You are on page 1of 37

Abraham de Moivre 1667-1754 Emmy Amalie Noether 1882-1935

Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa Al-khwarizmi Ernst Friedrich Ferdinand Zermelo 1871-1953
780-850
Euclid 325 BC 265 BC
Adrien Marie Legendre 1752-1833
Eudoxus 408 BC-355 BC
Alexander Grothendieck 1928-2014
Evariste Galois 1811- 1832
Alexis Claude Clairaut 1713-1765
Felix Christian klein 1849-1925
Andrei Nikolaevich Tikhonov 1906-1993
Felix Hausdorff 1869-1942
Apollonius 262 BC-190 BC
Ferdinand Georg Frobenius 1849-1917
Archimedes 287 BC-212 BC
Ferdinand Gotthold Max Eisenstein 1823-1852
August Ferdinand Mobius 1790-1868
Frank Plumpton Ramsey 1903-1930
Augustin Louis Cauchy 1789-1857
Francois Viete 1540-1603
Augustus De morgan 1806-1871
Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel 1784-1846
Benoit Mandlebrot 1924-2010
Frigyes Riesz 1880-1956
Bernhard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzzano
Gabriel cramer 1704-1752
1781-1848
Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Phillipp Cantor 1845-
Bertrand Arthur William Russell 1872-1970
1918
Blaise Pascal 1623-1662
Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann 1826-1866
Brahmagupta 598-670
George Polya 1887-1985
Brook Taylor 1685-1731
Gian Carlo Rota 1932-1999
Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi 1804-1851
Girard Desargues 1591-1661
Charles Hermite 1822-1901
Girolamo Cardano 1501-1576
Christiaan Huygens 1629-1695
Giuseppe Peano 1858-1932
Claudius Ptolemy 85?-165?
Godfrey Harold Hardy 1877-1947
Colin Maclaurin 1698-1746
Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz 1646-1716
Daniel Bernoulli 1700-1782
Heinrich Franz Friedrich Tietze 1880-1964
David Hilbert 1862-1943
Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl 1885-1955
Diophantus 200?-284?
Heron 10?-75?
Elwin Bruno Christoffel 1829-1900
Hipparchus 190 BC-120 BC Nicolaus Copernicus 1473-1543

Hippacratus 470 BC-410 BC Nicole d oresme 1323-1382

Hugo Dyonizy Steinhaus 1887-1972 Nicomachus 60?-120?

Ibn Yanya al-Maghribi Al-Samawal 1130-1180 Niels Henrik Abel 1802-1829

Jacob Bernoulli 1654-1705 Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky 1792-1856

Jacques Salomon Hadamard 1865-1963 Omar Khayyam 1048-1131

James Joseph Sylvester 1814-1897 Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev 1821-1894

James Stirling 1692-1770 Paolo Ruffini 1765-1822

Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier 1768-1830 Pappus 290?-350?

Jean Le Rond dAlembert 1717-1783 Paul Erdos 1913-1996

Johann Bernoulli 1667-1748 Pirre de Fermat 1601-1665

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss 1777-1855 Pirre-simon Laplace 1749-1827

John Conway 1937- Plato 427-347 BC

John Napier 1550-1617 Pythagoras 569-475 BC

Joseph Liouville 1809-1882 Rene Descartes 1596-1650

Joseph-Louis Lagrange 1736-1813 Simeon Denis Poisson 17811840

Jules Henri Poincare 1854-1912 Sir Isaac Newton 1643-1727

Julius whelm Richard Dedekind 1831-1916 Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher 1890-1962

Karl Herman Amandus Schwarz 1843-1921 Sir William Rowan Hamilton 1805-1865

Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass 1815-1897 Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan 1887-1920

Kazimierz Kuratowski 1896-1980 Stanislaw Marcin Ulam 1909-1984

Leonardo Pisano (Fibonaci) 1170-1250 Stefan Banach 1892-1945

Leonhard Euler 1707-1783 Stephen Smale 1930-

Maria Gaetana Agnesi 1718-1799 Thales 624 -747 BC

Marin Mersenne 1588-1648 Theatetus 417-369 BC

Nicolo Fontana (Tartaglia ) 1499-1557 Thomas Jan Stieltjes 1856-1894

Nicolaus Bernoulli 1687-1759 Waclaw Sierpinski 1882-1969


Wihelm Ackermann 1896-1962

William Paul Thurston 1946-2012

Zeno 490-425 BC

Abraham de Moivre 1667-1754

The Doctrine of Chance

Theory of annuities

Stirlings formula

Dearrangement problem

Gramblers ruin problem

Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa Al-khwarizmi


780-850
Hisab al-jabr walmugabala Alexis Claude Clairaut 1713-1765

The father of algebra Calculus

Analytical Geometry

Adrien Marie Legendre 1752-1833 LHospitals book

Legendre functions Double Curvature Curves

Legendre polynomial Calculus of variation

Law of quadratic reciprocity for residues Geodesics of quadrics of rotation

Legendre theorem on Spherical triangle Clairauts differential equation

Elements de geometrie Gave singular solution in addition to the general


integral of the equation
Least squares method
Integral calculus
Major work on elliptic functions (3-volume)
Proving Existence of I.F for I-order D.E
Volume I -elliptic Integral
Three body problem
Volume II Gamma and Beta functions
Solution of equation of degree four
Volume III- Tables of elliptic integral functions
Published: A book on algebra, geometry

Andrei Nikolaevich Tikhonov 1906-1993


Alexander Grothendieck 1928-2014
Conditions for a topological space
Seminaire de Geometrie
Tikhonov topology
Theory of schemes
Thesis on functional equations of Volterra type
Contribution:
Fixed point theorem
Topological tensor

Products and nuclear spaces


Apollonius 262 BC-190 BC
Sheaf cohomology as derived functors
Conics 8 books
Schemes
Developed the hemicyclium
k-theory

Grothendieck-Riemann Roch
Archimedes 287 BC-212 BC
Topoi
Invented compound pulley
Methods of integration

Method of exhaustion is the early form of Augustin Louis Cauchy 1789-1857


integration
Proved: The angles of a convex polyhedron are
Accurate approximation to pi determined by its faces

He could approximate square root accurately Paper on polygons, polyhedra

Invented a system for expressing large He published the memoir on definite integral
numbers that later become the basis of his theory of
complex functions.
Archimedes principle
Symmetric functions
Semi-regular polyhedral
Paper: Solving one of Fermats claims on
Extocius brought out editions of some of
polygonal numbers made to mersenne.
Archimedess work
Lectured on methods on integration which he
discovered earlier.
August Ferdinand Mobius 1790-1868
The conditions for convergence of infinite
Thesis: The occultation of fixed stars series.

Habilitation thesis on Trigonometrical equation Published: Study of the Calculus of residues.

Wrote a work concerning occutations of the paper: he defined for the first time a complex
planets function of a complex variable.

Crelles Journal Differential equation

Analytical geometry 4 volume text

Projective and affine geometry Cauchy integral theorem

Homogeneous coordinates Cauchy kovalevskaya existence theorem

Projective transformations Cauchy Riemann equations

Mobius net Cauchy distribution

Mobius function Cauchy sequence

Mobius band Produced 789 paper

Mobius inversion formula

Geometric treatment of statics Augustus De morgan 1806-1871

Variant of the Four color problem Elements of Arithmetic


Published : Trignometry and Double Algebra Released the Russell-Einstein manifesto

Introduced : Mathematical induction Russell paradox

De Morgans law Whitehead and Russell were able to provide


detailed derivations of many major theorems in
Co-founder of LMS
set theory, finite and transfinite arithmetic and
elementary measure theory

Benoit Mandlebrot 1924-2010 Russell logicism

Discovered : Mandlebrot set One of the founder of analytic philosophy

Fractal

The fractal geometry of nature Blaise Pascal 1623-1662

Bernhard Hermann Neumann Discovered : Sum of the angles of a triangle are


two right angles.
Automorphism group of a free group
Paper: Projective geometry
Varieties of groups
Pascals mystic hexagon
Finite basis problem can each variety defined
by a finite set of laws? Published : work on conic sections

Invented : First digital calculator

Bernhard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzzano Pressure of the atmosphere decreases with
1781-1848 height.

