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thermal engineering

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or

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Thermal engineering

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1

Thermal engineering

ld

Thermodynamics

Basics

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Energy and entropy

Temperature and thermometry

Variables: state properties, process functions

Equations of state, simple processes

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Phase change

Applied:

Mixtures. Humid air (air conditioning)

Thermochemistry (combustion)

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Heat engines (power generation)

Refrigeration (cold generation)

Thermal effects on materials and processes

Thermofluiddynamic flow 1D

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2

Thermodynamics

ld

Basic thermodynamics

The science of heat and temperature. Work. Energy. Thermal energy.

Energy and entropy. The isolated system. The traditional Principles

or

Generalisation (mass, momentum, energy): the science of assets (conservatives

do not disappear) and spreads (conservatives tend to disperse)

Type of thermodynamic systems (system, frontier, and surroundings)

Isolated system: Dm=0, DE=0

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Closed system : Dm=0, DE0

Open system : Dm0, DE0

Type of thermodynamic variables

Intensive or extensive variables

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State or process variables

Type of thermodynamic equations

Balance equations (conservation laws); e.g. DEclose-sys=W+Q

Equations of state (constitutive laws); e.g. pV=mRT

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(Kinetics is beyond classical thermodynamics; e.g. q kT )

Applied thermodynamics

3

Thermodynamics (cont.)

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Basic thermodynamics

Applied thermodynamics

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Energy and exergy analysis (minimum expense and maximum benefit)

Non-reactive mixtures (properties of real mixtures, ideal mixture model)

Hygrometry (humid air applications: drying, humidification, air conditioning)

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Phase transition in mixtures (liquid-vapour equilibrium, solutions)

Reactive mixtures. Thermochemistry. Combustion

Heat engines

Gas cycles for reciprocating and rotodynamic engines

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Vapour cycles (steam and organic fluid power plants)

Refrigeration, and heat pumps

Cryogenics (cryocoolers, cryostats, cryopreservation)

Thermal analysis of materials (fixed points, calorimetry, dilatometry)

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Environmental thermodynamics (ocean and atmospheric processes)

4

Balance equations

ld

MagnitudeAccumul Production Impermeable flux Permeable flux

or

mass .

dm = 0 +0 +dme

momentum d(m v ) = mg dt + FA dt + ve dmepeAe ne dt

energy d(me) = 0 +dW+dQ e+htedme

W

entropy d(ms) = dSgen +dQ/T +sedme

exergy d(m) = T0dSgen +dWu+(1T0/T)dQ +edme

with e=u+em=u+gz+v2/2

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dW =IFFdx =IFMdq, Wu=W+ p0DV

h=u+pv, ht=h+em

ds=(du+pdv)/T =(dq+demdf)/T, demdf 0, dSgen0

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=e+p0vT0s, =htT0s

5

Substance data

ld

Perfect gas model

Ideal gas: pV=mRT or pV=nRuT (R=Ru/M, Ru=8.3 J/(molK))

or

Energetically linear in temperature: DU=mcvDT

Air data: R=287 J/(kgK) and cp=cv+R=1000 J/(kgK), or M=0.029 kg/mol and g=cp/cv=1.4

Perfect solid or liquid model

Incompressible, undilatable substance: V=constant (but beware of dilatations!)

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Energetically linear in temperature: DU=mcDT

Water data: r=1000 kg/m3, c=4200 J(kgK)

Perfect mixture (homogeneous)

v xi vi , u xiui , s xi si R xi ln xi

TU

* * *

Ideal mixture

Energetically linear in temperature: DU=mcvDT

Heterogeneous systems

dp Dh

Phase equilibria of pure substances (Clapeyrons equation)

dT sat T Dv

Ideal liquid-vapour mixtures (Raoults law): xV 1 p1* (T )

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x p

Ideal liquid-gas solutions (Henrys law): cL,s K sdis,cc (T )

L1

cG , s

Real gases. The corresponding state model, and other equations of state.

6

Thermodynamic processes

ld

Adiabatic non-dissipative process of a perfect gas:

mRT

dE dQ dW dU pdV mcv dT dV

V

g 1

dT R dV

or

0 Tvg 1 cte., pvg cte., T/p g

cte.

