Some solutions to Boas

© All Rights Reserved

10 views

Boas Solutions

Some solutions to Boas

© All Rights Reserved

- Cofunctions
- Introduction to Structural Mechanics
- ACT 1 Explanatory Answers - Math
- Calculus for Students
- Chapter 4 Physics Solutions
- AC
- Arduino Radar Project - HowToMechatronics
- Review of Calculus 1
- W49 Revision Exercise AM SPM Mon
- Dec_21_2009
- Trigonometry-Minimum Maximum Values
- Trigonometry Functions
- Obj. 20 Translations of Sine and Cosine Graphs (Presentation)
- 10 Advanced Trigonometry Part 1
- 1- Trigonometric Ratio
- 2304382_1_Math-127---Worksheet-2
- Engineering Mathematics I
- Problems
- Common Laplace Transform Pairs.pdf
- Section 8.3

You are on page 1of 8

Solve the following differential equations by series and by another elementary method and check that the

results agree:

xy = xy + y (1)

P

!

!

X X X

xy xy y = 0 x nan xn1 x an x n an xn = 0 (2)

n=1 n=0 n=0

X

X X

calling n = m + 1 and substituting, (m + 1)am+1 xm+1 an xn+1 an x n = 0 (3)

m=0 n=0 n=0

X

X

[(m + 1)am+1 am ] xm+1 a0 am+1 xm+1 = 0 (4)

m=0 m=0

The only term with a 0-th power of x is a0 , which tells us a0 = 0. Asking for the coefficient of the

(m + 1)-th power of x in (4) to be zero we get

1 1 1 1

am+1 = am = am1 = . . . = a1 (5)

m mm1 m!

So the solution for (1) is

X

m+1

X 1 m+1

y(x) = am+1 x = a1 x (6)

m=0 m=0

m!

Factoring out one power of x, one recognizes the power series of the exponential ex and writes the

solution as

y(x) = a1 xex (7)

by separation of variables:

dy 1

= (1 + )dx = ln y = x + ln x + ln c = y(x) = c xex (8)

y x

Solve the following differential equations by series and by another elementary method and check that the

results agree:

y 4xy + (4x2 2)y = 0 (9)

1

n

P

by series: substituting the power series y(x) = n=0 an x in (9) we have

X

X

X

n2 n1 2

n(n 1)an x 4x nan x + (4x 2) an xn = 0 (10)

n=2 n=1 n=0

X X

X

X

n n n+2

2a2 + 6a3 x + (n + 2)(n + 1)an+2 x 4a1 x 4 nan x + 4 an x 2a0 2a1 x 2 an xn = 0

n=2 n=2 n=0 n=2

X

2a2 + 6a3 x 4a1 x 2a0 2a1 x + (n + 2)(n + 1)an+2 2(1 + 2n)an + 4an2 xn = 0

n=2

a2 = a0 , a3 = a 1 (11)

while the recursion formula is

Consider first the case of n = 2p even. Using (11), we can use the recursion formula to obtain a4 .

By repeated use of the recursion formula, we can obtain a6 , a8 , . . .. After computing a few values,

it appears that the general form is

a0

a2p = . (13)

p!

Note that (13) is also valid for p = 0 and p = 1. To test the validity of (13), we insert this equation

into (12):

2(p + 1)(2p + 1) 2(1 + 4p) 4 ?

+ = 0. (14)

(p + 1)! p! (p 1)!

Simple algebra verifies the validity of the equation above. Next, consider the case of n = 2p + 1 odd.

Using (11), we can use the recursion formula to obtain a5 . By repeated use of the recursion formula,

we can obtain a7 , a9 , . . .. After computing a few values, it appears that the general form is

a1

a2p+1 = . (15)

p!

Note that (13) is also valid for p = 0 and p = 1. To test the validity of (15), we insert this equation

into (12):

2(p + 1)(2p + 3) 2(3 + 4p) 4 ?

+ = 0. (16)

(p + 1)! p! (p 1)!

Simple algebra verifies the validity of the equation above. Hence, we conclude that

X

X

X

n 2p

y(x) = an x = a2p x + a2p+1 x2p+1

n=0 p=0 p=0

X x2p X x2p+1

= a0 + a1

p=0

p! p=0

p!

