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Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, When a body is heated, the volume of the body increases and it is known

and volume in response to a change in temperature. as cubical expansion.

WHY BODIES EXPAND ON HEATING?

At a given temperature, inter-molecular distances are definite. When a

body is heated it's molecules vibrate more energetically against the The constant gamma characterizes the volume expansion properties of a

action of inter-molecular forces and the displacement of molecules is particular

increased. Since the average distance between the molecules increases, material; it is called the coefficient of volume expansion. The units of

the dimension of the body increases. Consequently body expands. are per K or per c0.

Types of thermal Expansion on solid: For many substances, decreases at low temperatures. Note that

: Linear Expansion the values for liquids are generally much larger than those for solids.

: Superficial Expansion

: Cubical Expansion

Linear Expansion

Linear expansion means change in one dimension (length). Determination Of Coefficient Of Linear Expansion Of A Solid By Pullingers Apparatus

See at book

Expansion of Liquids

The constant which describes the thermal expansion properties of a Liquids do not have a definite shape. They take the shape of the

particular material, is called the coefficient of linear expansion. The container. Thus, we can specify a liquid by its volume. Hence, we can

units of are per K or per c0. speak of volume expansion only for liquids. Expansion of liquids is much

We can understand thermal expansion qualitatively on a molecular basis. greater than that of solids.

Each atom vibrates about its equilibrium position. When the temperature A liquid is heated in a container. Heat flows through the container to the

increases, the energy and amplitude of the vibration also increase. The liquid. Which means that the container expands first, due to which the

interatomic spring forces are not symmetrical about the equilibrium level of the liquid falls. When the liquid gets heated, it expands more and

position; they usually behave like a spring that is easier to stretch than beyond its original level. We cannot observe the intermediate state. We

to compress. As a result, when the can only observe the initial and the final levels. This observed expansion

amplitude of vibration increases, the average distance between atoms of the liquid is known as the apparent expansion of the liquid.

also If we consider the expansion of the container also and measure the total

increases (Fig. 17.9b). As the atoms get farther apart, every dimension expansion in volume of the liquid, then the expansion is termed as the

increases. absolute expansion of the liquid.

every linear dimension of an object changes in the same way

when the temperature changes.

Superficial expansion

See in Book

When a body is heated, the area of the body increases and it is known as

Anomalous Expansion of Water

superficial expansion. A common trend seen in substances through out, is the fact that all

substances expand when they are heated and their density decreases

and vice versa and when you cool something, it contracts and increases in

The units of are per K or per c0. density. This is how substances generally react to heat. Lets now look at

what water does.

If you cool water, it follows the general trend till 4o C. Densityof water

gradually increases as you cool it. When you reach 4oC, its density

reaches a maximum. What water does next will astound you. When you

cool it further to make some ice, ie 0oC, water expands with further drop

in temperature meaning the density of water decreases when you cool it

from 4oC to 0oC. This behaviour is charted in the graph below.

The effect of this expansion of water is that the coolest water is always

present on the surface. Since water at 4oC is the heaviest, this water

settles on the bottom of the water body and the lightest ie the coolest

layer accumulates on the top layer. So in the winter, the top of the water

is always the first to freeze over. Since ice and water both are a bad

conductor of heat, this top layer of ice insulates the rest of the water

body from the cold of the winter,thereby protecting all the life in the

water body. Now you can truly comprehend how essential the anomalous

properties of water are for life.

Thermal stress

Differential expansion:

they are heated through the same range of temperature is

called the differential expansion.

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