T cv V

Fluid heating or cooling

At constant volume: Q=DU

At constant pressure: Q=DH=D(U+pV)

W

Adiabatic gas compression or expansion

g 1

Close system: w=Du=cv(T2-T1)

C

ws h2ts h1t

PGM p2t p1t 1

g

T

w PGM 1 T1t T2t

g 1

w h2t h1t T2t T1t 1 ws 1 p1t p2t g

Open system: w=Dh=cp(T2-T1)

Internal energy equation (heating and cooling processes)

TU

DU DE DEm Q Emdf pdV

One-dimensional flow at steady state

dp

min mout r vA rV Dh w q w Dem emdf

r

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7

Phase diagrams (pure substance)

ld

or

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Normal freezing and boiling points (p0=100 kPa)

Triple point (for water TTR=273.16 K, pTR=611 Pa)

TU

Critical point (for water TCR=647.3 K, pTR=22.1 MPa)

Clapeyrons equation (for water hSL=334 kJ/kg, hLV=2260 kJ/kg)

dp

hV hL V v L , vV RT / p , hLV const

v

FG p IJ h FG 1 1 IJ

ln

H p K R HT T K

LV

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dT sat T (vV v L ) 0 0

8

Thermometry

ld

Temperature, the thermal level of a system, can be

measured by different primary means:

or

T pV

The ideal-gas, constant-volume thermometer lim

TTPW p 0 pV TPW

The acoustic gas thermometer

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The spectral radiation thermometer 1/ 4

T M

The total radiation thermometer lim

TTPW 1 M TPW

The electronic noise thermometer

TU

The temperature unit is chosen such that TTPW 273.16 K

The Celsius scale is defined by T/C T/K-273.15

Practical thermometers:

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Thermocouples (K,J).

9

Piezometry

ld

Pressure (normal surface force per unit normal area), is a scalar

magnitude measured by difference (in non-isolated systems; recall

free-body force diagrams).

or

Gauge and absolute pressure:

W

TU

Pressure unit (SI) is the pascal, 1 Pa1 N/m2 (1 bar100 kPa)

Hydrostatic equation:

PLM

p p0 r g z z0

dp

r g PGM dp p

dz g

dz RT

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Pressure sensors: U-tube, Bourdon tube, diaphragm, piezoelectric

10

Questions

ld

(Only one answer is correct)

1. The mass of air in a 30 litre vessel at 27 C and a gauge pressure of 187 kPa is about?

or

a) 1g

b) 10 g

c) 100 g

d) 1000 g..

2. When a gas in a 30 litre rigid vessel is heated from 50 C to 100 C, the pressure ratio: (final/initial):

a) Doubles

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b) Is closer to 1 than to 2.

c) Depends on initial volume

d) Depends on heating speed

3. Liquids:

a) Cannot be compressed

b) Cannot be heated by compression

c) Heat a little bit when compressed, but volume remains the same

TU

d) Heat up and shrink when compressed

4. The critical temperature of any gas is:

a) The temperature below which the gas cannot exist as a liquid

b) -273.16 C

c) The temperature above which the gas cannot be liquefied

d) The temperature at which solid, liquid, and gas coexist

5. In a refrigerator, the amount of heat extracted from the cold side:

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b) Cannot be larger than the heat rejected to the hot side

c) Is inversely proportional to the temperature of the cold side

d) Is proportional to the temperature of the cold side.

11

Questions

ld

(Only one answer is correct)

or

a) Heat is proportional to temperature

b) Heat is a bodys thermal energy

c) Net heat is converted to net work in a heat engine

d) The algebraic sum of received heats in an interaction of two bodies must be null.

7. The variation of entropy in a gas when it is compressed in a reversible way is:

a) Less than zero

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b) Equal to zero

c) Greater than zero

d) It depends on the process.

8. The volumetric coefficient of thermal expansion:

a) Is always positive

b) Is dimensionless

c) Is different in the Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales

TU

d) Is three times the linear coefficient value.

9. It is not possible to boil an egg in the Everest because:

a) The air is too cold to boil water

b) Air pressure is too low for stoves to burn

c) Boiling water is not hot enough

d) Water cannot be boiled at high altitudes.