Prepard a doctoral thesis on geometry Pascals law of pressure

Papers: foundations of mathematics Pascal was not the first (Pascal triangle)

Free calculus His work on binomial coefficient leads Newton


to discover the general binomial theorem for
Gave proof: Intermediate value theorem fractional and negative power.
A complete theory of science and knowledge Last work : on cycloid
Paradoxes of the infinite Finding its centre of gravity
He gave a function which is nowhere
Surface area of its solid revolution
differentiable yet everywhere continuous
Its arc length

Bertrand Arthur William Russell 1872-1970


Brahmagupta 598-670
Wrote: Introduction to mathematical philosophy
Brahmasphutasiddhanta ( The opening of the A change of variables formula
Universe) in 628
A way of relating the derivative of a function to
Algorithm for computing square roots, it is the derivative of the inverse function.
equivalent to Newton Raphson iterative
Discussion on vibrating strings
formula
First general treatment of vanishing points.
Methods to solve quadratic equations.

Used the method of continued fractions to find


the Integral solutions of Linear indeterminate Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi 1804-1851
equations.
Undertaking research on his own attempting to
Solved some quadratic indeterminate solve quintic equations by radicals.
equations.
Paper : Iterated functions
Rules for summing series
Proved : if a single valued function of one
12+22+32++n2= variable is doubly periodic then the ratio of the
periods is imaginary.
13+23+33++n3=
Global theory of curves
Gave formulas for the area of a cyclic
quadrilateral and for the lengths of the The spherical image of the normal directions
diagonals in terms of the sides. along a closed differentiable curve in space
divides the unit sphere into regions of equal
area.
Brook Taylor 1685-1731
Discoveries : in number theory
Paper : solution to the problem of the centre of
Remarkable new ideas about elliptic functions.
oscillation of a body
Research : PDE of I-order applied to D.E of
Published : 13 articles on optics as diverse as
dynamics
describing experiments in capillary action
magnetism and thermometers Worked : determinants
Found : improving method for approximating Functional determinants
the roots of an equation (New method)
Proved : if a set of n functions in n variables are
Two books appeared in 1715 functionally related then the Jacobian is
identically zero.
In one book, added a new branch (calculus of
finite differences ) While if the functions are independent the
Jacobian can not be identically zero.
Invented : Integration by parts

Discovered : Taylors expansion


Charles Hermite 1822-1901
Singular solutions to D.E
Discovered : some D.E satisfied by theta- First publications in 1651 and 1654 considered
functions the fallacy in methods proposed to square the
circle.
Contribution: number theory
Using one of his own lenses, detected in 1655,
Algebra
the first moon of Saturn.
Orthogonal polynomial
Discovered : true shape of the rings of Saturn.
Elliptic functions
Wrote a small work on the calculus of
Theory of quadratic form probabilities, the first printed work on the
subject.
Proved : doubly periodic functions can be
represented as quotients of periodic entire 1656 patented the first pendulum clock.
functions
Build several pendulum clocks to determine
Found: reciprocity law relating to binary form longitude at sea.

Quadratic form + invariant theory = theory of Derived the law of centrifugal force for uniform
transformations circular motion.

Results on this topic provided connections As a result of this he, Hooke, Halley and wren
between number theory, theta functions and formulated the inverse-square law of
transformations of abelian functions. gravitational attraction.

Although an algebraic equation of the fifth Work on the collision of elastic bodies showed
degree can not be solved in radicals, a result the error of Descartes law of impact.
which was proved by Ruffini and Abel, Hermite
Experiementally verified the law of conservation
showed in 1858 that an algebraic equation of
of momentum.
the fifth degree could be solved using elliptic
functions. Published : a book on physics in 1673.

1873 published :first proof e is a transcendental In it he solves the problem of compound


number pendulum

Using similar method, Lindemann established Describes the descent of bodies in a vacuum.
in 1882, pi also.
Defines evolutes and involutes of curve
Hermite polynomial
Finds the evolutes of the cycloid and of the
Hermites differential equation parabola

Hermites formula of interpolation In a 1678 paper, argued in favor of a wave


theory of light.
Hermitian matrices
Also worked on the velocity of light, which he
believed was finite, and was pleased to of
Christiaan Huygens 1629-1695 Romers experiements which gave an
approximate velocity for light determined by The structure of bees honeycombs
observing Jupiters moon.
Maclaurins Treatise on algebra was published
Greatest mechanist of the 17-th century. 2-year after his death.

Claudius Ptolemy 85?-165? Daniel Bernoulli 1700-1782

Almagest 13 books 1720 dissertation on the mechanics of


breathing
Epicycles
Faro
Using chords of a circle and an inscribed 360
gon, the approximation pi=3+17/20=3.14166 A game of chance

Solstices and equinoxes Flow of water from a hole in a container

Found : lengths of the seasons Riccati D.E

Major work Geography written in 8 books Figures bounded by two arcs of a circle

A book on astrology Hydrodynamics, a term he invented

A book on the construction of sundials Hydrodynamics book 1738

A book about the stereographic projection of Best shape for a shipss anchor
the celestial sphere onto a plane.
Essay on magnetism

Method to determine time at sea


Colin Maclaurin 1698-1746
Essay on ocean currents
Study of the tides
Effects of forces on ships
Published : 2-volume Treatise on fluxions
Proposals to reduce the pitching and tossing of
Fundamental theorem of calculus a ship in high seas

Work on maxima and minima Theory of oscillations

The attraction of ellipsoids Oscillation of air in organ pipes

Elliptic integrals

Euler-Maclaurin summation formula David Hilbert 1862-1943

Integral test for the convergence of an infinite First work on invariant theory
series
Proved : Basis theorem
Annular eclipse of the sun in 1737
Worked : a book on algebraic number theory
Famous speech , the problems of Mathematics Every number can be written as the sum of 4-
to the second International Congress of squares
Mathematicians in Paris.
Fermat stated but not given proof.
Presented 23 unsolved problems
Lagrange proved using Euler result.
Continuum hypothesis
Lemma : a3-b3=c3+d3
The well ordering of the reals

Goldbach conjectures
Elwin Bruno Christoffel 1829-1900
The transcendence of powers of algebraic
Dissertation on motion of electricity in
numbers
homogeneous bodies.
Extension of Dirichlets principle
Two paper : on numerical integration
Contribution : invariants
Christoffels theorem
Algebraic number fields
Paper : function theory including
Functional analysis
Conformal mapping
Integral equations
Geometry
Mathematical physics
Tensor analysis
Calculus of variants
Riemanns o-function
Hilbert space
Theory of invariants
Kinetic gas theory
Orthogonal polynomials
Theory of radiations
Continued fractions

Differential equations
Diophantus 200?-284?
Potential theory
Arithmetica (collection of 130 problems)
Light
Gives numerical solutions of both determinate
Shock waves
and indeterminate equations
Published : paper on the propagation of plane
Diophantine analysis(13 books)
waves in media a surface discontinuity
Diophantus solves problems of finding values
6-paper on invariants
which make two linear expressions
simultaneously into squares and cubes. Some paper ->development of the tensor
calculus
4n+3 can not be the sum of 2-squares
Christoffel reduction theorem Extended weierstrasss method for the extrema
of integrals over a class of curves to the case
Solves the local equivalence problem for two
of integrands depending on derivatives of
quadratic differential forms.
arbitrarity high order

Careful definition of the notion of


Emmy Amalie Noether 1882-1935 neighbourhood in the space of curves.

