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5.2.

2 Calculation of GOSF
−1
From FDLF we know that ∆P = [B ] ∆θ or ∆θ = [X] ∆P where [X] = [B ] . Or,
′ ′

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤
⎢ ∆θ2 ⎥ ⎢ X22 X23 ⋯ X2n ⎥ ⎢ ∆P2 ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ∆θ ⎥ ⎢ X ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎢ 32 X33 ⋯ X3n ⎥ ⎢ ∆P3 ⎥
⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ (5.9)
⎢ ⋮ ⎥ ⎢ ⋮ ⎥⎢ ⋮ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢∆θn ⎥ ⎢Xn2 Xn3 ⋯ Xnn ⎥ ⎢∆Pn ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦

In equation (5.9), the matrix [X] is of size (n − 1) × (n − 1) and any element Xij is actually
located in the location (i − 1), (j − 1). As the matrix [B ] is a constant real matrix dependent only

on the line parameters, matrix [X] is also a constant real matrix dependent on the line parameters.
Furthermore, in equation (5.9), the quantity ∆θ1 is not included in the vector ∆θ as the reference
angle does not change with any outage in the system.
Now, to calculate the GOSF for the outage of generator at bus ‘k’, the perturbation at bus ‘k’
is set to ∆Pk and the perturbation at the slack bus is set to −∆Pk (assuming that the entire lost
generation is taken up by the slack bus) while keeping the perturbations at the other buses equal to
zero. Therefore, the perturbed values of the bus angles can be given as,

∆θi = Xik ∆Pk for i = 2, ⋯⋯ n (5.10)

Now, from equation (5.7), the change in power flow over line ‘i-j’ is given by,
1 1
∆Pij = (∆θi − ∆θj ) = (Xik − Xjk )∆Pk , where, xl = xij is the reactance of the line ‘i-j’.
xl xl
Therefore,
∆Pij Xik − Xjk
αijk = = (5.11)
∆Pk xl
k
As can be seen from equation (5.11), the factor αij is dependent only on the line parameters.
Let us now look at the application and utility of these sensitivity factors. For this purpose, let
as consider the IEEE-14 bus system (the data of which are given in Tables A.3 and A.4). In this
system, apart from the slack bus,there are two other generations at bus 2 and bus 6 (refer Table A.3).
The real power flows in all the lines have been calculated with all the three generatiors operating in
the system and are shown in column 2 of Table 5.1 (under the heading ‘Pline(ori)’). The GSOFs for
these two generators have been calculated using equation (5.11) and are shown is columns 3 and 7 of
Table 5.1 respectively (under the heading GSOF(2) and GSOF(6) respectively). From Table A.3 it
can be seen that the specified real power generated by these two generations are 18.3 MW and 11.2
MW respectively. Hence, following the argument given for equation (5.2), the quantities ∆P2 and
∆P6 are equal to -0.183(p.u) and 0.112 (p.u) respectively (on a 100 MVA base) as shown in columns
4 and 8 of Table 5.1. With these information, the estimated line flows after the outage of generation
2 and 6 are calculated using equation (5.2) and are shown in columns 5 and 9 respectively. Lastly,
full AC power flow studies have been carried out by removing generator 2 and 6 one by one (by
modeling them as PQ bus after reducing their real power generation to zero) and the results of line

