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NR Electric Co., Ltd.

Line Distance Relay

The PCS-902 provides comprehensive protection and control Component) distance protection and unique power swing
solutions for transmission lines with high-speed sub-cycle blocking releasing logic. Thus, guaranteeing accurate and
distance element. The PCS-902 is intended for application on reliable operations.
overhead lines and underground cables with diverse voltage
levels. These include series compensated, double-circuit, The PCS-902 is compatible with IEC 61850 station level and
heavily loaded, weak infeed (WI), short and long lines. It can process level applications. It supports IEC 61850-8-1 MMS,
meet the requirements of single-pole or three-pole tripping; GOOSE and IEC 61850-9-2 Sampled Value. The front panel RJ-
it also provides single and/or three-pole auto-reclosing 45 port is provided for testing and setting, allowing for smoother
functions. The PCS-902 is suitable for single and dual-breaker commissioning and maintenance.
applications, providing optional dual CT inputs, dual breaker
failure protections, dual breaker auto-reclosing and dual Functions
synchro-checks. Additionally, the relay integrates the remote/ Protection and Control
local control of circuit breaker, disconnector and earth switch. Five zone phase-to-phase distance protection (21P)
Directional, load encroachment, power swing blocking
The PCS-902 employs a wide range of innovative patented releasing and unique low-voltage elements are provided for
technologies, such as DPFC (Deviation Power Frequency phase-to-phase distance protection.

Functional Block Diagram

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One zone phase-to-phase distance protection for pilot of-3 logic can be selected for protection criterion.
scheme (85)
One stage negative-sequence overvoltage protection (59Q)
The relay provides an independent zone for pilot scheme of
Four stage underfrequency protection and four stage
PUTT, POTT, Blocking, Unblocking, DTT & Zone Extension.
overfrequency protection (81)
The scheme integrates current reversal logic, weak-infeed
Frequency is calculated by using the positive-sequence
echo and open breaker echo.
voltage. The df/dt element is provided for the supervision of
Five zone phase-to-ground distance protection (21G) underfrequency protection.
The reactance characteristic, directional, load encroachment,
Phase overcurrent protection during VT failure (50PVT)
power swing blocking releasing and unique low-voltage
Independent phase overcurrent protection is automatically
elements are provided for phase-to-ground distance
enabled to substitute the phase-to-phase distance protection,
which is blocked during VT failure.
One zone phase-to-ground distance protection for pilot
Ground overcurrent protection during VT failure (50GVT)
scheme (85)
Independent ground overcurrent protection is automatically
The relay provides an independent zone for pilot scheme of
enabled to substitute the phase-to-ground distance
PUTT, POTT, Blocking, Unblocking, DTT & Zone Extension.
protection, which is blocked during VT failure.
The scheme integrates current reversal logic, weak-infeed
echo and open breaker echo. Switch-onto-fault (SOTF) logic
Switch-onto-fault logic is used to clear the faults during
High-speed DPFC distance protection (21D)
manual closing and auto-reclosing.
Innovative Deviation of Power Frequency Component
(DPFC) distance protection quickly clears faults in a sub- Unique power swing blocking releasing logic (PSBR)
cycle. DPFC is immune to the load fluctuation, weak-infeed The power swing blocking releasing logic prevents mal-
and power swing. operations during external faults in power swing situations. It
quickly clears the internal faults in power swing scenarios.
Pilot directional earth-fault protection (85)
The relay includes directional zero sequence comparison Out-of-step protection (78)
element for earth faults. The pilot scheme integrates current Broken conductor protection (46BC)
reversal logic, weak-infeed echo and open breaker echo. The ratio of negative to positive sequence current (2/1) is
adopted to detect the broken conductor.
Four stages phase overcurrent protection (50/51P)
Selectable time characteristics (definite-time or inverse-time) Dead zone protection (50DZ)
and directional elements (forward, reverse or non-directional) It is provided to clear the dead zone faults between CT and
are provided. A harmonic blocking function is integrated to breaker.
restrain each stage independently. Thermal overload protection (49)
Four stages neutral overcurrent protection (50/51G) Thermal accumulation using thermal models is implemented
Selectable time characteristics (definite-time or inverse-time) for overload protection. Two stages for alarm purpose or
and directional elements (forward, reverse or non-directional) tripping purpose are provided.
are provided. A harmonic blocking function is integrated to Pole discrepancy protection (62PD)
restrain each stage independently. It can be initiated by three auxiliary contacts of phase-
Three stages negative-sequence overcurrent protection segregate circuit breaker, and it can select zero-sequence
(50/51Q) current or negative-sequence current as auxiliary criterion.
Selectable time characteristics (definite-time or inverse-time) Reverse power protection (32R)
and directional elements (forward, reverse or non-directional) The reverse power protection monitors the direction of
are provided. Stage 3 can be set to alarm. active power flow and picks up when the mechanical energy
Breaker failure protection for one or two breakers (50BF) fails. This function can be used for operational shutdown
Breaker failure protection can be applied to single-breaker (sequential tripping) of the generator but also prevents
and dual-breaker applications. damage to the steam turbines.