X [x2 ]p X [x2 ]p

= a0 + a1 x

p! p!

p=0 p=0

x2

= (a0 + a1 x)e . (17)

2

2

reduction of the order: one checks that the equation is solved by y0 (x) = ex ; then we look for

another solution of the form y(x) = u(x)y0 (x):

2 2

y 4xy + (4x 2)y = u[y0 4xy0 + (4x 2)y0 ] + 2u y0

+ u y0 4xu y0 = 0 (19)

x2

e [u 4xu + 4xu ] = 0 = u = 0 = u = A + Bx (20)

2

y = (A + Bx)ex (21)

Solve the following differential equations by the method of Frobenius:

2xy + y + 2y = 0 (22)

P

n=0 an x

X

X

X

2x (n + s)(n + s 1)an xn+s2 + (n + s)an xn+s1 + 2 an xn+s = 0 (23)

n=0 n=0 n=0

n+s1

the n = 0 term gives [2s(s 1)a0 + sa0 ]x = 0 = 2s2 s = 0 = s = 0, 12 (24)

X

while the other terms are 2(n + s)(n + s 1)an + (n + s)an + 2an1 xn+s1 = 0 (25)

n=1

(26)

For s = 0 we have

X

n(2n 1)an + 2an1 xn1 = 0 (27)

n=1

2 (2)n

an = an1 = . . . = a0 (28)

n(2n 1) n!(2n 1)!!

Where the double factorial is m!! = m(m 2)(m 4) . . .. Also, we note that (2n)! = 2n(2n 1)(2n

2)(2n 3) . . . = 2n (2n 1)!!n!. Inserting these coefficients back in the series gives

X

X(2x)n X

(4x)n X (1)n (2x)2n

n

y(x) = an x = a0 = a0 = a0 = a0 cos(2x1/2 ). (29)

n=0 n=0

n!(2n 1)!! n=0

(2n)! n=0

(2n)!

1

For s = 2 we have instead

(2)n

X 1 2

n(2n + 1)an + 2an1 xn 2 = 0 = an = an1 = . . . = a0 (30)

n(2n + 1) n!(2n + 1)!!

n=1

X (1)n (2x)2n+1

= y(x) = a0 = a0 sin(2x1/2 ) (31)

(2n + 1)!

The general solution is then given by the linear combination of (29), (31):

3

4 Boas, problem p.587, 12.11-14

Solve y = y by the Frobenius method.

We take the generalized power series y(x) = n+s so that

P

n=0 an x

X

n+s2 n+s

y +y = (n + s)(n + s 1)an x + an x =0 (33)

n=0

Taking the n = 0 term gives s(s 1)a0 = 0, that is, s = 0, 1. For s = 0 we have

(1)n

(

an2 a2n+1 = (2n+1)! a1

n(n 1)an + an2 = 0 = an = = (1)n (34)

n(n 1) a2n = (2n)! a0

These two series are those defining the sine and the cosine, so that we have found the well known result

y = a0 cos x + a1 sin x.

bn2

(n + 1)nbn + bn2 = 0 = bn = (35)

n(n + 1)

The solution for b0 6= 0 is then

X X (1)n

y(x) = bn xn+1 = b1 sin x + b0 x2n (36)

(2n)!

n=0 n=1

In this expression we are missing the x0 term that would give the expansion of the cosine, and one easily

check that this is not a solution of the differential equation. That happens because in (33) for s = 1 the

first term coefficient reads (n + 1)(n + 0)bn ; then, b0 coefficient has a 0 in front, which cancels it out from

the rest of the problem, so we are calculating the solution modulo the constant b0 .

Show that Pl (1) = (1)l .

Using eq. (2.6) on p. 565 of Boas, the general solution to the Legendre differential equation is:

l(l + 1) 2 l(l + 1)(l 2)(l + 3) 4

y(x) = a0 1 x + x ...

2! 4!

(l 1)(l + 2) 3 (l 1)(l + 2)(l 3)(l + 4) 5

+a1 x x + x ... . (37)

3! 5!

If is even, then the Legendre polynomial is defined to be the polynomial proportional to a0 (up to an

overall normalization determined by convention). If is odd, then the Legendre polynomial is defined

to be the polynomial proportional to a1 (up to an overall normalization determined by convention). It

immediately follows that if is even, then P (x) is an even function of x, whereas if is odd, then Pl (x)

is an odd function of x. This means that

The normalization convention for the Legendre polynomials defines Pl (1) = 1. Hence, inserting x = 1 into

(38) yields

Pl (1) = (1)l (39)

4

Note that eq. (38) is also an immediate consequence of the Rodrigues formula,

1 dl 2

Pl (x) = (x 1)l , (40)

2l l! dxl

and provides another way of deriving (39).

