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# Courant & John Introduction to Calculus and Analysis I

e. a n ;
n
1.1 The Continuum of Numbers
a. The System of Natural Numbers and Its Extension. Counting f. Geometrical Illustration of the Limits of n and n p
and Measuring g. The Geometric Series
b. Real Numbers and Nested Intervals
h. a n n
n
c. Decimal Fractions. Bases Other Than Ten
d. Definition of Neighborhood i. an n 1 n
e. Inequalities
1.7 Further Discussion of the Concept of Limit
1.2 The Concept of Function a. Definition of Convergence and Divergence
a. Mapping-Graph b. Rational Operations with Limits
b. Definition of the Concept of Functions of a Continuous c. Intrinsic Convergence Tests. Monotone Sequences
Variable. Domain and Range of a Function d. Infinite Series and the Summation Symbol
c. Graphical Representation. Monotonic Functions e. The Number e
d. Continuity f. The Number as a Limit
e. The Intermediate Value Theorem. Inverse Functions
1.8 The Concept of Limit for Functions of a Continuous Variable
1.3 The Elementary Functions a. Some Remarks about the Elementary Functions
a. Rational Functions
b. Algebraic Functions Supplements
c. Trigonometric Functions
d. The Exponential Function and the Logarithm S.1 Limits and the Number Concept
e. Compound Functions, Symbolic Products, Inverse Functions a. The Rational Numbers
b. Real Numbers Determined by Nested Sequences of Rational
1.4 Sequences Intervals
c. Order, Limits, and Arithmetic Operations for Real Numbers
1.5 Mathematical Induction d. Completeness of the Number Continuum. Compactness of
Closed Intervals. Convergence Criteria
1.6 The Limit of a Sequence e. Least Upper Bound and Greatest Lower Bound
1 f. Denumerability of the Rational Numbers
a. a n
n
1 1 S.2 Theorems on Continuous Functions
b. a 2 m ; a 2 m 1
m 2m
n S.3 Polar Coordinates
c. a n ;
n 1
S.4 Remarks on Complex Numbers
d. a n n p

PROBLEMS
2.1 The Integral a. Introduction
b. The Integral as an Area 2.8 The Derivative
c. Analytic Definition of the Integral. Notations a. The Derivative and the Tangent
b. The Derivative as a Velocity
2.2 Elementary Examples of Integration c. Examples of Differentiation
a. Integration of Linear Function d. Some Fundamental Rules for Differentiation
2
b. Integration of x e. Differentiability and Continuity of Functions
c. Integration of x for Integers 1 f. Higher Derivatives and Their Significance
d. Integration of x
for Rational Other Than -1 g. Derivative and Difference Quotient. Leibnitz's Notation
e. Integration of sin x and cos x h. The Mean Value Theorem of Differential Calculus
i. Proof of the Theorem
2.3 Fundamental Rules of Integration j. The Approximation of Functions by Linear Functions.
b. Integral of a Sum of a Product with a Constant k. Remarks on Applications to the Natural Sciences
c. EstimatingIntegrals
d. The Mean Value Theoremfor Integrals 2.9 The Integral, the Primitive Function, and the Fundamental
Theorems of the Calculus
2.4 The Integral as a Function of the Upper Limit (Indefinite a. The Derivative of the Integral
Integral) b. The Primitive Function and Its Relation to the Integral
c. The Use of the Primitive Function for Evaluation of Definite
2.5 Logarithm Defined by an Integral Integrals
a. Definition of the Logarithm Function d. Examples
b. The Addition Theorem for Logarithms

## Supplement The Existence of the Definite Integral of a

2.6 Exponential Function and Powers Continuous Function
a. The Logarithm of the Number e
b. The Inverse Function of the Logarithm. The Exponential PROBLEMS
Function
c. The Exponential Function as Limit of Powers
d. Definition of Arbitrary Powers of Positive Numbers
e. Logarithms to Any Base