Theoretical physics ( Noethers Theorem) Hydrodynamics

Proves a relationship between symmetries in Cantor had put forward the continuum
physics and conservation principles hypothesis in 1878, conjecturing that every
infinite subset of the continuum is either
Work in the theory of invariants led to countable or has the cardinality of the
formulations for several concepts of Einsteins continuum.
general theory of relativity
Set theory, in particular taking up Hilberts idea
Ideal theory to head towards a revolution of the problem of
Producing an abstract theory which helped the continuum hypothesis.
develop ring theory 1902 published work on set theory, on the
This paper was of fundamental importance in addition of transfinite cardinals.
the development of modern algebra Proved : every set can be well ordered
Gave : decomposition of ideals into Axiomatic set theory
intersections of primary ideals in any
commutative ring with ascending chain 1908, published his axiomatic system
condition containing 7 axioms despite his failure to prove
consistency
Lasker had already proved this result for
polynomial rings

Van der waerden wrote his book Modern Euclid 325 BC 265 BC
algebra
Elements ( 13 books )
Major part of 2-volume consists of Noethers
Book(1-6)-plane geometry
work
Book(7-9)-number theory
1927 collaborated with Hasse and Brauer in
work on non-commutative algebras. Book10 theory of irrational numbers mainly
work of Theaetetus

Book (11-13)-3D geometry


Ernst Friedrich Ferdinand Zermelo 1871-1953
Wrote book:
Dissertation on calculus of variations
Data
Divisions Crelles journal specialized in complex analysis,
algebraic geometry and invariant theory
Optics
Klein and Lie discovered the fundamental
Phaenomena
properties of the asymptotic lines on the
kummer surface

Eudoxus 408 BC-355 BC 1871 published 2-paper on non-euclidean


geometry
Contribution : theory of proportion
In which, showed non Euclidean geometry was
Pythogorean discover irrationals consistent iff Euclidean geometry was
Work : on integration using his method of consistent
exhaustion
Work : function theory
Volumes of cones 1882 paper treats function theory in a
Pyramides geometric way connecting potential theory and
conformal mapping
Archimedes use Eudoxus method of
exhaustion to prove theorem Interested using transcendental methods to
solve the general equation of the fifth degree
Eudoxuss planetary theory
Solve problem using the group of the
Book : on geography (7 books) icosahedron

Developed theory of automorphic functions


Evariste Galois 1811- 1832 Wrote : 4 volume on automorphic and elliptic
1829 first paper on continued fraction submitted modular functions
articles on the algebraic solution of equations Klein bottle
Posthumous article by Abel

1830 published 3 paper in elliptic functions Felix Hausdorff 1869-1942


elliptic integrals
Main work : topology
1846 Galois theory published in Liouville
Journal Set theory

Introduced : the concept of a partially ordered


set
Felix Christian klein 1849-1925
Attempt to prove cantors continuum hypothesis
In his dissertation klein classified second
degree line complexes using weiertrasss Proved : results on the cardinality of Borel sets
theory of elementary divisors in 1916
Created : theory of topological and metric On finite groups, he proved sylows theorem for
spaces abstract groups

Introduced : Hausdorff dimension (called fractal Continued his investigation of conjucacy


geometry) classes

Hausdorff measure Published 5 paper on group theory and one of


them on group characters is of fundamental
Term metric space
importance

1897-1899 published 2 paper on group


Ferdinand Georg Frobenius 1849-1917 representations, one on induced characters one
on tensor product of characters
Weierstrass and Fuchs list 15 topics on which
Frobenius had major contributions : 1898 introduced : induced representation

The development of analytic functions in series Frobenius Reciprocity theorem

The algebraic solution of equations whose 1896 gave the irreducible characters for the
coefficients are rational functions of one alternating groups A4,A5, the symmetric groups
variable S4,S5 and the group PSL(2,7)

The theory of linear D.E Character theory of groups

Pfaffs problem Frobenius groups

Linear forms with integer coefficients Positive and non-negative matrices

Linear substitutions and bilinear forms Introduced : the concept of irreducibility for
matrices
Adjoint linear differential operators

The theory of elliptic Jacobi functions


Ferdinand Gotthold Max Eisenstein 1823-1852
The relations among the 28 double tangents to
a plane of degree 4 He began by learning the differential and
integral calculus from the works of Euler and
Sylow theorem Lagrange
Double cosets arising from two finite groups Hamilton gave him a copy of a paper that he
Jacobis covariants had written on Abels work

Jacobi functions in three variable Submitted paper on cubic forms with two
variables
The theory of biquadratic forms
1844 published 23 papers and 2 problems
The theory of surfaces with a differential
parameter Even Gauss was impressed

Worked: on theory of forms


Higher reciprocity laws Calculated pi to 10 places using a polygon of
393216 sides
Disquisitions arithmetica
Represented pi as an infinite product for the
Contribution : theory of elliptic functions
first time

Frank Plumpton Ramsey 1903-1930


Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel 1784-1846
1925 Published first paper The foundations of
His interests turned towards navigation and he
Mathematics
considered the problem of finding the position
1930 Paper : on a problem of formal logic of ship at sea
methods for determining the consistency of a
Began to make observations to determine
logical formula
longitude
Some theorems on combinatorics led to
1804 published a paper on Halleys comet
Ramsey theory
He used Bradleys data to give a reference
Two paper : A contribution to the theory of
system for the positions of stars and planets.
taxation
He had to deduce errors in Bradleys
A mathematical theory of saving
instruments and errors caused by refraction

He had to reduce the positions to one fixed


Francois Viete 1540-1603 data and eliminate the effects of the Earths
motion, the precession of the Earth and other
1591 published book : In artem analyticam
effects
isagoge
Work : determining the constants of precession,
Improvement : theory of equations nutation and aberration.
Presented methods for solving equations of Undertook his monumental task of determining
second, third and fourth degree the positions and proper motions of over 50,000
He knew the connection between the positive stars.
roots of equations and the coefficients of the From periodic variations in the proper motions
different powers of the unknown quantity. of Sirius and Procyon, Bessel deduced that
The word coefficient is actually due to viete they had companion stars in orbit which had not
been observed.
Wrote books on trigonometry and geometry,
gave geometrical solutions to doubling a cube 1841 He announced that Sirius had a
and trisecting an angle and the construction of companion, thus being the first to predict the
the tangent at any point on an Archimedian existence of dark stars
spiral Bessel functions
Interest in these functions Arose in the This is of fundamental importance in early
treatment of the problem of the perturbation in quantum theory
the
Contribution : ergodic theory
planetary system.
In 1938 gave: mean ergodic theorem
Contribution : to geodesy include a correction in
Book : functional analysis
1826 to the second pendulum. The length of
which is precisely calculated so that it requires
exactly one second for a swing.
Gabriel cramer 1704-1752
1841 deduced a value of 1/299 for the ellipticity
of the Earth, the amount of elliptical distortion Thesis : theory of sound
by which the Earths shape depends from a Published : geometric problems
perfect sphere.
Aurora borealis

Correspondence between Johann Bernoulli and


Frigyes Riesz 1880-1956 Leibniz
Doctoral dissertation was on geometry Edited : 5 volume work by Christian wolff
Founder of functional analysis Book : Introduction a lanalyse des lignes
1907,1909 produced representation theorem courbes algebraigue
for a functional on quadratic Lebesgue integral Cramers rule
functions and in terms of a Stieltjes integral
Castillon cramer problem
Introduced : the shape of q-fold
Cramers paradox
Lebesgue integrable function

Weak convergence of a sequence of functions

Work of 1910 marks the start of operator theory


Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Phillipp Cantor 1845-
1918 his work came close to an axiomatic 1918
theory for Banach spaces
Received doctorate in number theory
Publish : Egorovs theorem on linear functionals
One of his senior colleagues, who challenged
Riesz-Fischer theorem cantor to prove the open problem on the
1907 proved fundamental in the Fourier uniqueness of representation of a function as a
analysis of Hilbert space trigonometric series.

