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Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Musa Al-khwarizmi Ernst Friedrich Ferdinand Zermelo 1871-1953

780-850

Euclid 325 BC 265 BC

Adrien Marie Legendre 1752-1833

Eudoxus 408 BC-355 BC

Alexander Grothendieck 1928-2014

Evariste Galois 1811- 1832

Alexis Claude Clairaut 1713-1765

Felix Christian klein 1849-1925

Andrei Nikolaevich Tikhonov 1906-1993

Felix Hausdorff 1869-1942

Apollonius 262 BC-190 BC

Ferdinand Georg Frobenius 1849-1917

Archimedes 287 BC-212 BC

Ferdinand Gotthold Max Eisenstein 1823-1852

August Ferdinand Mobius 1790-1868

Frank Plumpton Ramsey 1903-1930

Augustin Louis Cauchy 1789-1857

Francois Viete 1540-1603

Augustus De morgan 1806-1871

Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel 1784-1846

Benoit Mandlebrot 1924-2010

Frigyes Riesz 1880-1956

Bernhard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzzano

Gabriel cramer 1704-1752

1781-1848

Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Phillipp Cantor 1845-

Bertrand Arthur William Russell 1872-1970

1918

Blaise Pascal 1623-1662

Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann 1826-1866

Brahmagupta 598-670

George Polya 1887-1985

Brook Taylor 1685-1731

Gian Carlo Rota 1932-1999

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi 1804-1851

Girard Desargues 1591-1661

Charles Hermite 1822-1901

Girolamo Cardano 1501-1576

Christiaan Huygens 1629-1695

Giuseppe Peano 1858-1932

Claudius Ptolemy 85?-165?

Godfrey Harold Hardy 1877-1947

Colin Maclaurin 1698-1746

Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz 1646-1716

Daniel Bernoulli 1700-1782

Heinrich Franz Friedrich Tietze 1880-1964

David Hilbert 1862-1943

Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl 1885-1955

Diophantus 200?-284?

Heron 10?-75?

Elwin Bruno Christoffel 1829-1900

Hipparchus 190 BC-120 BC Nicolaus Copernicus 1473-1543

Julius whelm Richard Dedekind 1831-1916 Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher 1890-1962

Karl Herman Amandus Schwarz 1843-1921 Sir William Rowan Hamilton 1805-1865

Wihelm Ackermann 1896-1962

Zeno 490-425 BC

Theory of annuities

Stirlings formula

Dearrangement problem

780-850

Hisab al-jabr walmugabala Alexis Claude Clairaut 1713-1765

Analytical Geometry

integral of the equation

Least squares method

Integral calculus

Major work on elliptic functions (3-volume)

Proving Existence of I.F for I-order D.E

Volume I -elliptic Integral

Three body problem

Volume II Gamma and Beta functions

Solution of equation of degree four

Volume III- Tables of elliptic integral functions

Published: A book on algebra, geometry

Alexander Grothendieck 1928-2014

Conditions for a topological space

Seminaire de Geometrie

Tikhonov topology

Theory of schemes

Thesis on functional equations of Volterra type

Contribution:

Fixed point theorem

Topological tensor

Apollonius 262 BC-190 BC

Sheaf cohomology as derived functors

Conics 8 books

Schemes

Developed the hemicyclium

k-theory

Grothendieck-Riemann Roch

Archimedes 287 BC-212 BC

Topoi

Invented compound pulley

Methods of integration

integration

Proved: The angles of a convex polyhedron are

Accurate approximation to pi determined by its faces

Invented a system for expressing large He published the memoir on definite integral

numbers that later become the basis of his theory of

complex functions.

Archimedes principle

Symmetric functions

Semi-regular polyhedral

Paper: Solving one of Fermats claims on

Extocius brought out editions of some of

polygonal numbers made to mersenne.

Archimedess work

Lectured on methods on integration which he

discovered earlier.

August Ferdinand Mobius 1790-1868

The conditions for convergence of infinite

Thesis: The occultation of fixed stars series.

Wrote a work concerning occutations of the paper: he defined for the first time a complex

planets function of a complex variable.

Published : Trignometry and Double Algebra Released the Russell-Einstein manifesto

detailed derivations of many major theorems in

Co-founder of LMS

set theory, finite and transfinite arithmetic and

elementary measure theory

Fractal

two right angles.

Automorphism group of a free group

Paper: Projective geometry

Varieties of groups

Pascals mystic hexagon

Finite basis problem can each variety defined

by a finite set of laws? Published : work on conic sections

Bernhard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzzano Pressure of the atmosphere decreases with

1781-1848 height.

Papers: foundations of mathematics Pascal was not the first (Pascal triangle)

to discover the general binomial theorem for

Gave proof: Intermediate value theorem fractional and negative power.

A complete theory of science and knowledge Last work : on cycloid

Paradoxes of the infinite Finding its centre of gravity

He gave a function which is nowhere

Surface area of its solid revolution

differentiable yet everywhere continuous

Its arc length

Brahmagupta 598-670

Wrote: Introduction to mathematical philosophy

Brahmasphutasiddhanta ( The opening of the A change of variables formula

Universe) in 628

A way of relating the derivative of a function to

Algorithm for computing square roots, it is the derivative of the inverse function.

equivalent to Newton Raphson iterative

Discussion on vibrating strings

formula

First general treatment of vanishing points.

Methods to solve quadratic equations.

the Integral solutions of Linear indeterminate Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi 1804-1851

equations.

Undertaking research on his own attempting to

Solved some quadratic indeterminate solve quintic equations by radicals.

equations.

Paper : Iterated functions

Rules for summing series

Proved : if a single valued function of one

12+22+32++n2= variable is doubly periodic then the ratio of the

periods is imaginary.

13+23+33++n3=

Global theory of curves

Gave formulas for the area of a cyclic

quadrilateral and for the lengths of the The spherical image of the normal directions

diagonals in terms of the sides. along a closed differentiable curve in space

divides the unit sphere into regions of equal

area.

Brook Taylor 1685-1731

Discoveries : in number theory

Paper : solution to the problem of the centre of

Remarkable new ideas about elliptic functions.

oscillation of a body

Research : PDE of I-order applied to D.E of

Published : 13 articles on optics as diverse as

dynamics

describing experiments in capillary action

magnetism and thermometers Worked : determinants

Found : improving method for approximating Functional determinants

the roots of an equation (New method)

Proved : if a set of n functions in n variables are

Two books appeared in 1715 functionally related then the Jacobian is

identically zero.