We will solve Legendre equation

using the method of reduction of order: given the known solution Pl (x), we look for an independent

solution of the form y(x) = Pl (x)v(x) and then solve for v(x) in (41):

2 2 2

(1 x )(v Pl (x) + 2v Pl (x)) 2xPl (x)v = 0 =

(1 x )Pl (x)v + 2((1 x )Pl (x)

xPl (x))v = 0

v xPl (x) (1 x2 )Pl x Pl 1 1 P

= = 2 = 2 2 = 2 l (43)

v (1 x2 )Pl (x) 1 x2 Pl 1x 1+x Pl

which is solved by

1

ln v = ln (1 x) ln (1 + x) 2 ln Pl = ln , that is, (44)

(1 x)(1 + x)Pl2

dx

Z

v(x) = (45)

(1 x)(1 + x)Pl2

1 1 1 1+x

Z Z

1 1

Q0 (x) = dx = 2 dx + = 2 ln (47)

(1 x)(1 + x) 1x 1+x 1x

1 1 1 1

Z Z

1 1

Q1 (x) = x dx = x dx 21x + 21+x + = (48)

(1 x)(1 + x)x2 x2

x 1+x

= ln 1 (49)

2 1x

5

7 Boas, problem p.568, 12.3-1

We will use the hint in problem 12.3-6: if we write

d

uv = D(uv) = (Du + Dv )uv (50)

dx

where Du , Dv are operators that act only separately on u, v, we have

n n n

dn

k

dnk

n

X n k

X n k nk

X n d

uv = (Du + D v ) uv = D D

u v n kuv = D u u Dv v = u v

dxn k k k dxk dxnk

k=0 k=0 k=0

(51)

where we have used the expansion

of the

n-th power of a binomial formed by the two operators Du , Dv

n

(which commute with each other). = n(n1)...(nk+1)

k! is the binomial coefficient.

k

By Rodrigues formula

1 dl 2

Pl (x) = (x 1)l (52)

2l l! dxl

we have, after applying Leibniz rule (51)

l

dk lk

1 X l l d

Pl (x) = l (x + 1) (x 1)l (53)

2 l! k dxk dxlk

k=0

Now, every time we differentiate (x1)l we lower the exponent by one; in particular, when we differentiate

l times, we are left with a constant; when we calculate Pl (1) any factor of (x 1) will become zero, so

that the only non zero contribution comes from the 0-th term in the sum: this gives

2l l

Pl (1) = 2 l! = 1 (54)

l!

dl l1

d l2

l1 = l(l1) d

where the term 2l comes from (x+1)l for x = 1 and dxl

(x1)l = l dx l1 (x1) dxl2

(x1)l2 =

. . . = l!.

We want to prove that Z 1

xm Pl (x)dx = 0, for m < l (55)

1

Substituting Rodrigues formula (52) we have

Z 1 Z 1 m l

x d

xm Pl (x)dx = l l! dxl

(x2 1)l dx (56)

1 1 2

l1

1 Z 1 l1

m d 2 l m1 d

(x2 1)l dx =

x (x 1) mx (57)

dxl1

1 1 dxl1

l2

1 Z 1

m1 d 2 l dl2

m(m 1)xm2 l2 (x2 1)l dx = . . . (58)

= 0 mx l2

(x 1) +

dx

1 1 dx

6

in the first passage we have neglected the constant 21l l! and integrated by parts; in the second passage, we

see that the first term is null because after we have differentiated (l 1) times we will still have at least

one factor of (x 1) and one of (x + 1) (as you can quickly check by using Leibniz rule), which are zero

when evaluated at 1. The same happens for all the other terms evaluated at 1, so that, after we have

integrated by parts m times (assuming m < l), we are left with

1

1

dlm 2 dlm1 2

Z

l l

m! (x 1) dx = m! (x 1) =0 (59)

1 dxlm dxlm1 1

for the same argument we used above. Note that this does not holdRfor m > l, because in that case

between (58) and (59) we reach a step in which l k = 0 and we have xmk (x2 1)l 6= 0