10. When a combustion takes place inside a rigid and adiabatic vessel:

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b) Internal energy variation is null

c) Energy is not conserved

d) Heat flows out.

12

Exercises

ld

1. A U-tube is made by joining two 1 m vertical glass-tubes of 3 mm bore (6 mm

external diameter) with a short tube at the bottom. Water is poured until the

liquid fills 600 mm in each column. Then, one end is closed. Find:

or

1. The change in menisci height due to an ambient pressure change, (z/pamb), with

application to Dp=1 kPa.

2. The change in menisci height due to an ambient temperature change, (z/Tamb),

with application to DT=5 C.

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2. An aluminium block of 54.5 g, heated in boiling water, is put in a calorimeter

with 150 cm3 of water at 22 C, with the thermometer attaining a maximum of

27.5 C after a while. Find the thermal capacity of aluminium.

3. How many ice cubes of 33 g each, at -20 C, are required to cool 1 litre of tea

from 100 C to 0 C?

TU

4. Carbon dioxide is trapped inside a vertical cylinder 25 cm in diameter by a

piston that holds internal pressure at 120 kPa. The plunger is initially 0.5 m

from the cylinder bottom, and the gas is at 15 C. Thence, an electrical heater

inside is plugged to 220 V, and the volume increases by 50% after 3 minutes.

Neglecting heat losses through all walls, and piston friction, find:

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1. The energy balance for the gas and for the heater.

2. The final temperature and work delivered or received by the gas.

5. Find the air stagnation temperature on leading edges of an aircraft flying at

2000 km/h in air at -60 C.

13

Master

ld

in Space Science and Technology

or

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Thermal engineering

TU

Isidoro Martnez

JN

Thermal engineering

ld

Thermodynamics

Basic (energy and entropy, state properties, state equations, simple

or

processes, phase changes)

Applied (mixtures, liquid-vapour equilibrium, air conditioning,

thermochemistry, power and cold generation, materials processes)

W

Heat transfer

Thermal conduction (solids)

Thermal convection (fluids)

TU

Thermal radiation (vacuum)

Heat exchangers

Heat generation (electrical heaters)

Thermal control systems

Combined heat and mass transfer (evaporative cooling, ablation)

JN

15

Heat transfer

ld

What is heat (i.e. heat flow, heat transfer)?

First law: heat is non-work energy-transfer through an impermeable surf.

or

Q DE W DE pdV Wdis DH Vdp Wdis mcDT PIS,non-dis

W

T q

sgen

T2

What is heat flux (i.e. heat flow rate, heat transfer rate)?

TU

dQ dT

Q mc KADT

dt dt PSM,non-dis

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commonly measured as a heat flux (vector field).

16

Heat transfer modes

ld

How is heat flux density modelled?

or

conduction q k T

Q

q K DT convection q h T T

A

W

radiation q T 4

T

4

TU

K is thermal conductance coeff. (or heat transfer coeff.), k is conductivity,

h is convective coeff., is emissivity.

Field or interface variables?

Vector or scalar equations?

JN

Material or configuration properties?

Which emissivity? This form only applies to bodies in large enclosures.

17

Heat conduction

ld

Physical transport mechanism

Short-range atomic interactions (collision of particles in fluids, or phonon

or

waves in solids), supplemented with free-electron flow in metals.

Fouriers law (1822)

q kT

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Heat equation

T

TU

dH

dt p

Q rc

V

t

dV q ndA dV q dV dV

A V V V

T k 0 T

rc

V 0

q k 2T , or a 2T

t t rc

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18

Thermal conductivity

ld

Table 1. Representative thermal conductivity values

or

k [W/(mK)] Comments

Order of magnitude for solids 10 (good conductors) In metals, Lorentz's law (1881), k/(T)=constant

2

1 (bad conductors)

Aluminium 200 Duralumin has k=174 W/(mK),

W

increasing to k=188 W/(mK) at 500 K.

Iron and steel 50 (carbon steel) Increases with temperature.

20 (stainless steel) Decreases with alloying

Order of magnitude for liquids 1 (inorganic) Poor conductors (except liquid metals).

0.1 (organic)

TU

Water 0.6 Ice has k=2.3 W/(mK),

2

Order of magnitude for gases 10 Very poor thermal conductors.