In one book, added a new branch (calculus of

finite differences ) While if the functions are independent the

Jacobian can not be identically zero.

Invented : Integration by parts

Charles Hermite 1822-1901

Singular solutions to D.E

Discovered : some D.E satisfied by theta- First publications in 1651 and 1654 considered

functions the fallacy in methods proposed to square the

circle.

Contribution: number theory

Using one of his own lenses, detected in 1655,

Algebra

the first moon of Saturn.

Orthogonal polynomial

Discovered : true shape of the rings of Saturn.

Elliptic functions

Wrote a small work on the calculus of

Theory of quadratic form probabilities, the first printed work on the

subject.

Proved : doubly periodic functions can be

represented as quotients of periodic entire 1656 patented the first pendulum clock.

functions

Build several pendulum clocks to determine

Found: reciprocity law relating to binary form longitude at sea.

Quadratic form + invariant theory = theory of Derived the law of centrifugal force for uniform

transformations circular motion.

Results on this topic provided connections As a result of this he, Hooke, Halley and wren

between number theory, theta functions and formulated the inverse-square law of

transformations of abelian functions. gravitational attraction.

Although an algebraic equation of the fifth Work on the collision of elastic bodies showed

degree can not be solved in radicals, a result the error of Descartes law of impact.

which was proved by Ruffini and Abel, Hermite

Experiementally verified the law of conservation

showed in 1858 that an algebraic equation of

of momentum.

the fifth degree could be solved using elliptic

functions. Published : a book on physics in 1673.

number pendulum

Using similar method, Lindemann established Describes the descent of bodies in a vacuum.

in 1882, pi also.

Defines evolutes and involutes of curve

Hermite polynomial

Finds the evolutes of the cycloid and of the

Hermites differential equation parabola

theory of light.

Hermitian matrices

Also worked on the velocity of light, which he

believed was finite, and was pleased to of

Christiaan Huygens 1629-1695 Romers experiements which gave an

approximate velocity for light determined by The structure of bees honeycombs

observing Jupiters moon.

Maclaurins Treatise on algebra was published

Greatest mechanist of the 17-th century. 2-year after his death.

breathing

Epicycles

Faro

Using chords of a circle and an inscribed 360

gon, the approximation pi=3+17/20=3.14166 A game of chance

Major work Geography written in 8 books Figures bounded by two arcs of a circle

A book about the stereographic projection of Best shape for a shipss anchor

the celestial sphere onto a plane.

Essay on magnetism

Colin Maclaurin 1698-1746

Essay on ocean currents

Study of the tides

Effects of forces on ships

Published : 2-volume Treatise on fluxions

Proposals to reduce the pitching and tossing of

Fundamental theorem of calculus a ship in high seas

Elliptic integrals

Integral test for the convergence of an infinite First work on invariant theory

series

Proved : Basis theorem

Annular eclipse of the sun in 1737

Worked : a book on algebraic number theory

Famous speech , the problems of Mathematics Every number can be written as the sum of 4-

to the second International Congress of squares

Mathematicians in Paris.

Fermat stated but not given proof.

Presented 23 unsolved problems

Lagrange proved using Euler result.

Continuum hypothesis

Lemma : a3-b3=c3+d3

The well ordering of the reals

Goldbach conjectures

Elwin Bruno Christoffel 1829-1900

The transcendence of powers of algebraic

Dissertation on motion of electricity in

numbers

homogeneous bodies.

Extension of Dirichlets principle

Two paper : on numerical integration

Contribution : invariants

Christoffels theorem

Algebraic number fields

Paper : function theory including

Functional analysis

Conformal mapping

Integral equations

Geometry

Mathematical physics

Tensor analysis

Calculus of variants

Riemanns o-function

Hilbert space

Theory of invariants

Kinetic gas theory

Orthogonal polynomials

Theory of radiations

Continued fractions

Differential equations

Diophantus 200?-284?

Potential theory

Arithmetica (collection of 130 problems)

Light

Gives numerical solutions of both determinate

Shock waves

and indeterminate equations

Published : paper on the propagation of plane

Diophantine analysis(13 books)

waves in media a surface discontinuity

Diophantus solves problems of finding values

6-paper on invariants

which make two linear expressions

simultaneously into squares and cubes. Some paper ->development of the tensor

calculus

4n+3 can not be the sum of 2-squares

Christoffel reduction theorem Extended weierstrasss method for the extrema

of integrals over a class of curves to the case

Solves the local equivalence problem for two

of integrands depending on derivatives of

quadratic differential forms.

arbitrarity high order

Emmy Amalie Noether 1882-1935 neighbourhood in the space of curves.

Proves a relationship between symmetries in Cantor had put forward the continuum

physics and conservation principles hypothesis in 1878, conjecturing that every

infinite subset of the continuum is either

Work in the theory of invariants led to countable or has the cardinality of the

formulations for several concepts of Einsteins continuum.

general theory of relativity

Set theory, in particular taking up Hilberts idea

Ideal theory to head towards a revolution of the problem of

Producing an abstract theory which helped the continuum hypothesis.

develop ring theory 1902 published work on set theory, on the

This paper was of fundamental importance in addition of transfinite cardinals.

the development of modern algebra Proved : every set can be well ordered

Gave : decomposition of ideals into Axiomatic set theory

intersections of primary ideals in any

commutative ring with ascending chain 1908, published his axiomatic system

condition containing 7 axioms despite his failure to prove

consistency

Lasker had already proved this result for

polynomial rings

Van der waerden wrote his book Modern Euclid 325 BC 265 BC

algebra

Elements ( 13 books )

Major part of 2-volume consists of Noethers

Book(1-6)-plane geometry

work

Book(7-9)-number theory

1927 collaborated with Hasse and Brauer in

work on non-commutative algebras. Book10 theory of irrational numbers mainly

work of Theaetetus

Ernst Friedrich Ferdinand Zermelo 1871-1953

Wrote book:

Dissertation on calculus of variations

Data

Divisions Crelles journal specialized in complex analysis,

algebraic geometry and invariant theory

Optics

Klein and Lie discovered the fundamental

Phaenomena

properties of the asymptotic lines on the

kummer surface

geometry

Contribution : theory of proportion

In which, showed non Euclidean geometry was

Pythogorean discover irrationals consistent iff Euclidean geometry was

Work : on integration using his method of consistent

exhaustion

Work : function theory

Volumes of cones 1882 paper treats function theory in a

Pyramides geometric way connecting potential theory and

conformal mapping

Archimedes use Eudoxus method of

exhaustion to prove theorem Interested using transcendental methods to

solve the general equation of the fifth degree

Eudoxuss planetary theory

Solve problem using the group of the

Book : on geography (7 books) icosahedron

Evariste Galois 1811- 1832 Wrote : 4 volume on automorphic and elliptic

1829 first paper on continued fraction submitted modular functions

articles on the algebraic solution of equations Klein bottle

Posthumous article by Abel

elliptic integrals

Main work : topology

1846 Galois theory published in Liouville

Journal Set theory

set

Felix Christian klein 1849-1925

Attempt to prove cantors continuum hypothesis

In his dissertation klein classified second

degree line complexes using weiertrasss Proved : results on the cardinality of Borel sets

theory of elementary divisors in 1916

Created : theory of topological and metric On finite groups, he proved sylows theorem for

spaces abstract groups

geometry) classes

them on group characters is of fundamental

Term metric space

importance

Ferdinand Georg Frobenius 1849-1917 representations, one on induced characters one

on tensor product of characters

Weierstrass and Fuchs list 15 topics on which

Frobenius had major contributions : 1898 introduced : induced representation

The algebraic solution of equations whose 1896 gave the irreducible characters for the

coefficients are rational functions of one alternating groups A4,A5, the symmetric groups

variable S4,S5 and the group PSL(2,7)

Linear substitutions and bilinear forms Introduced : the concept of irreducibility for

matrices

Adjoint linear differential operators

Ferdinand Gotthold Max Eisenstein 1823-1852

The relations among the 28 double tangents to

a plane of degree 4 He began by learning the differential and

integral calculus from the works of Euler and

Sylow theorem Lagrange

Double cosets arising from two finite groups Hamilton gave him a copy of a paper that he

Jacobis covariants had written on Abels work

Jacobi functions in three variable Submitted paper on cubic forms with two

variables

The theory of biquadratic forms

1844 published 23 papers and 2 problems

The theory of surfaces with a differential

parameter Even Gauss was impressed

Higher reciprocity laws Calculated pi to 10 places using a polygon of

393216 sides

Disquisitions arithmetica

Represented pi as an infinite product for the

Contribution : theory of elliptic functions

first time

Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel 1784-1846

1925 Published first paper The foundations of

His interests turned towards navigation and he

Mathematics

considered the problem of finding the position

1930 Paper : on a problem of formal logic of ship at sea

methods for determining the consistency of a

Began to make observations to determine

logical formula

longitude

Some theorems on combinatorics led to

1804 published a paper on Halleys comet

Ramsey theory

He used Bradleys data to give a reference

Two paper : A contribution to the theory of

system for the positions of stars and planets.

taxation

He had to deduce errors in Bradleys

A mathematical theory of saving

instruments and errors caused by refraction

Francois Viete 1540-1603 data and eliminate the effects of the Earths

motion, the precession of the Earth and other

1591 published book : In artem analyticam

effects

isagoge

Work : determining the constants of precession,

Improvement : theory of equations nutation and aberration.

Presented methods for solving equations of Undertook his monumental task of determining

second, third and fourth degree the positions and proper motions of over 50,000

He knew the connection between the positive stars.

roots of equations and the coefficients of the From periodic variations in the proper motions

different powers of the unknown quantity. of Sirius and Procyon, Bessel deduced that

The word coefficient is actually due to viete they had companion stars in orbit which had not

been observed.

Wrote books on trigonometry and geometry,

gave geometrical solutions to doubling a cube 1841 He announced that Sirius had a

and trisecting an angle and the construction of companion, thus being the first to predict the

the tangent at any point on an Archimedian existence of dark stars

spiral Bessel functions

Interest in these functions Arose in the This is of fundamental importance in early

treatment of the problem of the perturbation in quantum theory

the

Contribution : ergodic theory

planetary system.

In 1938 gave: mean ergodic theorem

Contribution : to geodesy include a correction in

Book : functional analysis

1826 to the second pendulum. The length of

which is precisely calculated so that it requires

exactly one second for a swing.

Gabriel cramer 1704-1752

1841 deduced a value of 1/299 for the ellipticity

of the Earth, the amount of elliptical distortion Thesis : theory of sound

by which the Earths shape depends from a Published : geometric problems

perfect sphere.

Aurora borealis

Frigyes Riesz 1880-1956 Leibniz

Doctoral dissertation was on geometry Edited : 5 volume work by Christian wolff

Founder of functional analysis Book : Introduction a lanalyse des lignes

1907,1909 produced representation theorem courbes algebraigue

for a functional on quadratic Lebesgue integral Cramers rule

functions and in terms of a Stieltjes integral

Castillon cramer problem

Introduced : the shape of q-fold

Cramers paradox

Lebesgue integrable function

Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Phillipp Cantor 1845-

1918 his work came close to an axiomatic 1918

theory for Banach spaces

Received doctorate in number theory

Publish : Egorovs theorem on linear functionals

One of his senior colleagues, who challenged

Riesz-Fischer theorem cantor to prove the open problem on the

1907 proved fundamental in the Fourier uniqueness of representation of a function as a

analysis of Hilbert space trigonometric series.

Basis for proving that matrix mechanics and 1870-cantor solved the problem

wave mechanics were equivalent Published : trigonometric series(Dedekind cuts)

Proved : Rational numbers and algebraic Riemann hypothesis

numbers are countable

George Polya 1887-1985

the idea of a 1-1 correspondence appears for

the first time 1918 published papers : on series

1877 proved : there was 1-1 correspondence of Number theorem

points on the interval [0,1] and points in d-

dimensional space. Combinatorics

provide a basic introduction to set theory Astronomy

5th paper presented of the transfinite numbers Probability

as an autonomous and systematic extension of

the natural numbers. Integral functions

Last paper is on set theory (1895 & 1897) He gives wise advise if you cannot solve a

problem, then there is an easier problem you

Second paper describes his theory of well cannot solve: find it

ordered sets and ordinal number.