Stub differential protection (87STB) Single and/or three-pole auto-reclosing (single-breaker or

Stub differential protection is introduced to protect the T-one dual-breaker) (79)
in one-and-a-half breaker and ring breaker arrangements. Single/three pole auto-reclosing is provided for single- and
Three stages undervoltage protection and three stages dual-breaker applications. Priority logic is integrated for the
overvoltage protection (27/59) applications of one-and-a-half breaker and ring breaker
Time characteristics is selectable between definite-time and arrangements.
inverse-time. Phase voltage or phase-to-phase voltage can Remote/local control
be selected for protection calculation. 1-out-of-3 or 3-out- The control of circuit breaker, disconnector and earth switch

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can be implemented via communication, LCD menu and

binary inputs. User programmable interlocking logics are
available by PCS-Explorer.
The unique DPFC protection principle, firstly introduced by
Synchronism check (25) NR Electric, employs superimposed increscent quantities as
Synchro-check can be used for auto-reclosing and manual protection criteria, which provides high speed fault clearance
closing for single-breaker and dual-breaker. and is immune to power swing and load fluctuation.
Voltage and current drift auto adjustment.
The relay continually and automatically traces the voltage A unique two-out-two logic is adopted in hardware design to
and current drifts and adjusts the zero point to acquire improve security. Coordinating with the redundant scheme,
accurate measurements. this solution improves both security and dependability of
protection system. The two independent data acquisition
Frequency tracking.
paths are provided to prevent mal-operation caused by
Frequency tracking is provided to accommodate the
component failure. One works as a fault detector and the
frequency shifts in power system.
other is designed for protection logic. Tripping outputs are
Monitoring and Measurement supervised by both data acquisition paths.
Energy measurement (active and reactive energies for
Self-adaptive floating threshold which only reflects deviation
import and export)
of power frequency components improves the sensitivity and
CT circuit failure supervision
reliability during load fluctuation and system disturbance.
VT circuit failure supervision
Fault phase selection
The unique power swing blocking releasing logic can
Fault Locator with parallel-line compensation
properly supervise the distance protection during power
Self diagnostic
swing, which ensures the distance protection will operate
Event recorder including 1024 change-of-binary-input events,
correctly for internal faults during power swing, and prevents
1024 supervision events, 256 control logs and 1024 device
distance protection from mal-operation during power swing.
Disturbance recorder including 32 disturbance records with
Fast clearance of the faults within the protected zone is
waveforms (The format is compatible with COMTRADE.)
achieved by this relay. The typical operating time is less than
Pilot communication channel supervision
10 ms for close-up faults, less than 15ms for medium-zone
System frequency supervision
faults and less than 25ms for remote-end faults.
Clock synchronization using IRIG-B, SNTP, PPS (Pulse-Per-
Second) and PPM (Pulse-Per-Minute) , IEEE1588
Comprehensive flexibility is achieved via modular hardware
Communication design, scalable function library, programmable logics,
Optional single- or dual- pilot channels (fiber optic), configurable I/Os and definable LEDs. It allows users to
complying with G.703 and C37.94 create customized schemes for the specific projects. 2 fixed
Up to four 10Base-T/100Base-TX copper Ethernet ports LEDs and 18 definable 3-color LEDs (Green/Yellow/Red) are
using IEC 61850, DNP3.0 or IEC 60870-5-103 over TCP/IP provided.
Up to two 100Base-FX optical Ethernet ports using IEC
61850, DNP3.0 or IEC 60870-5-103 over TCP/IP ( Sharing The relay is fully compatible with IEC 61850, including
two copper Ethernet ports) station bus communication and process bus communication.
Two RS-485 serial ports using IEC 60870-5-103 It provides up to 6 Ethernet ports for process bus with IEC
One RS-485 serial port for clock synchronization 61850-9-2 Sampled Value and IEC 61850-8-1 GOOSE, as
Optional Sampling value and GOOSE communication well as up to 4 Ethernet ports for station bus with IEC 61850-
module with six optical Ethernet ports using IEC 61850-9-2 8-1 MMS.
and IEC 61850-8-1 GOOSE
User Interface Powerful disturbance recording function is integrated in the
HMI interface with large-size LCD and 9-button keypad on relay for post-fault analysis. Up to 32 disturbance records
the front panel can be stored in non-volatile memory. Each report includes
One front RJ-45 port for testing and setting 250-cycle to 500-cycle waveform records with settable pre-
One RS-232 or RS-485 rear port for printer fault waveform.
Language selection English + selected language
Assistant software - PCS-Explorer

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