KTG predicts k/(rc)a=Di=10-5 m2/s

Air 0.024 Super insulators must be air evacuated.

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19

Simple heat conduction cases

ld

One-dimensional steady cases

T1 T2

Planar Q kA

or

L12

T1 T2

Cylindrical Q k 2 L

R

ln 2

T1 T2

W

Spherical Q k 4 R1R2 R1

R2 R1

TU

T T T T T T 1

q K DT k12 2 1 k23 3 2 ... n 1 K

Li Li

L12 L23

k k

Unsteady case. Relaxation time: i i

Bi 1 r cL2

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Dt k hL

Dt mcDT / Q Bi

Bi 1 r cV kS

Dt

hA

20

Multiple path in heat conduction

ld

Multidimensional analysis

Analytical, e.g. separation of variables, conduction shape factors,

or

Numerical, finite differences, lumped network, finite elements

Parallel thermal resistances

Example: honeycomb panel made of ribbon (thickness d), cell size s:

W

DT 3d

Qx kFx Ax x with Fx

Lx 2 s

TU

DTy d

Qy kFy Ay with Fy

Ly s

DTz 8d

Qz kFz Az with Fz

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Lz 3 s

21

Heat convection

ld

Newtons law and physical mechanism

DT hL

q h T T knT hDT k Nu f Re,Pr...

d k

or

e.g. in air flow, h=a+bvwind, with a=3W/(m2K) and b=3 J/(m3K)

e.g. plate (<1 m)at rest, h=a(T-T)1/4, with a2 W/(m2K5/4) (1,6 upper, 0.8 lower, 1.8 vert.)

Classification of heat convection problems

W

By time change: steady, unsteady (e.g. onset of convection)

By flow origin: forced (flow), natural (thermal, solutal)

By flow regime: laminar, turbulent

TU

By flow topology: internal flow, external flow

By flow phase: single-phase or multi-phase flow

Heat exchangers (tube-and-shell, plates)

Heat pipes

JN

22

Heat radiation

ld

Heat radiation (thermal radiation)

It is the transfer of internal thermal energy to electromagnetic field energy, or

or

viceversa, modelled from the basic black-body theory. Electromagnetic radiation is

emitted as a result of the motion of electric charges in atoms and molecules.

Blackbody radiation

Radiation within a vacuum cavity

W

Radiation temperature (equilibrium with matter)

Photon gas (wave-particle duality, carriers with zero rest mass, E=h, p=E/c)

Isotropic, unpolarised, incoherent spatial distribution

TU

Spectral distribution of photon energies at equilibrium (E=const., S=max.)

Radiation escaping from a hole in a cavity

Blackbody emmision

W

0 8

M M d T 4

5.6710

2 hc 2 m2 K 4

JN

M

hc C

5 exp 1 C 0.003 m K

k T M max T

23

Thermo-optical properties

ld

Propagation through real media

Attenuation by absorption and scattering (Rayleigh if d<<, Mie if d)

or

Properties of real surfaces

Partial absorption (a), reflectance (r), emissivity (), and, in some

cases, transmittance (t). Energy balance: art=1.

W

Directional and spectral effects (e.g. retroreflective surfaces, selective

glasses)

Detailed equilibrium: Kirchhoff's law (1859), aqT=qT, but usually a

Spectral and directional modelling

TU

Two-spectral-band model:

Diffuse (cosine law) or specular models

Radiative coupling T14 T24

e.g. planar infinite surfaces: q12 1 1 1 2

JN

1

1 2

1 cos 1 cos 2

A1 A2 A1

View factors F12 dA1dA2

r122

24

Heat transfer goals

ld

Analysis

Find the heat flux for a given set-up and temperature field

e.g. Q kA T T / L

or

1 2

e.g. T T QL / kA)

1 2

W

Design

Find an appropriate material that allows a prescribed heat flux with a given T-field in a given

geometry

e.g. k QL / ADT

TU

Find the thickness of insulation to achieve a certain heat flux with a given T-field in a prescribed

geometry

e.g. L kA T T / Q

1 2

Control

JN

-To prevent high temperatures, use insulation and radiation shields, or use heat sinks and coolers.

To prevent low temperatures, use insulation and radiation shields, or use heaters.

