaptiability animal within same breed is called inbreeding.
The recessive alleles become homozygous and
which has genetic basis makes individual fit.
express themselves. These are then eliminated
Such individual are selected by nature and
by selection.
produce large number of projeny
Sol.26 The genes for haemophilia and colour
Sol.20 GEAC : Genetic engineering Approval Committee. blindness are present on the X-
Objectives :
A male has one X-chromosome and the Y-
(i) Examine the validity of GM research.
chromosome has no corresponding alleles
(ii) Inspect the safety of use of GMOs. for these genes and hence males are pure
for the character.
Sol.21 Indian Basmati Rice was crossed with a semi- A female has two X-chromosomes,
dwarf variety and was claimed to be new received and one form each of the parents
scented variety for which patent was filed by a and she has to be homozygous for the
U.S.A. company. defective alleles to express the character.

Sol.22 GMOs are genetically modified organisms. Sol.27 Garden Pea

They include plants, microbes and animals. Seed colour
Parent Yellow seeds Green Seeds
GM Plants : YY yy
(i) Tolerance of abiotic stresses. Gametes Y y
(ii) Reduction of post harvest loss.
F1 generation Yy (yellow seeds)
(iii) Increased efficiency of mineral utilisation. Selfing Yy Yy
(iv) Better nutritional value. Gametes Y, y Y, y

(v) Viral, herbicide and pest resistance F2 generation

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Y y by tissue culture or micropropagation is
YY Yy called somaclones.
Y yellow seeds yellow seeds
Yy yy (v) Tissue culture : The technique to generate
yellow seeds yellow seeds whole plant from an explant with in vitro
Phenotypic ratio conditions on a suitable synthetic medium
Yellow seeds : Green seeds
is called tissue culture.
3 : 1
Genotypic ratio
Sol.30 An ecosystem consists of two types of
YY : Yy : yy
1 : 2 : 1 components, i.e., biotic or living and abiotic or
non-living. There are three main types of biotic
components on the basis of mode of obtaining
Sol.28 T
their food- producers, consumers and
Diagnostics Therapeutics
1. It finds out the cause and It treats patients to (i) Producers (autotrophs): They are
nature of the disease. cure them of the photosynthetic or autotrophic plants that
disease. synthesise their own organic food from
2. It is based on signs and It is based on inorganic raw materials with the help of
symptoms, history of the diagnosis and the solar radiations. Common producers are
progress of the disease, known effectiveness algae, plants and photosynthetic bacteria.
laboratory and special tests of therapy for curing Phytoplanktons are the producers of aquatic
the disease. ecosystems.
3. It provides logic basis for It provides relief from (ii) Consumers (heterotrophs): They are
treatment. the disease. animals which feed on other organisms or
Example : ELISA test for Example : Antibiotic producers for obtaining their nourishment.
HIV for bacterial infection Common consumers are deer, goat, etc.

Sol.29 (i) Somatic hybrid : Somatic hybrid is a (iii) Decomposers: They are saprotrophs which

product obtained by the fusion of somatic obtain nourishment from organic remains.

cell protoplast obtained from two different They release digestive enzymes to digest

varieties or species of plants cultured on a the organic matter. Common decomposers

suitable nutrient medium under sterile are detrivores, e.g., earthworm. Abiotic

conditions. component of ecosystem consists of non-

(ii) Micropropagation : Micropropagation is the living substances and factors which are as

method of producing thousands of plant follows:

through tissue culture method. (a) Temperature (b) Light

(iii) Explant : The part of the plant from which a (c) Wind (d) Humidity

new plant is generated by the method of (e) Precipitation (f) Water, etc.

tissue culture is called explant.

(iv) Somaclones : The genetically identical
plant developed from any part of the plant

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