Express the following polynomial as a linear combination of the Legendre polynomials:

f (x) = x4 (60)

1 1 1

P0 = 1 , P1 = x , P2 = (3x2 1) , P3 = (5x3 3x) , P4 = (35x4 30x2 + 3) (61)

2 2 8

We are going to expand x4 as a linear combination of the Legendre polynomials, with unknown coefficients;

these will

P4be found imposing that the factors for the different powers of x coincide. Because we have x4 ,

8

f (x) = 0 cn Pn must contain P4 ; in particular, c4 = 35 , so that the coefficient of x4 is 1. Then we must

3 3

put to zero the coefficient of x : x only appears in P3 so we can put c3 = 0. Right now, our function is

written as

2

X 8

f (x) = cn Pn + P4 (x) (62)

35

0

3 30 4

c2 + = 0 = c2 =

2 35 7

A term linear in x appears only in P1 , so we can set c1 = 0. Finally, the constant term is given by

1 3 1

c0 c2 + c4 = 0 = c0 = (63)

2 8 5

Then we have found

1 4 8

x4 = P0 (x) + P2 (x) + P4 (x) (64)

5 7 35

7

11 Boas, problem p.577, 12.6-6

We want to show that Pl and Pl are orthogonal on [-1,1] in two ways:

we can use the fact that the Legendre polynomials are either even or odd functions of x (depending

on whether is even or odd, respectively), as shown in problem 5. Then, if Pl is odd, its derivative

Pl is even, and vice versa. In general, if f (x) is an even function of x and g(x) is an odd function

of x, then Z a

f (x)g(x) = 0 . (65)

a

This is easily proven by changing the integration variable to y = x, in which case

Z a Z a Z a Z a

f (x)g(x) = f (y)g(y)dy = f (y)g(y)dy = f (y)g(y)dy , (66)

a +a a a

As the integral is equal to minus itself, it must be equal to zero. Hence, we conclude that

Z 1

Pl (x)Pl (x) = 0 . (67)

1

we can also use the result of problem 9: remember that Pl is a polynomial of order l and Pl is a

polynomial of order (l 1). Then

Z 1

Pl (x)Pl (x) (68)

1

R1

is given by a sum of terms which have the form cn 1 xm Pl (x)dx, where m = 0, 1, . . . , l 1, that is,

m < l, so they are all zero and the two functions are orthogonal.

The generating functional of the Legendre polynomials is

1 X

(x, h) = = hl Pl (x) ; (69)

1 2xh + h2 l=0

X 1 X

(0, h) = hl Pl (0) = = cl hl , (70)

1 + h2

l=0

But the function (0, h) looks exactly like the power of a binomial:

X 1/2

(0, h) = (1 + h2 )1/2 = h2n (71)

n

n=0

1 ( 1 1) . . . ( 12 n + 1) (1n )(2n 1)!!

1/2

P2n (0) = = 2 2 = . (73)

n (n)! 2n n!

- CofunctionsUploaded bybwlomas
- Introduction to Structural MechanicsUploaded byFaraj Libya
- ACT 1 Explanatory Answers - MathUploaded byrotat2348
- Calculus for StudentsUploaded byEdison
- Chapter 4 Physics SolutionsUploaded byjakeTaliea00199288
- ACUploaded byMuhammad Osama
- Arduino Radar Project - HowToMechatronicsUploaded byngocanh11595
- Review of Calculus 1Uploaded byHT Kang
- W49 Revision Exercise AM SPM MonUploaded byBid Hassan
- Dec_21_2009Uploaded byYikxianTan
- Trigonometry-Minimum Maximum ValuesUploaded byGaurav Naval
- Trigonometry FunctionsUploaded byDaniela Valadez
- Obj. 20 Translations of Sine and Cosine Graphs (Presentation)Uploaded bySandra Miller
- 10 Advanced Trigonometry Part 1Uploaded bykeyur.gala
- 1- Trigonometric RatioUploaded byPraveen Kumar Barui
- 2304382_1_Math-127---Worksheet-2Uploaded byharsha sagar
- Engineering Mathematics IUploaded byTashi Stunner Best
- ProblemsUploaded byrafaqatwah
- Common Laplace Transform Pairs.pdfUploaded byKing Everest
- Section 8.3Uploaded byxipmanix
- DocumentUploaded byYew Wen Khang
- ISI Sample paperUploaded bysushrut12345
- CH2-7Uploaded byzxcv25824066
- Fall 2009Uploaded byMauca
- Eng Math 501e_2011 2012 Fall_week2_applicationsUploaded bycherkess
- 5.pdfUploaded byالغزيزال الحسن EL GHZIZAL Hassane
- G.11C Totally Sine Cosine TangentUploaded byNancyTrent
- Mathematics Year 12fUploaded byVientihAg
- Calculus 3.13Uploaded byAbdirazak Mohamed Haaji Omar
- Trig DerUploaded byGoh Ai Lin