Basis for proving that matrix mechanics and 1870-cantor solved the problem
wave mechanics were equivalent Published : trigonometric series(Dedekind cuts)
Proved : Rational numbers and algebraic Riemann hypothesis
numbers are countable

(real number were not countable) in this paper


George Polya 1887-1985
the idea of a 1-1 correspondence appears for
the first time 1918 published papers : on series
1877 proved : there was 1-1 correspondence of Number theorem
points on the interval [0,1] and points in d-
dimensional space. Combinatorics

1879-1884 published : series of 6-paper to Voting systems


provide a basic introduction to set theory Astronomy
5th paper presented of the transfinite numbers Probability
as an autonomous and systematic extension of
the natural numbers. Integral functions

Last paper is on set theory (1895 & 1897) He gives wise advise if you cannot solve a
problem, then there is an easier problem you
Second paper describes his theory of well cannot solve: find it
ordered sets and ordinal number.
Proved : theorem on random walks
All even number up to 1000 could be written as
the sum of two primes. 1937 contribution : Polya enumeration theorem
( in combinatorics)

Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann 1826-1866


Gian Carlo Rota 1932-1999
He lent Bernhard Legendres book on the
theory of numbers, Riemann read the 900 page Worked : on functional analysis
book in 6 days. On operator theorem
Riemanns thesis studied the theory of complex 1959-1960 : 2-paper on ergodic theorem
variables ( Riemann surfaces)

It introduced topological methods into complex


function theory Girard Desargues 1591-1661

Gave : the conditions of a function to have an Invented : projective geometry


integral ( condition of Riemann integrability) 1648 published : perspective theorem
Solved general inversion problems

Number of primes less than a given magnitude Girolamo Cardano 1501-1576


Riemann extended the zeta function to complex Book : 2-book
values
For 6-years, Cardano worked on solving cubic Fourier series
and quartic equations by radicals
The Riemann zeta function
1545 published : Ars Magna
Distribution of primes
Two encyclopaedias of natural sciences
He had proved the Riemann hypothesis

1940 book : A Mathematicians apology


Giuseppe Peano 1858-1932

Course in Infinitesimal calculus


Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz 1646-1716
1886 proved : if f(x, y) is continuous then the 1st
1671 published work in which he claims that
order D.E dy/dx=f(x, y) has a solution
movement depends on the action of a spirit.
Showed :solutions were not unique
Work : on dynamics
Published : a method for solving systems of
1675 wrote a manuscript using the integral
linear D.E using successive approximations
notation for the first time.
1888 published book : Geometrical Calculus
In the same manuscript the product rule for
This book contains the first definition of a vector differentiation is given
space with a modern notation and style.
1676 discovered : power rule for both integral
1889 published : Peano axioms and fractional exponents

1890 invented : space filling curves Achievement : development of the binary


system of arithmetic
Formulario Mathematica ( calculus volume)
1684 published details of his differential
calculus
Godfrey Harold Hardy 1877-1947
The paper contained : differential notation
Paper : convergence of series, integrals allied
Rules for computing derivative of powers
topics
Products and Quotients
1908 published : A Course of Pure
Mathematics 1686 published paper dealing with integral
calculus.
1913 received Ramanujans first letter

They wrote 5 papers together


Heinrich Franz Friedrich Tietze 1880-1964
Interests : ( Pure Mathematics )
Thesis : Topological invariants
Diophantine analysis
Contributed : foundations of general topology
Summation of divergent series
Developed : subdivisions of all cell complexes properties of space time with his application of
group theory to quantum mechanics.
Invented : Tietze transformations ( fundamental
groups are topological invariants)

Worked : knot theory Heron 10?-75?

Jordan curves One of his books contains a chapter on


astronomy, giving a method to find the distance
Continuous mapping of areas
between Alexandria and Rome using the
Map coloring difference between local times at which an
eclipse of the moon is observed at each city.
Book : Famous problems of Mathematics
His treatise Metrica contains 3 volumes
Worked : ruler and compass construction
Proved : Herons formula
Continued fractions
If A is a area of a triangle with sides a,b,c and
Partitions s=(a+b+c)/2 then A2=s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)
Distribution of prime numbers A method for finding the cube root of a number
Differential geometry Wrote a important treatise on mechanics

They give methods of lifting heavy weights and


Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl 1885-1955 describe simple mechanical machines

Geometric function theory developed by


Riemann Hipparchus 190 BC-120 BC
2-dimensional differentiable manifold a covering Even if he did not invent it, Hipparchus is the
surface first person whose systematic use of
Duality between differentials and 1-cycles trigonometry we have documentary evidence.

Weyl metrice, led to a gauge field theory Introduced : The division of a circle into 360
degrees into Greece
Contribution : uniform distribution of numbers
modulo 1 which are fundamental in analytic Produced : table of chords
number theory Trigonometric table
He attempted to incorporate electromagnetism He did this by using the supplementary angle
into the geometric formalism of general theorem, half angle formulas, linear
relativity. interpolation

Produced : The first unified field theory for Hipparchus calculated the length of the year to
which the Maxwell electromagnetic field and the within 6.5 minutes
gravitational field appear as geometrical Discovered : Precession of the equinoxes
Made : careful study of the motion of the moon Concentrated on functional analysis and its
diverse applications
Gave : a range of values within which be
calculated that the true distance must lie. The general theory of orthogonal series

Estimated that eclipse have a period of 126007 The probability theory


days.
Published : theory of tossing coins
Hipparchuss calculation led him to a value for
Basedon measure theory
the distance to the moon of between 59 and 67
earth radii, quite remarkable in that the correct 1925 first to define and discuss the concept of
distance is zero earth radii. strategy in game theory
Hipparchus was also able to give an epicycle 1929 togather with Banach started a new
model for the motion of sun, but did not attempt journal studia Mathematica
to give an epicycle model for the motion of the
planets. The theory of orthogonal series

1944 Steinhaus proposed the problem of


dividing a cake into n pieces so that it is
Hippacratus 470 BC-410 BC proportional and envy free
Worked : squaring the circle and doubling the Envy free solution for n=3 was found in 1962 by
cube John H.Conwy and independently by John
Selfridge.
In his attempts to square the circle, Hippocrates
was able to find the areas of lunes, certain He gave an example of trigonometric series
crescent-shaped figures, using his theorem that which diverged at every point, yet its
the ratio of the areas of two circles is the same coefficients tended to zero.
as the ratio of the squares of their radii.
He also gave an example of a trigonometric
Showed : a cube can be doubled if two mean series which converged in one interval but
proportionals can be determined between a diverged in a second interval
number and its double.
He was the first to make precise the concept of
First known geometer to write a geometry book. independent and uniformly distributed
Book : also included geometrical solutions to 1937 book : Mathematical Snapshots
quadratic equations and early methods of
integration.
Ibn Yanya al-Maghribi Al-Samawal 1130-1180