Proved : theorem on random walks

All even number up to 1000 could be written as

the sum of two primes. 1937 contribution : Polya enumeration theorem

( in combinatorics)

Gian Carlo Rota 1932-1999

He lent Bernhard Legendres book on the

theory of numbers, Riemann read the 900 page Worked : on functional analysis

book in 6 days. On operator theorem

Riemanns thesis studied the theory of complex 1959-1960 : 2-paper on ergodic theorem

variables ( Riemann surfaces)

function theory Girard Desargues 1591-1661

integral ( condition of Riemann integrability) 1648 published : perspective theorem

Solved general inversion problems

Riemann extended the zeta function to complex Book : 2-book

values

For 6-years, Cardano worked on solving cubic Fourier series

and quartic equations by radicals

The Riemann zeta function

1545 published : Ars Magna

Distribution of primes

Two encyclopaedias of natural sciences

He had proved the Riemann hypothesis

Giuseppe Peano 1858-1932

Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz 1646-1716

1886 proved : if f(x, y) is continuous then the 1st

1671 published work in which he claims that

order D.E dy/dx=f(x, y) has a solution

movement depends on the action of a spirit.

Showed :solutions were not unique

Work : on dynamics

Published : a method for solving systems of

1675 wrote a manuscript using the integral

linear D.E using successive approximations

notation for the first time.

1888 published book : Geometrical Calculus

In the same manuscript the product rule for

This book contains the first definition of a vector differentiation is given

space with a modern notation and style.

1676 discovered : power rule for both integral

1889 published : Peano axioms and fractional exponents

system of arithmetic

Formulario Mathematica ( calculus volume)

1684 published details of his differential

calculus

Godfrey Harold Hardy 1877-1947

The paper contained : differential notation

Paper : convergence of series, integrals allied

Rules for computing derivative of powers

topics

Products and Quotients

1908 published : A Course of Pure

Mathematics 1686 published paper dealing with integral

calculus.

1913 received Ramanujans first letter

Heinrich Franz Friedrich Tietze 1880-1964

Interests : ( Pure Mathematics )

Thesis : Topological invariants

Diophantine analysis

Contributed : foundations of general topology

Summation of divergent series

Developed : subdivisions of all cell complexes properties of space time with his application of

group theory to quantum mechanics.

Invented : Tietze transformations ( fundamental

groups are topological invariants)

astronomy, giving a method to find the distance

Continuous mapping of areas

between Alexandria and Rome using the

Map coloring difference between local times at which an

eclipse of the moon is observed at each city.

Book : Famous problems of Mathematics

His treatise Metrica contains 3 volumes

Worked : ruler and compass construction

Proved : Herons formula

Continued fractions

If A is a area of a triangle with sides a,b,c and

Partitions s=(a+b+c)/2 then A2=s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)

Distribution of prime numbers A method for finding the cube root of a number

Differential geometry Wrote a important treatise on mechanics

Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl 1885-1955 describe simple mechanical machines

Riemann Hipparchus 190 BC-120 BC

2-dimensional differentiable manifold a covering Even if he did not invent it, Hipparchus is the

surface first person whose systematic use of

Duality between differentials and 1-cycles trigonometry we have documentary evidence.

Weyl metrice, led to a gauge field theory Introduced : The division of a circle into 360

degrees into Greece

Contribution : uniform distribution of numbers

modulo 1 which are fundamental in analytic Produced : table of chords

number theory Trigonometric table

He attempted to incorporate electromagnetism He did this by using the supplementary angle

into the geometric formalism of general theorem, half angle formulas, linear

relativity. interpolation

Produced : The first unified field theory for Hipparchus calculated the length of the year to

which the Maxwell electromagnetic field and the within 6.5 minutes

gravitational field appear as geometrical Discovered : Precession of the equinoxes

Made : careful study of the motion of the moon Concentrated on functional analysis and its

diverse applications

Gave : a range of values within which be

calculated that the true distance must lie. The general theory of orthogonal series

days.

Published : theory of tossing coins

Hipparchuss calculation led him to a value for

Basedon measure theory

the distance to the moon of between 59 and 67

earth radii, quite remarkable in that the correct 1925 first to define and discuss the concept of

distance is zero earth radii. strategy in game theory

Hipparchus was also able to give an epicycle 1929 togather with Banach started a new

model for the motion of sun, but did not attempt journal studia Mathematica

to give an epicycle model for the motion of the

planets. The theory of orthogonal series

dividing a cake into n pieces so that it is

Hippacratus 470 BC-410 BC proportional and envy free

Worked : squaring the circle and doubling the Envy free solution for n=3 was found in 1962 by

cube John H.Conwy and independently by John

Selfridge.

In his attempts to square the circle, Hippocrates

was able to find the areas of lunes, certain He gave an example of trigonometric series

crescent-shaped figures, using his theorem that which diverged at every point, yet its

the ratio of the areas of two circles is the same coefficients tended to zero.

as the ratio of the squares of their radii.

He also gave an example of a trigonometric

Showed : a cube can be doubled if two mean series which converged in one interval but

proportionals can be determined between a diverged in a second interval

number and its double.

He was the first to make precise the concept of

First known geometer to write a geometry book. independent and uniformly distributed

Book : also included geometrical solutions to 1937 book : Mathematical Snapshots

quadratic equations and early methods of

integration.

Ibn Yanya al-Maghribi Al-Samawal 1130-1180

Studied Lebesgues two major book Book 1 : Defines integer power of variable

After defining polynomials, he describes Law of large numbers in probability theorem

addition, subtraction, multiplication and division

Published : (1682-1704) 5-Treatise on infinite

of polynomials

series

Gave : methods or the extraction of the roots of

In 2-of these (5-treatise) sum(1/n) diverges

polynomials

He believed were new but proved 40-years

Book 2 : Describes the theory of quadratic

earlier

equations

Sum(1/n2) converges to a finite limit less than 2

Gave geometric solutions to these equations

Euler was the first to find the sum of this series

Also describes the solution of indeterminate

pi2/6

equations

Studied : exponential series came out of

His description of the binomial theorem where

examining compound interest

the coefficients are given by the Pascal triangle

12+22+32++n2=n(n+1)(2n+1)/6

1690 published : In Acta Eruditorum

Final book : problem in combinatorics

Showed : The problem of determining the

Namely to find 10 unknowns given the 210

isochrones is equivalent to solving a first-order

equations which give the sums taken 6 at a

nonlinear differential equation

time.

The isochrones, or curve of constant descent,

Of course such a system of 210 equations need

is the curve along which a particle will descent

not be consistent and he gave 504 conditions

under gravity from any point to the bottom in

which are necessary for the system to be

exactly the same time, no matter what the

consistent

starting point.

Jacob Bernoulli 1654-1705 equation)

Contribution : 1685 on the parallels of logic and Discovered : general method to determine

algebra evolutes of a curve as the envelope of its

circles of curvature.

1685 algebra

Caustic curves

1687 geometry

Curves of a parabola

Geometry result : construction to divide any

triangle into four equal parts with two Logarithmic spiral

perpendicular lines.