- MIT6 189IAP11 Hw4 WrittenUploaded byRavi Roy
- paper by V. Jelic and F. MarsiglioUploaded byRavi Roy
- MIT8_05F13_Chap_09Uploaded byLuisSanabria
- RE Sample PapUploaded byPankaj Gupta
- 11 Years AIEEE Chapterwise by MTGUploaded byShreesha Rao
- Problems In AC CircuitsUploaded byJun Nelo Galicia
- MIT8_01SC_problems28_soln.pdfUploaded byRavi Roy
- Modern Physics.pdfUploaded byRaja Chakraborty
- Problem Set 1 Fluid MechanicsUploaded byRavi Roy
- Friction TestUploaded byNsBhasin
- EMT Formula Sheet MSc LevelUploaded byanamiya2007
- question paperUploaded byRavi Roy
- Integral TableUploaded byVictor Guimarães
- Question paperUploaded byRavi Roy
- Method oof images.pdfUploaded byRavi Roy
- Shape of Rotating FluidUploaded byRavi Roy
- Problem Set 2 FluidUploaded byRavi Roy
- Fluid Mec. ProblemsUploaded byola
- Entrance examUploaded byRavi Roy
- MIT6_189IAP11_hw2.pdfUploaded byRavi Roy
- MIT6_189IAP11_hw4Uploaded byTushar Sharma
- MIT6_189IAP11_project2Uploaded byTushar Sharma
- MIT6 189IAP11 Hw1 WrittenUploaded byAli Akhavan
- MIT6_189IAP11_hw1Uploaded byAli Akhavan
- MIT6 189IAP11 GraphicsUploaded byTushar Sharma

- MITRES 6 002S08 Chap01 PsetUploaded byObren Nosovic
- MATH+1110_BOOKAUploaded bybalvinder singh
- MCQs-Physics Part IUploaded byZunaira Noreen
- Bright Futures Handout 2016-2017Uploaded bymortensenk
- Coordinate System and TraversUploaded byAhmad Khaled
- 2014-2015._Geometry_Curriculum.pdfUploaded byVictor Brito
- Borang Pendaftaran Masuk TCKUploaded byMastura Yum
- VitruviusUploaded byexpenagos
- trig projectUploaded byapi-287640313
- The Effects of Background Characteristics and School Factors on College Students’ Performance and SatisfactionUploaded byAlexander Decker
- CBSE 2014 Question Paper for Class 12 Dance Kathak - Outside DelhiUploaded byaglasem
- SET IdentitiesUploaded bySandra Enn Bahinting
- Adss_4na Emath Mye p2 2008Uploaded byjiashengrox
- SpringUploaded bySushanta Kumar Roy
- G11 Parents OrientationUploaded byKenneth Oneal S Gan
- Ratios and Proprotions (APTITUDE)Uploaded byharishsharma22
- Calculus in a WeekUploaded byBob Smith
- A Treatise on the Differential and Integral CalculusUploaded bymark_torreon
- PolygonUploaded byTimoy Cajes
- Answer Key for Fraction Worksheet 1 Std 3Uploaded byRachel Lim
- Semi Regular TessellationUploaded bySuzila Mohammad
- Industrial Roundtable and Libraries at PurdueUploaded byPaul Silver
- A1Uploaded byFakhruddin Dhilawala
- Grade 4 Division TestUploaded byDavid
- 4024_w10_qp_23Uploaded bymstudy123456
- Ecuaciones Diferenciales de 2 OrdenUploaded byJuan Jose Flores Fiallos
- teacher resumeUploaded byapi-255274790
- Harry Wong ReadingUploaded byMsE2013
- Mba Accepting GREUploaded byPiyush Jaiswal
- eed 521 classroom management planUploaded byapi-312570058