Hugo Dyonizy Steinhaus 1887-1972 The treatise consists of 4-books

Studied Lebesgues two major book Book 1 : Defines integer power of variable
After defining polynomials, he describes Law of large numbers in probability theorem
addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
Published : (1682-1704) 5-Treatise on infinite
of polynomials
series
Gave : methods or the extraction of the roots of
In 2-of these (5-treatise) sum(1/n) diverges
polynomials
He believed were new but proved 40-years
Book 2 : Describes the theory of quadratic
earlier
equations
Sum(1/n2) converges to a finite limit less than 2
Gave geometric solutions to these equations
Euler was the first to find the sum of this series
Also describes the solution of indeterminate
pi2/6
equations
Studied : exponential series came out of
His description of the binomial theorem where
examining compound interest
the coefficients are given by the Pascal triangle

12+22+32++n2=n(n+1)(2n+1)/6
1690 published : In Acta Eruditorum
Final book : problem in combinatorics
Showed : The problem of determining the
Namely to find 10 unknowns given the 210
isochrones is equivalent to solving a first-order
equations which give the sums taken 6 at a
nonlinear differential equation
time.
The isochrones, or curve of constant descent,
Of course such a system of 210 equations need
is the curve along which a particle will descent
not be consistent and he gave 504 conditions
under gravity from any point to the bottom in
which are necessary for the system to be
exactly the same time, no matter what the
consistent
starting point.

1696 Bernoulli solved equation(Bernoulli


Jacob Bernoulli 1654-1705 equation)

Interested : Infinitesimal geometry Y=p(x)y+g(x)yn

Contribution : 1685 on the parallels of logic and Discovered : general method to determine
algebra evolutes of a curve as the envelope of its
circles of curvature.
1685 algebra
Caustic curves
1687 geometry
Curves of a parabola
Geometry result : construction to divide any
triangle into four equal parts with two Logarithmic spiral
perpendicular lines.
Epicycloids
1689 infinite series
Drawbridge problem [ curve is required so that Contributed : Creation of the theory of
the cable always keeps the drawbridge elementary divisors of lambda matrices
balanced.

Bernoulli numbers appear in the book in a


James Stirling 1692-1770
discussion s of exponential series.
1717 published : First work which extends
Newtons theory of plane curves of degree 3,
Jacques Salomon Hadamard 1865-1963 adding four new types of curves to the 72 given
by Newton.
Research : investigating the problem of finding
an estimate for the determinants generated by There are results on the curve of quickest
coefficients of a power series. descent, the catenary and orthogonal
trajectories
Thesis : 1892 on functions defined by Taylor
series 1730 published: Methods Differentialis

Paper : number of primes less than a given This book is a treatise on infinite series,
number summation, interpolation and quadrature.

Published : 29 papers The asymptotic formula for n! for which Stirling


is best known appears as Example 2 to
1896 prime number theorem
Proposition 28.
Contribution : geometry, dynamics
Gave theorem to treat convergence of an
1893 published : determinants inequality infinite product.

Hadamard matrices 1733 read paper to RSL entitled Twelve


propositions concerning the figure of the Earth.
Coding theory
Stated without proof, that the Earth is an oblate
Writing several papers on probability in
spheroid, supporting cassinian view.
particular on Markov chains
1745 published a paper on the ventilation of
Wrote almost 300 papers mine shafts.

James Joseph Sylvester 1814-1897 Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier 1768-1830


He did important work on Matrix Theory Paper : on algebra
1851 Discovered : discriminant of a cubic
1804 work : on the theory of heat
equation
1808 Fourier expansions of functions as
Used matrix theory to study higher dimensional
trigonomical series [Fourier Series]
geometry
1807 memoir together with additional work on Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss 1777-1855
the cooling of infinite solids and terrestrial and
Discovered : Bodes law
radiant heat.
Binomial theorem

Arithmetic-geometric mean
Jean Le Rond dAlembert 1717-1783
Law of quadratic reciprocity
He read his first paper on some errors he had
found in Reyneaus standard text. Prime number theorem
1740 work on the mechanics of fluid Dissertation : fundamental theorem of algebra
Paper on integral calculus Published : number theory book
He worked on the encyclopedia, wrote 1801 Disquisitions Arithmeticae
mathematical articles in this 28 volume.
1801 used least squares to predict the orbit of
1747 published an article on vibrating string. Ceres
Defined the derivative of a function as the limit 1809 published : book 2
of a quotient of increments.
2 volume : motion of celestial bodies
DAlemberts ratio test
Volume I : Differential equations
1753 and 1767 5 volume.
Conic sections

Elliptic orbits
Johann Bernoulli 1667-1748
Volume II : estimation of planets orbit
De LHospital Calculus
Introduction of hyper geometric function work
1694 considered the function y=xx concerned with potential theory
Investigated series using the method of Carried out a geodesic survey of the state of
integration by parts Hanover.
Discovered : addition theorems for Invented : heliotrope
trigonometric and hyperbolic functions using the
differential equations 1823 published papers : on the least square
method
Solved : problem of catenary
1828 Gauss Potential theorem
Proposed and solved : the problem of
brachristochrone Least square method

1696 proposed : Isoperimetric problem 1832 He and Weber investigated the theory of
terrestrial magnetism.
John Conway 1937- Theory of heat

Leech Lattice 1836 founded Journal de Mathematiques pures


et Appliquees
Discovered : Surreal numbers
One of the first topics he studied, which
Article: on numbers and games
developed from his early work on
Winning ways for your mathematical plays. electromagnetism, was a new topic called
fractional calculus
Sphere packings
Investigate the general problem of integration of
Lattices and groups
algebraic functions
The book of numbers
His work at first was independent of that of Abel
On Quaternions and octomions
Worked : transcendental number
Symmetries of things Constructed : an infinite class of transcendental
numbers using continued fractions

John Napier 1550-1617 Liouvillie number


0.1100010000000000000000010000
Invention : logarithm
Where there is a 1 in place n! and 0 elsewhere
Napiers logarithms are not really to any base.
Work : on boundary value problems on
Briggs had suggested to Napier that log should differential equations
be to base 10
Sturm-Liouvillie theory
Napier suggested log 1 should be zero.
Sturm and Liouvillie examined general linear
Briggs later made tables second order D.E and examined properties of
Described a method of multiplication using their eigen values, the behavior of the eigen
number rods functions and the series expansion of arbitrary
functions in terms of these eigen functions
Contribution : spherical triangle
Liouvillie contributed to differential geometry
Laplace 200 year later , said that logarithms, by studying conformal transformations
shortening the labors, doubled the life of the
astronomers. Proved : theorem concerning the measure
preserving property of Hamiltonian dynamics

In number theory, Liouvillie wrote around 200


Joseph Liouville 1809-1882 papers, quadratic reciprocity
Paper : on electro-dynamics Wrote over 400 papers in total
PDE
Joseph-Louis Lagrange 1736-1813 Probability and foundations of calculus

1754 published work on an analogy between Worked : number theory


the binomial theorem and the successive
1770 proving every integer is the sum of four
derivatives of the product of functions
squares
Work : tautochrone
1771 proved : wilsons theorem
Some important discoveries which would
1770 presented an important work which made
contribute substantially to the new subject of
a fundamental investigation of degrees up to 4
the calculus of variations
could be solved by radicals.
1756 He generalized results which Euler had
Studied : permutations of the roots
himself obtained in calculus of variations
Mechanique analytique->fluid mechanics
Short work on : calculus of probabilities
Lagrange published 2 volumes of his calculus
In a work on the foundations of dynamics,
lectures
Lagrange based his development on the
principle of least action and on kinetic energy. 1797 published first theory of functions of a real
variable
Major study: on the propagation of sound
Theorie des functions analytique
Contribution : theory of vibrating string