Epicycloids

1689 infinite series

Drawbridge problem [ curve is required so that Contributed : Creation of the theory of

the cable always keeps the drawbridge elementary divisors of lambda matrices

balanced.

James Stirling 1692-1770

discussion s of exponential series.

1717 published : First work which extends

Newtons theory of plane curves of degree 3,

Jacques Salomon Hadamard 1865-1963 adding four new types of curves to the 72 given

by Newton.

Research : investigating the problem of finding

an estimate for the determinants generated by There are results on the curve of quickest

coefficients of a power series. descent, the catenary and orthogonal

trajectories

Thesis : 1892 on functions defined by Taylor

series 1730 published: Methods Differentialis

Paper : number of primes less than a given This book is a treatise on infinite series,

number summation, interpolation and quadrature.

is best known appears as Example 2 to

1896 prime number theorem

Proposition 28.

Contribution : geometry, dynamics

Gave theorem to treat convergence of an

1893 published : determinants inequality infinite product.

propositions concerning the figure of the Earth.

Coding theory

Stated without proof, that the Earth is an oblate

Writing several papers on probability in

spheroid, supporting cassinian view.

particular on Markov chains

1745 published a paper on the ventilation of

Wrote almost 300 papers mine shafts.

He did important work on Matrix Theory Paper : on algebra

1851 Discovered : discriminant of a cubic

1804 work : on the theory of heat

equation

1808 Fourier expansions of functions as

Used matrix theory to study higher dimensional

trigonomical series [Fourier Series]

geometry

1807 memoir together with additional work on Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss 1777-1855

the cooling of infinite solids and terrestrial and

Discovered : Bodes law

radiant heat.

Binomial theorem

Arithmetic-geometric mean

Jean Le Rond dAlembert 1717-1783

Law of quadratic reciprocity

He read his first paper on some errors he had

found in Reyneaus standard text. Prime number theorem

1740 work on the mechanics of fluid Dissertation : fundamental theorem of algebra

Paper on integral calculus Published : number theory book

He worked on the encyclopedia, wrote 1801 Disquisitions Arithmeticae

mathematical articles in this 28 volume.

1801 used least squares to predict the orbit of

1747 published an article on vibrating string. Ceres

Defined the derivative of a function as the limit 1809 published : book 2

of a quotient of increments.

2 volume : motion of celestial bodies

DAlemberts ratio test

Volume I : Differential equations

1753 and 1767 5 volume.

Conic sections

Elliptic orbits

Johann Bernoulli 1667-1748

Volume II : estimation of planets orbit

De LHospital Calculus

Introduction of hyper geometric function work

1694 considered the function y=xx concerned with potential theory

Investigated series using the method of Carried out a geodesic survey of the state of

integration by parts Hanover.

Discovered : addition theorems for Invented : heliotrope

trigonometric and hyperbolic functions using the

differential equations 1823 published papers : on the least square

method

Solved : problem of catenary

1828 Gauss Potential theorem

Proposed and solved : the problem of

brachristochrone Least square method

1696 proposed : Isoperimetric problem 1832 He and Weber investigated the theory of

terrestrial magnetism.

John Conway 1937- Theory of heat

et Appliquees

Discovered : Surreal numbers

One of the first topics he studied, which

Article: on numbers and games

developed from his early work on

Winning ways for your mathematical plays. electromagnetism, was a new topic called

fractional calculus

Sphere packings

Investigate the general problem of integration of

Lattices and groups

algebraic functions

The book of numbers

His work at first was independent of that of Abel

On Quaternions and octomions

Worked : transcendental number

Symmetries of things Constructed : an infinite class of transcendental

numbers using continued fractions

0.1100010000000000000000010000

Invention : logarithm

Where there is a 1 in place n! and 0 elsewhere

Napiers logarithms are not really to any base.

Work : on boundary value problems on

Briggs had suggested to Napier that log should differential equations

be to base 10

Sturm-Liouvillie theory

Napier suggested log 1 should be zero.

Sturm and Liouvillie examined general linear

Briggs later made tables second order D.E and examined properties of

Described a method of multiplication using their eigen values, the behavior of the eigen

number rods functions and the series expansion of arbitrary

functions in terms of these eigen functions

Contribution : spherical triangle

Liouvillie contributed to differential geometry

Laplace 200 year later , said that logarithms, by studying conformal transformations

shortening the labors, doubled the life of the

astronomers. Proved : theorem concerning the measure

preserving property of Hamiltonian dynamics

Joseph Liouville 1809-1882 papers, quadratic reciprocity

Paper : on electro-dynamics Wrote over 400 papers in total

PDE

Joseph-Louis Lagrange 1736-1813 Probability and foundations of calculus

the binomial theorem and the successive

1770 proving every integer is the sum of four

derivatives of the product of functions

squares

Work : tautochrone

1771 proved : wilsons theorem

Some important discoveries which would

1770 presented an important work which made

contribute substantially to the new subject of

a fundamental investigation of degrees up to 4

the calculus of variations

could be solved by radicals.

1756 He generalized results which Euler had

Studied : permutations of the roots

himself obtained in calculus of variations

Mechanique analytique->fluid mechanics

Short work on : calculus of probabilities

Lagrange published 2 volumes of his calculus

In a work on the foundations of dynamics,

lectures

Lagrange based his development on the

principle of least action and on kinetic energy. 1797 published first theory of functions of a real

variable

Major study: on the propagation of sound

Theorie des functions analytique

Contribution : theory of vibrating string

string, which he took to consist of n masses Jules Henri Poincare 1854-1912

joined by weightless strings.

Developed : concept of automorphic functions

Solved : resulting system of n+1 D.E, then let n which he used to solve second order linear D.E

get large to obtain a functional equation with algebraic coefficients

Lagrangian function [ fluid mechanics] 1895 published : Analysis situs

Problem to which he applied his method was Early systematic treatment of topology

the study the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn.