To soften transients, increase thermal inertia (higher thermal capacity, phase change materials).

25

Application to electronics cooling

ld

All active electrical devices at steady state must evacuate the

energy dissipated by Joule effect (i.e. need of heat sinks).

or

Most electronics failures are due to overheating (e.g. for germanium

at T>100 C, for silicon at T>125 C).

At any working temperature there is always some dopant diffusion at

W

junctions and bond-material creeping, causing random electrical

failures, with an event-rate doubling every 10 C of temperature

increase. Need of thermal control.

TU

Computing power is limited by the difficulty to evacuate the energy

dissipation (a Pentium 4 CPU at 2 GHz in 0.18 mm technology must

dissipate 76 W in an environment at 40 C without surpassing 75 C

at the case, 125 C at junctions).

JN

usually require liquid cooling (e.g. heat pipes).

26

Thermal modelling

ld

Modelling the geometry

Modelling the material properties

or

Modelling the transients

Modelling the heat equation

W

Mathematical solution of the model

Analytical solutions

Numerical solutions

TU

Analysis of the results

Verification planning (analytical checks and testing)

Feedback

JN

27

Questions

ld

(Only one answer is correct)

or

a) Has discontinuities

b) Must have inflexion points

c) Must be monotonously increasing or decreasing

d) Must have a continuous derivative.

2. If the temperature at the hot side of a wall is doubled:

a) Heat flow through the wall doubles

W

b) Heat flow through the wall increases by a factor of 4

c) Heat flow through the wall increases by a factor of 8

d) None of the above.

3. When a piece of material is exposed to the sun, its temperature rises until:

a) It loses and gains heat at the same rate

b) The heat absorbed equals its thermal capacity

c) It reflects all the energy that strikes it

TU

d) No more heat is absorbed.

4. A certain blackbody at 100 C radiates 100 W. How much radiates at 200 C?

a) 200 W

b) 400 W

c) 800 W

d) None of the above.

5. When two spheres, with same properties except for their radius, are exposed to the Sun and empty

JN

space:

a) The larger one gets hotter

b) The larger one gets colder

c) The larger one gets hotter or cooler depending on their emissivity-to-absorptance ratio

d) None of the above.

28

Exercises

ld

1. A small frustrum cone 5 cm long, made of copper, connects two metallic plates, one at 300 K in

contact with the smallest face, which is 1 cm in diameter, and the other at 400 K, at the other

face, which is 3 cm in diameter. Assuming steady state, quasi-one-dimensional flow, and no

lateral losses, find:

or

The temperature profile along the axis.

The heat flow rate.

2. An electronics board 1001501 mm3 in size, made of glass fibre laminated with epoxy, and

having k=0.25 W/(mK), must dissipate 5 W from its components, which are assumed uniformly

distributed. The board is connected at the largest edges to high conducting supports held at 30

W

C. Find:

1. The maximum temperature along the board, if only heat conduction at the edges is accounted for

(no convection or radiation losses).

2. The thickness of a one-side copper layer (bonded to the glass-fibre board) required for the

maximum temperature to be below 40 C above that of the supports.

3. The transient temperature field, with and without a convective coefficient of h=2 W/(m2K).

TU

3. Find the required area for a vertical plate at 65 C to communicate 1 kW to ambient air at 15 C.

4. Consider two infinite parallel plates, one at 1000 C with =0.8 and the other at 100 C with =0.7.

Find:

The heat flux exchanged.

The effect of interposing a thin blackbody plate in between.

5. Find the steady temperature at 1 AU, for an isothermal blackbody exposed to solar and

JN

microwave background radiation, for the following geometries: planar one-side surface (i.e.

rear insulated), plate, cylinder, sphere, and cube.

(END)

29

Referencias

ld

http://webserver.dmt.upm.es/~isidoro/

Martnez, I., "Termodinmica bsica y aplicada",

or

Dossat, 1992.

Wark, K., "Thermodynamics", McGraw-Hill, 1999.

W

Versin espaola Edit. McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Holman, J.P., "Heat transfer", McGraw-Hill, 2010.

Gilmore, D.G., Satellite Thermal Control Handbook,

TU

The Aerospace Corporation Press, 1994.

JN

30

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