Used a discrete mass model for his vibrating


string, which he took to consist of n masses Jules Henri Poincare 1854-1912
joined by weightless strings.
Developed : concept of automorphic functions
Solved : resulting system of n+1 D.E, then let n which he used to solve second order linear D.E
get large to obtain a functional equation with algebraic coefficients
Lagrangian function [ fluid mechanics] 1895 published : Analysis situs
Problem to which he applied his method was Early systematic treatment of topology
the study the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn.
Studied : optics, electricity, telemetry,
1772 shared with Euler 3-body problem capillarity, elasticity, thermodynamics, potential
theory, quantum theory, theory of relativity and
1780 orbits of comets by the planets
cosmology
Covered many topics:
Three body problem
Stability of the solar system
Theory of light
Mechanics
Electromagnetic waves
Dynamics
3-body problem were convergent
Fluid mechanics
Chaotic dynamics began 1963 Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass 1815-1897

Julia Bowman Rabinson 1814 & 1842 3-short paper on : his theory of
complex variable
Work : on Hilbers 10th problem
1854 published paper: on abelian functions

Published : a full version of hyper-elliptic


Julius whelm Richard Dedekind 1831-1916
integrals
Dedekind took a course given by Guass on
1856 Discovered: function that although
least action
continues, had no derivative at any point
Thesis : Theory of Eulerian integrals
1863 proved : complex numbers are the only
Abelian functions commutative algebraic extension of the real
numbers
Elliptic functions
1831 Gauss had promised a proof of this but
He applies his theory of ideals to the theory of had failed to give one
Riemann surfaces

This gave proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem


Kazimierz Kuratowski 1896-1980
1879 published : Uber die Theorie der ganzen
algebraischen zahlen Showed : a graph is planar iff it does not
contain a sub-graph

Homeomorphic to either k5 or k3,3


Karl Herman Amandus Schwarz 1843-1921

Worked : on conformal mapping of polyhedral


surfaces on to the spherical surface. Kurt Godel 1906-1978

Alternative method for solving Dirichlet problem 1931 Godels incompleteness theorem

Worked : on minimal surfaces, a characteristic Proved : fundamental results about axiomatic


problem of the calculus of variations systems showing in any axiomatic
mathematical system there are propositions
Answered : The equation of whether a given that cannot be proved or disproved within the
minimal surface really yields a minimal area axioms of the system
The idea in this work led Emile Picard to his Gave lecture : on un-decidable propositions of
existence proof for solutions of D.E formal mathematical systems
It also contains the inequality for integrals now His work consistency of the axiom of choice
known as the Schwarz inequality and of the generalized

1940 continuum hypothesis with the axioms of


set theory
ballistics ,,analysis, shipbuilding and navigation,
the motion of the moon, Differential calculus
Leonardo Pisano (Fibonaci) 1170-1250
In number theory, worked on fermat primes,
Book : Liber abbaci (1202)
and in so doing introduced the Euler pi function
Practica geometriae (1220)
Proved : Fermats last theorem for n=3
Flos (1225)
His solution for Basel problem pi2/6
Liber quadratorum (1225)
Elementary functions
Book of squares
Studied : bita & gamma functions which he had
In the third section were problems involving introduced first in 1729, and ODE&PDE
perfect numbers, problems involving the
Discovered : Eulers formula
Chinese remainder theorem and problems
involving summing arithmetic and geometric Proved: ln(-1)=pi.i
series
Studied : orthogonal trajectories
Fibonacci sequence
Rediscovered : C-R equations
n2+(2n+1)=(n+1)2
Work : on infinite series included Euler
no x, y such that x2+y2 and x2-y2 are both constant, calculated to 16 decimal places
squares and x4-y4=z2 has no non-trivial integral
Studied : Fourier Series
solutions
He was the first to express an algebraic
Defined the concept of a congruum a number of
function by such series
the form ab(a+b)(a-b), if (a+b) is even and 4-
times this if a+b is odd Found : Euler- Maclaurin summation formula
independently of maclaurin
Proved congruum must be divisible by 24
Considered : Linear equations with constant
Showed : for x, c such that x2+c and x2-c are
coefficients
both squares
Second ordered DE with variable coefficient
Then c is congruum
Power series solution of DE
Proved : squares cannot be a congruum
A method of variation of constants

Integrating factors
Leonhard Euler 1707-1783
A method of approximating solutions
Euler wrote around 380 article
When considering vibrating membranes , Euler
He wrote books on the calculus of variations,
was led to the Bessel equation which he solved
the calculation of planetary orbits, artillery and
by introducing Bessel functions
Contribution : differential geometry Over the years two that did not lead to prime
(67 and 257) and missed three that did
Investigating : theory of surfaces and curvature
(61,89,107)
of surfaces

Geometry investigations led him to fundamental


ideas in topology such as the Euler Nicolo Fontana (Tartaglia ) 1499-1557
characteristic of a polyhedron
The first person known to have solved cubic
1736 published : Mechanica equations algebraically was del Ferro

Developed : kinematics and dynamics of rigid Fior began to boast that he was able to solve
bodies with application of ship-propulsion cubics and a challenge between him Tartaglia
was arranged
1750 setting up the main formula: continuity
equation Tartaglia discovered how to solve all cubics,
where as Fior had only been taught to solve
Laplace velocity potential equation
some, so Tartaglia won easily.
Euler equation for the motion of an inviscid
Based on Tartaglias formula cardano and his
incompressible fluid
assistant Ferrari made remarkable progress
Work : astronomy finding proofs of all cases of the cubic, solving
quartic equation
Theory of music
1545 cardano published solutions to the cubic
Cartography and quartic equations
Euler notations : f(x), e, I, pi, summation, Contribution : application of mathematics to
artillery fire

Maria Gaetana Agnesi 1718-1799 In the work he described new ballistic methods
and instruments, including the first firing tables
Witch of Agnesi

Nicolaus Bernoulli 1687-1759


Marin Mersenne 1588-1648
Worked : on geometry and differential
Investigated : prime number equations
Tried to find a formula that would represent all St. Petersburg problem
primes, he failed
Showed: 1/n2 is pi2/6 which had cofounded
2p-1 investigating of large primes Liebniz and Jacob Berrnoulli
He claimed that n is prime if Other problems he worked on involved DE
p=2,3,35,7,13,17,19,31,67,127 and 257 but
composite for other 44 primes smaller than 257 Studied : problem of orthogonal trajectories
Construction of orthogonal trajectories to Quotes on perfect numbers, states that nth
families of curves primes has n digits, and that all perfect numbers
end in 6 or 8 alternatively
Proved : equality of mixed second-order partial
derivatives These are false 6,28,496 and 8128

Contribution in studying the Riccati equation Two volumes : on theology of numbers

Nicolaus Copernicus 1473-1543 Niels Henrik Abel 1802-1829

1513 copernican theory Published paper : on functional equations and


integrals
Copernicuss heliostatic cosmology involved
giving several distinct motions to the Earth In one paper he gave the first solution of an
integral equation

Worked : on solving quintic equations


Nicole d oresme 1323-1382
1824 proved impossibility of solving the general
Invented : coordinate geometry before
equation of the 5th degree in radicals
Descartes
Proved : Abels theorem
Credited rules of exponents: xmxn=xm+n
(xm)n=xmn Paper : radically transformed the theory of
elliptic integrals to the theory of functions by
Even more imaginative was his suggestion that
using their inverse functions
irrational powers are possible
Work : on the algebraic solution of equations
Also worked on infinite series
was found, including the theorem
He was the first to prove that the harmonic
If every three roots of an irreducible equation of
series diverses
prime degree are related to one another in such
Also opposed the theory of a stationary Earth a way that one of them may be expressed
as proposed by Aristotle and taught motion of rationally in terms of the other, then the
the Earth, 200 years before Aristotle equation is soluble in radicals