Studied : optics, electricity, telemetry,

1772 shared with Euler 3-body problem capillarity, elasticity, thermodynamics, potential

theory, quantum theory, theory of relativity and

1780 orbits of comets by the planets

cosmology

Covered many topics:

Three body problem

Stability of the solar system

Theory of light

Mechanics

Electromagnetic waves

Dynamics

3-body problem were convergent

Fluid mechanics

Chaotic dynamics began 1963 Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass 1815-1897

Julia Bowman Rabinson 1814 & 1842 3-short paper on : his theory of

complex variable

Work : on Hilbers 10th problem

1854 published paper: on abelian functions

Julius whelm Richard Dedekind 1831-1916

integrals

Dedekind took a course given by Guass on

1856 Discovered: function that although

least action

continues, had no derivative at any point

Thesis : Theory of Eulerian integrals

1863 proved : complex numbers are the only

Abelian functions commutative algebraic extension of the real

numbers

Elliptic functions

1831 Gauss had promised a proof of this but

He applies his theory of ideals to the theory of had failed to give one

Riemann surfaces

Kazimierz Kuratowski 1896-1980

1879 published : Uber die Theorie der ganzen

algebraischen zahlen Showed : a graph is planar iff it does not

contain a sub-graph

Karl Herman Amandus Schwarz 1843-1921

surfaces on to the spherical surface. Kurt Godel 1906-1978

Alternative method for solving Dirichlet problem 1931 Godels incompleteness theorem

problem of the calculus of variations systems showing in any axiomatic

mathematical system there are propositions

Answered : The equation of whether a given that cannot be proved or disproved within the

minimal surface really yields a minimal area axioms of the system

The idea in this work led Emile Picard to his Gave lecture : on un-decidable propositions of

existence proof for solutions of D.E formal mathematical systems

It also contains the inequality for integrals now His work consistency of the axiom of choice

known as the Schwarz inequality and of the generalized

set theory

ballistics ,,analysis, shipbuilding and navigation,

the motion of the moon, Differential calculus

Leonardo Pisano (Fibonaci) 1170-1250

In number theory, worked on fermat primes,

Book : Liber abbaci (1202)

and in so doing introduced the Euler pi function

Practica geometriae (1220)

Proved : Fermats last theorem for n=3

Flos (1225)

His solution for Basel problem pi2/6

Liber quadratorum (1225)

Elementary functions

Book of squares

Studied : bita & gamma functions which he had

In the third section were problems involving introduced first in 1729, and ODE&PDE

perfect numbers, problems involving the

Discovered : Eulers formula

Chinese remainder theorem and problems

involving summing arithmetic and geometric Proved: ln(-1)=pi.i

series

Studied : orthogonal trajectories

Fibonacci sequence

Rediscovered : C-R equations

n2+(2n+1)=(n+1)2

Work : on infinite series included Euler

no x, y such that x2+y2 and x2-y2 are both constant, calculated to 16 decimal places

squares and x4-y4=z2 has no non-trivial integral

Studied : Fourier Series

solutions

He was the first to express an algebraic

Defined the concept of a congruum a number of

function by such series

the form ab(a+b)(a-b), if (a+b) is even and 4-

times this if a+b is odd Found : Euler- Maclaurin summation formula

independently of maclaurin

Proved congruum must be divisible by 24

Considered : Linear equations with constant

Showed : for x, c such that x2+c and x2-c are

coefficients

both squares

Second ordered DE with variable coefficient

Then c is congruum

Power series solution of DE

Proved : squares cannot be a congruum

A method of variation of constants

Integrating factors

Leonhard Euler 1707-1783

A method of approximating solutions

Euler wrote around 380 article

When considering vibrating membranes , Euler

He wrote books on the calculus of variations,

was led to the Bessel equation which he solved

the calculation of planetary orbits, artillery and

by introducing Bessel functions

Contribution : differential geometry Over the years two that did not lead to prime

(67 and 257) and missed three that did

Investigating : theory of surfaces and curvature

(61,89,107)

of surfaces

ideas in topology such as the Euler Nicolo Fontana (Tartaglia ) 1499-1557

characteristic of a polyhedron

The first person known to have solved cubic

1736 published : Mechanica equations algebraically was del Ferro

Developed : kinematics and dynamics of rigid Fior began to boast that he was able to solve

bodies with application of ship-propulsion cubics and a challenge between him Tartaglia

was arranged

1750 setting up the main formula: continuity

equation Tartaglia discovered how to solve all cubics,

where as Fior had only been taught to solve

Laplace velocity potential equation

some, so Tartaglia won easily.

Euler equation for the motion of an inviscid

Based on Tartaglias formula cardano and his

incompressible fluid

assistant Ferrari made remarkable progress

Work : astronomy finding proofs of all cases of the cubic, solving

quartic equation

Theory of music

1545 cardano published solutions to the cubic

Cartography and quartic equations

Euler notations : f(x), e, I, pi, summation, Contribution : application of mathematics to

artillery fire

Maria Gaetana Agnesi 1718-1799 In the work he described new ballistic methods

and instruments, including the first firing tables

Witch of Agnesi

Marin Mersenne 1588-1648

Worked : on geometry and differential

Investigated : prime number equations

Tried to find a formula that would represent all St. Petersburg problem

primes, he failed

Showed: 1/n2 is pi2/6 which had cofounded

2p-1 investigating of large primes Liebniz and Jacob Berrnoulli

He claimed that n is prime if Other problems he worked on involved DE

p=2,3,35,7,13,17,19,31,67,127 and 257 but

composite for other 44 primes smaller than 257 Studied : problem of orthogonal trajectories

Construction of orthogonal trajectories to Quotes on perfect numbers, states that nth

families of curves primes has n digits, and that all perfect numbers

end in 6 or 8 alternatively

Proved : equality of mixed second-order partial

derivatives These are false 6,28,496 and 8128

integrals

Copernicuss heliostatic cosmology involved

giving several distinct motions to the Earth In one paper he gave the first solution of an

integral equation

Nicole d oresme 1323-1382

1824 proved impossibility of solving the general

Invented : coordinate geometry before

equation of the 5th degree in radicals

Descartes

Proved : Abels theorem

Credited rules of exponents: xmxn=xm+n

(xm)n=xmn Paper : radically transformed the theory of

elliptic integrals to the theory of functions by

Even more imaginative was his suggestion that

using their inverse functions

irrational powers are possible

Work : on the algebraic solution of equations

Also worked on infinite series

was found, including the theorem

He was the first to prove that the harmonic

If every three roots of an irreducible equation of

series diverses

prime degree are related to one another in such

Also opposed the theory of a stationary Earth a way that one of them may be expressed

as proposed by Aristotle and taught motion of rationally in terms of the other, then the

the Earth, 200 years before Aristotle equation is soluble in radicals

reflection of light and the speed of the light.

Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky 1792-1856

Nicomachus 60?-120? the roots of algebraic equations

the first work to treat arithmetic as a separate

Omar Khayyam 1048-1131

for geometry

Work : problems of Arithmetic

A book on music Paolo Ruffini 1765-1822

equations with his claim that quintics could not

Treatise on Demonstration of problems of

be solved by radicals

algebra

He was the first to introduce the notion of the

order of an element, conjucacy, the cycle

Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev 1821-1894 decomposition of elements of permutation

groups and the notions of primitive and

Work : on prime numbers included the

imprimitive

determination of the numbers of primes not

exceeding a given numbers Proved : order of a permutation is the least

common multiple of the lengths in the

1849 Wrote an important book on theory of decomposition in to disjoint cycles and that S5

congruences has no sub-groups of index 3,4 or 8.

1845 Bertrand conjectured: there was always at 1820 published a scientific article on typhus

least one prime between n and 2n for n>3 based on his experience with disease

1850 Chebyshev proved Bertrand s conjecture Wrote on probability

Proved : lim n00(pi(n).log n/n)=1

The proof of this results was proved by

Book I Arithmetic

Hadamard and de la vallee Poussin

independently Book II-deals with Apollonius method for

dealing with large numbers

studied : converting rotary motion in to

rectilinear motion by mechanical coupling The method for dealing with large numbers.

chebyshev parallel motion is tree linked bars The method expresses numbers as powers of

approximating rectilinear motion 10,000

proportionals between two given straight lines

orthogonal functions

Second part : construction of the arithmetic,

theory of integrals geometric and harmonic means

construction of maps Third part : a collection o geometrical

calculation of geometric volumes paradoxes

polyhedral can be inscribed in a sphere

Book IV: properties of curves including the Find all solutions of Nx21=y2 for N not a square

spiral of Archimedes and the quadratix of number , was however solved by Wallis and

Hippias and includes his trisection methods. Brouncker and they developed continued

fractions in their solution

Book V: 13 semi regular solids(discovered by

Archimedes) Conjectured : there are exactly 2-integer

solutions of x2+4=y3 and x2+2=y3 has only 1

He compares the area of figures with equal

integer solution

perimeters and volumes of solids with equal

surface areas, providing a result due to

zenodorus that the sphere has greater volume

Pirre-simon Laplace 1749-1827

than any regular solid with equal surface area,

the one with the greater number of faces has First paper:on maxima and minima of curves

the greater volume where he improved on methods given by

Lagrange

Book VII : Pappus problem

Difference equation

Book VIII : Mechanics

Wrote : on integral calculus

Wrote : on music

Mechanics

On hydrodynamics

Physical astronomy

Mathematical astronomy

Paul Erdos 1913-1996

5-book

1850 chebyshev proved Bertrands conjecture

Apparent motions of the celestial bodies

1896 Hadamard and de la vallee Poussin

independently proved the priiime number The motion of the sea

theorem using complex analysis

Atmospheric refraction

Wrote over 1500 papers during his lifetime

Actual motion of the celestial bodies on force

and momentum

Pirre de Fermat 1601-1665 Theory of universal gravitation and included an

account of the motion of the sea and shape of

Produced important work on maxima & minima

the Earth

Fermat last theorem xn+yn=zn has no non-zero

Final book : gave an historical account of

integer solutions for x, y and z when n>2

astronomy and included his famous nebular

Fermat is also known for his method of infinite hypothesis

descent

Discovered :invariability of planetary mean

Every positive integer equal to 1 mod 4 was the motions

sum of 2-squares

1786 proved : eccentricities and inclinations of The fifth platonic solid, the dodecahedron is

planetary orbits to each other always remain platos model for the whole universe

small, constant and self-correcting

Pythagoras 569-475 BC

general laws of equilibrium and motion of solids

and fluids Interested : the concept of number

Second book : on the laws of universal The concept of a triangle

gravitation and the motions of the centre of

Noticed : vibrating string produce harmonious

gravity of bodies in the solar system

tones when the ratio of the lengths of the

2-volume: mechanics applied to a study of the strings are whole numbers

planets

Contributed : Theory of music

Theory of errors

Studied : the properties of numbers

The first editions of the Laplaces Theorie

Analyique des Probabilities Such as even and odd numbers

to various expressions occurring in probability Perfect numbers

theory, Laplaces definition of probability

Pythagorean theorem

Bayes theorem

Other mathematics attributed to the

Least squares Pythagoreans are : the sum of the angles of a

triangle is equal to two right angles, a polygon

Buffons needle problem

with n sides has sum of interior angles (2n-4)

Inverse probability right angles and sum of exterior angles equal to

four right angles.

Applications to mortality

Existence of irrational numbers

Life expectancy

5 platonic solids

The length of marriages

Solving quadratic equations by geometrical

Legal matters

means

Plato 427-347 BC same planet as Venus the morning star

Contribution: philosophy

Mathematics

He learnt mathematics from the books of clarius Diffraction of light

and celestial mechanic which culminated in the

1644 Principia Philosophiae was published

theory of universal gravitation

It attempts to put the whole universe on a

1666 : Three laws of motion

mathematical foundation reducing the study to

one of mechanics Discovered :centrifugal force on a body moving

uniformly in a circular path

Simeon Denis Poisson 17811840

Earths gravity influenced the Moon, counter

Work : on definite integrals balancing its centrifugal force

His advances in Fourier Series From his law of centrifugal force and Keplers

third law of planetary motion, Newton deduced

This work was the foundation of later work in

the inverse-square law

this area by Dirichlet and Riemann

1687 : Philosophiae naturalis Principia

Poisson distribution

Mathematica

Published : 300-400 works including

He analysed the motion of bodies in resisting

applications to electricity and astronomy and non-resisting media under the action of

1811 : Traite de mechanique centripetal forces

projectiles, pendulums, and free-fall near the

Poissons equation in potential theorem Earth.

Poisson brackets in differential theorem Demonstrated that the planets were attracted

Poissons ratio in elasticity towards the sun by a force varying as the

inverse square of the distance and generalised

Poissons constant in elasticity that all heavenly bodies mutually attract one

another

Sir Isaac Newton 1643-1727 The eccentric orbits of comets, the tides and

their variations, the precession of the Earths

He began revolutionary advances in axis, the motion of the Moon as perturbed by

mathematics, optics, physics and astronomy the gravity of the sun.