## Differentiation and Integration of the Elementary Functions

3.1 The Simplest Rules for Differentiation and Their Applications
a. Rules for Differentiation
b. Differentiation of the Rational Functions
c. Differentiation of the Trigonometric Functions

## 3.2 The Derivative of the Inverse Function

a. General Formula
b. The Inverse ofthe nth Power; the nth Root
c. TheInverse Trigonometric Functions Multivaluedness
d. The Corresponding Integral Formulas
e. Derivative and Integral of the Exponential Function

## 3.3 Differentiation of Composite Functions

a. Definitions
b. The Chain Rule
c. The Generalized Mean Value Theorem of the Differential Calculus

## 3.4 Some Applications of the Exponential Function

a. Definition of the Exponential Function by Means of a Differential Equation
b. Interest Compounded Continuously. Radioactive Disintegration
c. Cooling or Heating of a Body by a Surrounding Medium
d. Variation of the Atmospheric Pressure with the Height above the Surface of the Earth
e. Progress of a Chemical Reaction
f. Switching an Electric Circuit on or off

## 3.5 The Hyperbolic Functions

a. Analytical Definition
b. AdditionTheorems and Formulas for Differentiation
c. The Inverse Hyperbolic Functions
d. Further Analogies

## 3.6 Maxima and Minima

a. Convexity and Concavity of Curves
b. Maxima and Minima-Relative Extrema. Stationary Points

## 3.7 The Order of Magnitude of Functions

a. The Concept of Order of Magnitude. The Simplest Cases
b. The Order of Magnitude of the Exponential Function and of the Logarithm
c. General Remarks
d. The Order of Magnitude of a Function in the Neighborhood of an Arbitrary Point
e. The Order of Magnitude (or Smallness) of a Function Tending to Zero
f. The "0" and "0" Notation for Orders of Magnitude

APPENDIX
A.l Some Special Functions
2
a. The Function y e1 / x
2
b. The Function y e1 / x
c. The Function y tanh 1 / x
d. The Function y x tanh 1 / x
e. The Function y x sin 1 / x, y (0) 0

## A.2 Remarks on the Differentiability of Functions

Techniques of Integration
3.8 Table of Elementary Integrals

## 3.9 The Method of Substitution

a. The Substitution Formula. Integral of a Composite Function
b. A Second Derivation of the Substitution Formula
c. Examples. Integration Formulas

## 3.11 Integration by Parts

a. General Formula
b. Further Examples of Integration by Parts
c. Integral Formula for f (b) f (a )
d. Recursive Formulas
e. Wallis's Infinite Product for

## 3.12 Integration of Rational Functions

a. The Fundamental Types
b. Integration of the Fundamental Types
c. Partial Fractions
d. Examples of Resolution into Partial Fractions. Method of Undetermined Coefficients

## 3.13 Integration of Some Other Gasses of Functions

a. Preliminary Remarks on the Rational Representation of the Circle and the Hyperbola
b. Integration of R(cos x, sin x)
c. Integration of R(cosh x, sinh x)
d. Integration of R( x, 1 x 2 )
e. Integration of R( x, x2 1 )
f. Integration of R( x, x2 1 )
g. Integration of R( x, ax 2 2bx c )
h. Further Examples of Reduction to Integrals of Rational Functions
i. Remarks on the Examples

## Further Steps in the Theory of Integral Calculus

3.14 Integrals of Elementary Functions
a. Definition of Functions by Integrals. Elliptic Integrals and Functions
b. On Differentiation and Integration

## 3.15 Extension of the Concept of Integral

Introduction. Definition of "Improper" Integrals
b. Functions with Infinite Discontinuities
c. Interpretation as Areas
d. Tests for Convergence
e. Infinite Interval of Integration
f. The Gamma Function
g. The Dirichlet Integral
h. Substitution. Fresnel Integrals

## 3.16 The Differential Equations of the Trigonometric Functions

a. Introductory Remarks on Differential Equations
b. Sin x and cos x defined by a Differential Equation and Initial Conditions