Wrote a work dealing with the nature of light,


reflection of light and the speed of the light.
Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky 1792-1856

1834 found a method for the approximation of


Nicomachus 60?-120? the roots of algebraic equations

Wrote introduction to Arithmetic, which was


the first work to treat arithmetic as a separate
Omar Khayyam 1048-1131
for geometry
Work : problems of Arithmetic
A book on music Paolo Ruffini 1765-1822

One on algebra 1799 published a book on the theory of


equations with his claim that quintics could not
Treatise on Demonstration of problems of
be solved by radicals
algebra
He was the first to introduce the notion of the
order of an element, conjucacy, the cycle
Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev 1821-1894 decomposition of elements of permutation
groups and the notions of primitive and
Work : on prime numbers included the
imprimitive
determination of the numbers of primes not
exceeding a given numbers Proved : order of a permutation is the least
common multiple of the lengths in the
1849 Wrote an important book on theory of decomposition in to disjoint cycles and that S5
congruences has no sub-groups of index 3,4 or 8.
1845 Bertrand conjectured: there was always at 1820 published a scientific article on typhus
least one prime between n and 2n for n>3 based on his experience with disease
1850 Chebyshev proved Bertrand s conjecture Wrote on probability
Proved : lim n00(pi(n).log n/n)=1

Unable to prove : Existence of the limit Pappus 290?-350?


The proof of this results was proved by
Book I Arithmetic
Hadamard and de la vallee Poussin
independently Book II-deals with Apollonius method for
dealing with large numbers
studied : converting rotary motion in to
rectilinear motion by mechanical coupling The method for dealing with large numbers.

chebyshev parallel motion is tree linked bars The method expresses numbers as powers of
approximating rectilinear motion 10,000

wrote : probability theory Book III: divided in to four parts

quadratic forms First part : Problem of finding two mean


proportionals between two given straight lines
orthogonal functions
Second part : construction of the arithmetic,
theory of integrals geometric and harmonic means
construction of maps Third part : a collection o geometrical
calculation of geometric volumes paradoxes

Final part : shows how each of the 5-regular


polyhedral can be inscribed in a sphere
Book IV: properties of curves including the Find all solutions of Nx21=y2 for N not a square
spiral of Archimedes and the quadratix of number , was however solved by Wallis and
Hippias and includes his trisection methods. Brouncker and they developed continued
fractions in their solution
Book V: 13 semi regular solids(discovered by
Archimedes) Conjectured : there are exactly 2-integer
solutions of x2+4=y3 and x2+2=y3 has only 1
He compares the area of figures with equal
integer solution
perimeters and volumes of solids with equal
surface areas, providing a result due to
zenodorus that the sphere has greater volume
Pirre-simon Laplace 1749-1827
than any regular solid with equal surface area,
the one with the greater number of faces has First paper:on maxima and minima of curves
the greater volume where he improved on methods given by
Lagrange
Book VII : Pappus problem
Difference equation
Book VIII : Mechanics
Wrote : on integral calculus
Wrote : on music
Mechanics
On hydrodynamics
Physical astronomy

Mathematical astronomy
Paul Erdos 1913-1996
5-book
1850 chebyshev proved Bertrands conjecture
Apparent motions of the celestial bodies
1896 Hadamard and de la vallee Poussin
independently proved the priiime number The motion of the sea
theorem using complex analysis
Atmospheric refraction
Wrote over 1500 papers during his lifetime
Actual motion of the celestial bodies on force
and momentum
Pirre de Fermat 1601-1665 Theory of universal gravitation and included an
account of the motion of the sea and shape of
Produced important work on maxima & minima
the Earth
Fermat last theorem xn+yn=zn has no non-zero
Final book : gave an historical account of
integer solutions for x, y and z when n>2
astronomy and included his famous nebular
Fermat is also known for his method of infinite hypothesis
descent
Discovered :invariability of planetary mean
Every positive integer equal to 1 mod 4 was the motions
sum of 2-squares
1786 proved : eccentricities and inclinations of The fifth platonic solid, the dodecahedron is
planetary orbits to each other always remain platos model for the whole universe
small, constant and self-correcting

5-volumes : treatise du mechanique celeste on


Pythagoras 569-475 BC
general laws of equilibrium and motion of solids
and fluids Interested : the concept of number
Second book : on the laws of universal The concept of a triangle
gravitation and the motions of the centre of
Noticed : vibrating string produce harmonious
gravity of bodies in the solar system
tones when the ratio of the lengths of the
2-volume: mechanics applied to a study of the strings are whole numbers
planets
Contributed : Theory of music
Theory of errors
Studied : the properties of numbers
The first editions of the Laplaces Theorie
Analyique des Probabilities Such as even and odd numbers

Covering generating functions, approximations Triangular numbers


to various expressions occurring in probability Perfect numbers
theory, Laplaces definition of probability
Pythagorean theorem
Bayes theorem
Other mathematics attributed to the
Least squares Pythagoreans are : the sum of the angles of a
triangle is equal to two right angles, a polygon
Buffons needle problem
with n sides has sum of interior angles (2n-4)
Inverse probability right angles and sum of exterior angles equal to
four right angles.
Applications to mortality
Existence of irrational numbers
Life expectancy
5 platonic solids
The length of marriages
Solving quadratic equations by geometrical
Legal matters
means

And fact that Venus the evening star was the


Plato 427-347 BC same planet as Venus the morning star

Contribution: philosophy

Mathematics

Science Rene Descartes 1596-1650


He learnt mathematics from the books of clarius Diffraction of light

La Geometri Greatest achievement was his work in Physics


and celestial mechanic which culminated in the
1644 Principia Philosophiae was published
theory of universal gravitation
It attempts to put the whole universe on a
1666 : Three laws of motion
mathematical foundation reducing the study to
one of mechanics Discovered :centrifugal force on a body moving
uniformly in a circular path

Newtons novel idea was to imagine that the


Simeon Denis Poisson 17811840
Earths gravity influenced the Moon, counter
Work : on definite integrals balancing its centrifugal force

His advances in Fourier Series From his law of centrifugal force and Keplers
third law of planetary motion, Newton deduced
This work was the foundation of later work in
the inverse-square law
this area by Dirichlet and Riemann
1687 : Philosophiae naturalis Principia
Poisson distribution
Mathematica
Published : 300-400 works including
He analysed the motion of bodies in resisting
applications to electricity and astronomy and non-resisting media under the action of
1811 : Traite de mechanique centripetal forces

Poissons integral The results were applied to orbiting bodies,


projectiles, pendulums, and free-fall near the
Poissons equation in potential theorem Earth.
Poisson brackets in differential theorem Demonstrated that the planets were attracted
Poissons ratio in elasticity towards the sun by a force varying as the
inverse square of the distance and generalised
Poissons constant in elasticity that all heavenly bodies mutually attract one
another

Sir Isaac Newton 1643-1727 The eccentric orbits of comets, the tides and
their variations, the precession of the Earths
He began revolutionary advances in axis, the motion of the Moon as perturbed by
mathematics, optics, physics and astronomy the gravity of the sun.
1671 De Methodis serierum et Fluxionum

Light consists of the motion of small particles Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher 1890-1962
rather than waves
Theory of errors in astronomical observation
Newtons rings
Fisher is considered the founder of modern Find : his own method to solve quartic equation
statistics
He calculated Eules constant to 15 decimal
1921 introduced : concept of likelihood places