230

7189 8 0.3173 9 0.183 0.3666 -0.183 0.2928 -0.07874 -0.2358 -0.183 0.047 -0.0567 To calculate the LOSF.112 0.0037 -0.5678 5 0.183 -0.3 Determination of Thevenin’s equivalent impedance We know Ī = ȲV̄ where Ī.3511 -0.9709 -0.863871 0.7464 -0.0748 12 0.183 0.2893 -0. the relation V̄ = Z̄Ī denotes a linear equation connecting V̄ and Ī and hence.3622 -0.4344 -0.183 0.2459 -0. we first need to understand the concept of Thevenin equivalent impedance of a power system.0778 13 0.112 0.112 0.0055 -0.0007 -0.364665 0.112 0.2664 0. 5.6729 -0. Hence.0852 -0. vector of bus voltages and the admittance matrix respectively.34453 -0.2.0089 -0.0059 -0.5314 0.1154 0.1935 -0.0031 -0.72627 -0.0821 -0.112 0.117601 0.011294 0.05118 -0.0277 -0.7068 0.1568 -0.70643 -0.037914 0.7217 -0.8655 0.183 0.1009 -0.0232 0.112 -0.1064 -0.781811 0.183 -0.1203 -0.0025 -0.1574 -0.0124 -0.1064 -0.086395 0.297594 0.183 0.0556 -0.088059 0.7753 3 0. Let as first have a look at that.183 -0.183 0.564194 0.064823 0.6262 -0.082098 0.02352 0.183 0.112 0.112 0.183 1.112 0.3151 16 0.0057 -0.7891 -0.112 0.112 0.7203 2 0.183 0.2003 0.711634 1.2667 -0. V̄ and Ȳ are the vector of bus injection currents.0512 17 0.8888 4 0.082838 0.183 0.0851 0.016 20 0.112 -0.112 0.1: Results of generator outage analysis in IEEE 14 bus system (all powers are given in p.0776 -0.0033 -0.2562 -0.11668 0.0777 0.2691 -0.185806 0.2977 -0.183 0.2689 -0.1063 -0.1312 -0. From columns 5 and 6 as well as from columns 9 and 10 it is observed that the post-outage line-flows estimated by the sensitivity analysis technique match quite closely with those obtained by the full AC power flow method.29281 0. (ori) (2) (cal) (ACLF) (6) (cal) (ACLF) 1 1.0065 -0.183 0.201067 0.183 0.3662 0.183 0. Table 5.0944 18 -0.0012 -0.1782 14 0.0657 -0.8606 -0.0078 -0.183 0.5207 -0. for incremental charges in V̄ and Ī the same relation also 231 . As the matrix Z̄ is a constant matrix.039 19 0.) For outage of generator at bus 2 For outage of generator at bus 6 Line Pline GSOF Pline Pline GSOF Pline Pline ∆P2 ∆P6 no.803875 1.00369 0.112 1.0177 0.068071 0.883062 0.7776 -0.521225 0.399542 0.395 6 -0.0038 -0.0004 -0.V̄ = Z̄Ī where Z̄ is the bus impedance matrix and is given by Z̄ = Ȳ−1 .2368 -0.7628 -0.0025 -0.0233 -0.358 0.1255 10 0.112 0.0655 0.flows (obtained with full AC power flow) are shown in columns 6 and 10 respectively.0022 15 0.265448 0.3309 11 0.1156 -0.269138 0.05 -0.085328 0.112 0.3357 7 -0.2887 -0.0123 0.795053 0.112 0.351176 0.0854 0.106373 0.2287 -0.0052 -0.2005 -0.004785 0.0013 -0.1548 -0.112 0.290727 0.112 0.0857 -0.112 -0.0204 -0.u.

i. ⋯⋯n. (0) if the initial bus voltage is V̄k . the Thevenin’s equivalent impedance of the system (looking from bus ‘k’) in equal to Z̄kk . Hence. ∆Ik ≠ 0 and ∆Ii = 0 for i = 1. Hence. V̄k = V̄k(0) + Z̄kk ∆I¯k (5. 5.13) Equation (5. ⋯⋯n. we will use the Thevenin’s equivalent impedance for calculating LOSF.1: Thevenin equivalent circuit from bus ‘k’ In the next lecture. ∆V̄ = Z̄∆Ī. ≠ k . suppose that there is an incremental charge is the current of bus ‘k’ only while the incre- mental changes at the other buses are zero. the changes in bus voltages are given by.12) ⎢ ⋮ ⎥ ⎢ ⋮ ⎥⎢ ⋮ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢∆V̄n ⎥ ⎢Z̄n1 Z̄n2 ⋯ Z̄nn ⎥ ⎢∆I¯n ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ Now. ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ∆V̄1 ⎥ ⎢ Z̄11 Z̄12 ⋯ Z̄1n ⎥ ⎢ ∆I¯1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∆V̄ ⎥ ⎢ Z̄ ⋯ ⎥ ⎢ ∆I¯ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ 21 Z̄ Z̄2n ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ 22 (5. ∆V̄i = Z̄ik ∆I¯k for i = 1. which shows the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit at bus ‘k’.1.e. From this circuit. from equation (5. Figure 5. 232 . Expanding this relation we get.13) can be represented as an equivalent circuit as shown in Fig. Hence. then the final voltage after perturbation is given by.12).holds good.