1671 De Methodis serierum et Fluxionum

Light consists of the motion of small particles Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher 1890-1962

rather than waves

Theory of errors in astronomical observation

Newtons rings

Fisher is considered the founder of modern Find : his own method to solve quartic equation

statistics

He calculated Eules constant to 15 decimal

1921 introduced : concept of likelihood places

series

Three fundamental problems

1908 Studied : continued fractions

Specification of the kind of population that the

data came from Divergent series

modular equations

Distributional problems

1913 wrote to hardy having seen a copy of his

1910 book

Sir William Rowan Hamilton 1805-1865

Hardy & Littlewood studied : unproven theorem

Studied : clairauts Algebra which enclosed with his letter

1822 found an error in one of Laplaces work 1916 he graduated from Cambridge with B.Sc

by research

1832 published : a treatise on the characteristic

function applied to optics His dissertation was on highly composite

numbers and consisted of 7 of his papers

He applied the characteristic function to study

published in England

Fresnels wave surface

1918: FCPS, FRS

Read paper to the Royal Irish academy

expressing complex numbers as algebraic He worked out the Riemann series, the elliptic

couples, or ordered pairs of real numbers integrals , hyper geometric series, functional

equations of Zeta-function

After the discovery of algebraic couples, he

tried to extent the theory to triplets Independently discovered results of Gauss,

Kummer and others on hyper geometric series

800 papers

Work : P(n) partitions of an integer

Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan 1887-1920

Gave an asymptotic formula for p(n)

1900 began to work on summing geometric and

arithmetic series G.N.Watson published 30 papers which were

inspired by Ramanujans work

1902 shown : how to solve cubic equations

Banach-Tarski paradoxical decomposition of a

ball

Stanislaw Marcin Ulam 1909-1984

Stephen Smale 1930-

Stefan Banach 1892-1945

which is homotopy equivalent to the n-sphere

1918 the paper, his first appeard must be the n-sphere when n is at least 5

n=4 in 1982 but the original conjecture remains

Contribution : systematic theory of functional

open

analysis

Contribution : Morse theory

He wrote arithmetic, geometry and algebra

texts for high schools Generalized Poincare conjecture

journal studia Mathematica

The n-body problem and electric circuit theory

1931 : new series of Mathematical Monographs were among the applications that samale

founded : Modern functional analysis framed in the language of dynamical systems

spaces

Thales 624 -747 BC

Measure theory

585 It is reported that Thales predicted an

Integration eclipse of the sun

The theory of sets The cycle of about 19 years for eclipses of the

Moon was well-known but the cycle for eclipses

Orthogonal series of sun was harder to spot since eclipses were

Proved : number of fundamental results on visible at different places on Earth

normed linear spaces Discovered : Height of pramids

Hahn-Banach theorem on the extension of Shadow of the pramids at the time when any

continuous linear functional bodys height and its shadow are equal in

Banach-Steinhaus theorem on bounded length

families of mappings

Banach fixed point theorem Books 10 and 13 of Euclids Elements are

almost certainly a description of Theatetus work

Given two magnitudes a and b, then medial is

ab, binomial is a+b, apotome a-b

Wihelm Ackermann 1896-1962

Who assigned the medial line to geometry,

Recursive function

binomial to arithmetic, apotome to harmony

Ackermanns function

William Paul Thurston 1946-2012

Worked on : almost all branches of analysis,

continued fractions, number theory 1972 Thesis : Foliations of 3-manifolds

He is often called the father of the analytic Riemanns uniformization theorem

theory of continued fractions.

Kleinian groups were first studied by Poincare

Stieltjes integral and a fundamental finiteness theorem was

proved by Ahlfors

1916 : gave the first example of an absolutely

normal number

Sierpinski was the first to give an example

40 paradoxes concerning the continuum

Journal : Fundamental Mathematica

In the paradox named The Dichotomy

Contribution : ODE & PDE, Gamma functions,

interpolation, elliptic functions

Zeno says : There is no motion because that

which is moved must arrive a the middle of its

Waclaw Sierpinski 1882-1969 course before it arrives at the end.

1904 : contribution: famous problem on lattice In The Arrow, zeno argues: If everything is

points either at rest or moving when it occupies a

space equal to itself

1916 : gave the first example of an absolutely

normal number Zenos argument (The Achilles): The slower

when running will never be overtaken by the

Journal :Fundamenta Mathematica

quicker.

Continuum hypothesis

results on functional series, differentiability of

functions, Baires classification

number of 724 papers and 50 books

Opera Omnia [ 73 volumes of collected derivative is given finally as a final

papers and 886 books and articles ] consequence

and brachistochrone problems. progressions in which the general terms are

generally derived for the familiar G.P; sum of

E002-Dissertation on sound

the inverse squares of integers

E005-Concerned with curves that intersect

E021-Investigates a possible timing mechanism

orthogonally

for a clock, in which two weights unwind from

E006-Concerned with the involute of the circle curves attached to a pulley

phenomena in terms of air vesicles, fine matter, determines the laws of conservation of linear

and centrifugal force momentum

under various lading, catenaries, sails, etc summed using integrals and differential to

reduce a sum to a geometric series [summing

E009-Shortest curves joining two points on a

hyper-geometric series]

surface

E026 & E054-Providing answers to two of the

E010-Exponential to the Differential equation questions posed Fermat. Firstly discrediting of

E012-Geometric condition for tautochronic Fermats formula for primes 22 + 1 . Secondly

n

curves and then shows how to generate such a establishment of Fermats Little Theorem

curves, both analytic and algebraic, starting

E031-New method of solving I-order

from the familiar cycloid

Differential, as applied to the Riccati Equation

E013-Extends the analysis to a resistive

2

1

medium where the resistance is in proportion to E041- = 2

Basel Problem

6 n =1 n

the square of the speed

E044-Method for finding a family of curves

E014-Elementary treatment of finding the pole

arising from the constant of integration of

star from three measurements on a star over

dz=Pdx

time

E248-The Archimedes Screw. Kinematic model

E015-Mechanica vol. I

for the movement of water up or down the spiral

E016-Mechanica vol.II

E278-The Mechanics of solid or Rigid bodies

E019-Euler explores transcendental vol.I & vol.II

progression in which the general terms are

E842-An Introduction to Natural Science,

infinite products related to quotients of factorial

Thoughts of the Elements of the bodies.

relating initially to the Wallis product for

,and in which integrals are formed for the E305-Propagation of sound in one dimension

general terms; a derivative of the half-

E306-Extends the propagation of sound to two

and three dimension. Deriving the wave

equation in Differential form for waves

propagating in two and three dimension

the 3-Dimensional equation he has derived for

the propagation of sound

and clearly from first principles

Lexells paper on Spherical Triangles. Lexells

paper on the Motion of a Rigid Body.

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