PROBLEMS

## 4.1 Theory of Plane Curves f. The Length of a Curve

a. Parametric Representation g. The Arc Length as a Parameter
b. Change of Parameters h. Curvature
c. Motion along a Curve. Time as the Parameter. Example of the i. Change of Coordinate Axes. Invariance
Cycloid j. Uniform Motion in the Special Theory of Relativity
d. Classifications of Curves. Orientation k. Integrals Expressing Area within Closed Curves
e. Derivatives. Tangent and Normal, in Parametric l. Center of Mass and Moment of a Curve
Representation m. Area and Volume of a Surface of Revolution
n. Moment of Inertia a. Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation
b. Circular Motion about the Center of Attraction
4.2 Examples c. Radial Motion-Escape Velocity
a. The Common Cycloid
b. The Catenary 4.9 Work and Energy
c. The Ellipse and the Lemniscate a. Work Done by Forces during a Motion
b. Work and Kinetic Energy. Conservation of Energy
4.3 Vectors in Two Dimensions c. The Mutual Attraction of Two Masses
a. Definition of Vectors by Translation. Notations d. The Stretching of a Spring
b. Addition and Multiplication of Vectors e. The Charging of a Condenser
c. Variable Vectors Their Derivatives and Integrals
APPENDIX
4.4 Motion of a Particle under Given Forces A.1 Properties of the Evolute
a. Newton's Law of Motion A.2 Areas Bounded by Closed Curves. Indices
b. Motion of Falling Bodies
c. Motion of a Particle Constrained to a Given Curve PROBLEMS

## 4.7 Motion on a Given Curve

a. The Differential Equation and Its Solution
b. Particle Sliding down a Curve
c. Discussion of the Motion
d. The Ordinary Pendulum
e. The Cycloidal Pendulum

## 5.1 Introduction: Power Series b. Taylor's Formula for Nonpolynomial Functions

5.2 Expansion of the Logarithm and the Inverse Tangent 5.4 Expression and Estimates for the Remainder
a. The Logarithm a. Cauchy's and Lagrange's Expressions
b. The Inverse Tangent b. An Alternative Derivation of Taylor's Formula

## 5.3 Taylor's Theorem 5.5 Expansions of the Elementary Functions

a. Taylor's Representation of Polynomials a. The Exponential Function
b. Expansion of sin x, cos x, sinh x, cosh x A.II.4 The Lagrange Interpolation Formula
c. The Binomial Series
PROBLEMS
5.6 Geometrical Applications 457
a. Contact of Curves
b. On the Theory of Relative Maxima and Minima
6.1 Computation of Integrals
APPENDIX I a. Approximation by Rectangles
A.I.1 Example of a Function Which Cannot Be Expanded in a b. Refined Approximations-Simpson's Rule
Taylor Series
6.2 Other Examples of Numerical Methods
A.I.2 Zeros and Infinites of Functions a. The "Calculus of Errors"
a. Zeros of Order n b. Calculation of
b. Infinity of Order v c. Calculation of Logarithms

## A.I.3 Indeterminate Expressions 6.3 Numerical Solution of Equations

a. Newton's Method
A.I.4 The Convergence of the Taylor Series of a Function with b. The Rule of False Position
Nonnegative Derivatives of all Orders c. The Method of Iteration
d. Iterations and Newton's Procedure

APPENDIX
A.1 Stirling's Formula

APPENDIX II INTERPOLATION
PROBLEMS
A.II.1 The Problem of Interpolation. Uniqueness

Formula

## A.II.3 The Estimate of the Remainder

7.1 The Concepts of Convergence and Divergence b. Convergence Tested by Comparison with the Geometric Series
a. Basic Concepts c. Comparison with an Integral
b. Absolute Convergence and Conditional Convergence
c. Rearrangement of Terms 7.3 Sequences of Functions
d. Operations with Infinite Series a. Limiting Processes with Functions and Curves