Maximum likelihood estimates Independently discovered : Bernoulli number

Invented : analysis of variance Worked : on hypergeometric series

Studied : hypothesis testing Investigated : relations between integrals and


series
Three fundamental problems
1908 Studied : continued fractions
Specification of the kind of population that the
data came from Divergent series

Parameter estimation 1910 he developed relations between elliptic


modular equations
Distributional problems
1913 wrote to hardy having seen a copy of his
1910 book
Sir William Rowan Hamilton 1805-1865
Hardy & Littlewood studied : unproven theorem
Studied : clairauts Algebra which enclosed with his letter

1822 found an error in one of Laplaces work 1916 he graduated from Cambridge with B.Sc
by research
1832 published : a treatise on the characteristic
function applied to optics His dissertation was on highly composite
numbers and consisted of 7 of his papers
He applied the characteristic function to study
published in England
Fresnels wave surface
1918: FCPS, FRS
Read paper to the Royal Irish academy
expressing complex numbers as algebraic He worked out the Riemann series, the elliptic
couples, or ordered pairs of real numbers integrals , hyper geometric series, functional
equations of Zeta-function
After the discovery of algebraic couples, he
tried to extent the theory to triplets Independently discovered results of Gauss,
Kummer and others on hyper geometric series
800 papers
Work : P(n) partitions of an integer

Joint paper with Hardy-Ramanujan


Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan 1887-1920
Gave an asymptotic formula for p(n)
1900 began to work on summing geometric and
arithmetic series G.N.Watson published 30 papers which were
inspired by Ramanujans work
1902 shown : how to solve cubic equations
Banach-Tarski paradoxical decomposition of a
ball
Stanislaw Marcin Ulam 1909-1984

He developed Monte-Carlo method


Stephen Smale 1930-

Showed : any closed n-dimensional manifold


Stefan Banach 1892-1945
which is homotopy equivalent to the n-sphere
1918 the paper, his first appeard must be the n-sphere when n is at least 5

1920 : Banach space Michael Freedman proved the conjecture for


n=4 in 1982 but the original conjecture remains
Contribution : systematic theory of functional
open
analysis
Contribution : Morse theory
He wrote arithmetic, geometry and algebra
texts for high schools Generalized Poincare conjecture

1929 : together with Steinhaus started a new Discovered : strange attractors


journal studia Mathematica
The n-body problem and electric circuit theory
1931 : new series of Mathematical Monographs were among the applications that samale
founded : Modern functional analysis framed in the language of dynamical systems

Contribution : theory of topological vector


spaces
Thales 624 -747 BC
Measure theory
585 It is reported that Thales predicted an
Integration eclipse of the sun

The theory of sets The cycle of about 19 years for eclipses of the
Moon was well-known but the cycle for eclipses
Orthogonal series of sun was harder to spot since eclipses were
Proved : number of fundamental results on visible at different places on Earth
normed linear spaces Discovered : Height of pramids
Hahn-Banach theorem on the extension of Shadow of the pramids at the time when any
continuous linear functional bodys height and its shadow are equal in
Banach-Steinhaus theorem on bounded length
families of mappings

Banach-Alaoglu theorem Theatetus 417-369 BC


Banach fixed point theorem Books 10 and 13 of Euclids Elements are
almost certainly a description of Theatetus work
Given two magnitudes a and b, then medial is
ab, binomial is a+b, apotome a-b
Wihelm Ackermann 1896-1962
Who assigned the medial line to geometry,
Recursive function
binomial to arithmetic, apotome to harmony
Ackermanns function

Thomas Jan Stieltjes 1856-1894


William Paul Thurston 1946-2012
Worked on : almost all branches of analysis,
continued fractions, number theory 1972 Thesis : Foliations of 3-manifolds
He is often called the father of the analytic Riemanns uniformization theorem
theory of continued fractions.
Kleinian groups were first studied by Poincare
Stieltjes integral and a fundamental finiteness theorem was
proved by Ahlfors
1916 : gave the first example of an absolutely
normal number

Borel had proved such numbers exist but Zeno 490-425 BC


Sierpinski was the first to give an example
40 paradoxes concerning the continuum
Journal : Fundamental Mathematica
In the paradox named The Dichotomy
Contribution : ODE & PDE, Gamma functions,
interpolation, elliptic functions
Zeno says : There is no motion because that
which is moved must arrive a the middle of its
Waclaw Sierpinski 1882-1969 course before it arrives at the end.
1904 : contribution: famous problem on lattice In The Arrow, zeno argues: If everything is
points either at rest or moving when it occupies a
space equal to itself
1916 : gave the first example of an absolutely
normal number Zenos argument (The Achilles): The slower
when running will never be overtaken by the
Journal :Fundamenta Mathematica
quicker.
Continuum hypothesis

Work : on functions of a real variable include


results on functional series, differentiability of
functions, Baires classification

Sierpinski was the author of the incredible


number of 724 papers and 50 books
Opera Omnia [ 73 volumes of collected derivative is given finally as a final
papers and 886 books and articles ] consequence

E001 & E003-Concerned with the isochrone E020-Summation of transcendental


and brachistochrone problems. progressions in which the general terms are
generally derived for the familiar G.P; sum of
E002-Dissertation on sound
the inverse squares of integers
E005-Concerned with curves that intersect
E021-Investigates a possible timing mechanism
orthogonally
for a clock, in which two weights unwind from
E006-Concerned with the involute of the circle curves attached to a pulley

E007-Attempt to explain atmospheric E022-Straight line collision of two bodies and


phenomena in terms of air vesicles, fine matter, determines the laws of conservation of linear
and centrifugal force momentum

E008-General solution of heavy planar curves E025-Summation of series. Series can be


under various lading, catenaries, sails, etc summed using integrals and differential to
reduce a sum to a geometric series [summing
E009-Shortest curves joining two points on a
hyper-geometric series]
surface
E026 & E054-Providing answers to two of the
E010-Exponential to the Differential equation questions posed Fermat. Firstly discrediting of
E012-Geometric condition for tautochronic Fermats formula for primes 22 + 1 . Secondly
n

curves and then shows how to generate such a establishment of Fermats Little Theorem
curves, both analytic and algebraic, starting
E031-New method of solving I-order
from the familiar cycloid
Differential, as applied to the Riccati Equation
E013-Extends the analysis to a resistive
2
1
medium where the resistance is in proportion to E041- = 2
Basel Problem
6 n =1 n
the square of the speed
E044-Method for finding a family of curves
E014-Elementary treatment of finding the pole
arising from the constant of integration of
star from three measurements on a star over
dz=Pdx
time
E248-The Archimedes Screw. Kinematic model
E015-Mechanica vol. I
for the movement of water up or down the spiral
E016-Mechanica vol.II
E278-The Mechanics of solid or Rigid bodies
E019-Euler explores transcendental vol.I & vol.II
progression in which the general terms are
E842-An Introduction to Natural Science,
infinite products related to quotients of factorial
Thoughts of the Elements of the bodies.
relating initially to the Wallis product for
,and in which integrals are formed for the E305-Propagation of sound in one dimension
general terms; a derivative of the half-
E306-Extends the propagation of sound to two
and three dimension. Deriving the wave
equation in Differential form for waves
propagating in two and three dimension

E307-Ricattis method can be used to integrate


the 3-Dimensional equation he has derived for
the propagation of sound

E524-Spherical Trigonometry all derived briefly


and clearly from first principles

E736-Concerning summation of Infinite series

E478-Rotation of any rigid body

E698-Results relating to Spherical triangles.


Lexells paper on Spherical Triangles. Lexells
paper on the Motion of a Rigid Body.