## 7.4 Uniform and Nonuniform Convergence

7.2 Tests for Absolute Convergence and Divergence a. General Remarks and Definitions
a. The Comparison Test. Majorants b. A Test for Uniform Convergence
c. Continuity of the Sum of a Uniformly Convergent Series of
Continuous Functions 7.7 Power Series with Complex Terms
d. Integration of Uniformly Convergent Series a. Introduction of Complex Terms into Power Series. Complex
e. Differentiation of Infinite Series Representations of the Trigonometric Function
b. A Glance at the General Theory of Functions of a Complex
7.5 Power Series Variable
a. Convergence Properties of Power Series Interval of
Convergence APPENDIX
b. Integration and Differentiation of Power Series A.1 Multiplication and Division of Series
c. Operations with Power Series a. Multiplication of Absolutely Convergent Series
d. Uniqueness of Expansion b. Multiplication and Division of Power Series
e. Analytic Functions
A.2 Infinite Series and Improper Integrals
7.6 Expansion of Given Functions in Power Series. Method of
Undetermined Coefficients. Examples A.3 Infinite Products

## a. The Exponential Function

b. The Binomial Series A.4 Series Involving Bernoulli Numbers

## c. The Series for arc sin x

PROBLEMS
d. The Series for sinh x log[ x (1 x 2 ) ]
e. Example of Multiplication of Series
f. Example of Terrn-by-Term Integration (Elliptic Integral)

## 8.1 Periodic Functions a. General Remarks

a. General Remarks. Periodic Extension of a Function b. Application to Alternating Currents
b. Integrals Over a Period c. Complex Notation for Trigonometrical Polynomials
c. Harmonic Vibrations d. A Trigonometric Formula

## 8.2 Superposition of Harmonic Vibrations 8.4 Fourier Series

a. Harmonics. Trigonometric Polynomials a. Fourier Coefficients
b. Beats b. Basic Lemma,

## 8.3 Complex Notation

sin z d. Fourier Expansion for the Function ( x) x
c. Proof of
0 z
dz
2
e. The Main Theorem on Fourier Expansion by Arithmetical Means
d. Approximation in the Mean and Parseval's Relation
8.5 Examples of Fourier Series 598
a. Preliminary Remarks APPENDIX I
b. Expansion of the Function ( x) x 2
A.I.1 Stretching of the Period Interval. Fourier's Integral
c. Expansion of x cos x Theorem
d. The Function f ( x ) x
e. A Piecewise Constant Function A.I.2 Gibb's Phenomenon at Points of Discontinuity
f. The Function sin x
g. Expansion of cos x.Resolution of the Cotangent into Partial A.I.3 Integration of Fourier Series

## Fractions. The Infinite Product for the Sine

h. Further Examples APPENDIX II
A.II.1 Bernoulli Polynomials and Their Applications

## b. Bessel's Inequality Trigonometric and Hyperbolic Cotangent

c. Proof of Corollaries (a), (b), and (c) c. The Euler-Maclaurin Summation Formula

## d. Order of Magnitude of the Fourier d. Applications. Asymptotic Expressions

Coefficients Differentiation of Fourier Series e. Sums of Power Recursion Formula for Bernoulli Numbers
f. Euler's Constant and Stirling's Series
8.7 Approximation by Trigonometric and Rational Polynomials
a. General Remark on Representations of Functions PROBLEMS

## b. Weierstrass Approximation Theorem

c. Fejers Trigonometric Approximation of Fourier Polynomials
9.1 Vibration Problems of Mechanics and Physics
a. The Simplest Mechanical Vibrations
b. Electrical Oscillations

## 9.2 Solution of the Homogeneous Equation. Free Oscillations

a. The Formal Solution
b. Physical Interpretation of the Solution
c. Fulfilment of Given Initial Conditions. Uniqueness of the
Solution

## 9.3 The Nonhomogeneous Equation. Forced Oscillations

a. General Remarks. Superposition
b. Solution of the Nonhomogeneous Equation
c. The Resonance Curve
d. Further Discussion of the Oscillation
e. Remarks on the Construction of Recording Instruments