You are on page 1of 4

AONLA CULTIVATION

The aonla fruit (the Indian gosseberry) (Emblica officinalis G.) is one of the richest sources of Vitamin C. It
contains 500 to 700 mg of ascorbic acid per 100 g of pulp. This is much more than the vitamin C content of
guava, tomato or citrus fruits.

Aonla is an ancient fruit of Indian origin, which is associated with our tradition, culture and heritage. The fruit is
also closely connected with Indian system of medicine, as it is used as an ingredient in more than 175
formulations of Ayurveda. It is an important ingredient of Triphala and Chavanprash in ayurvedic medicine
system. Fruits are commonly used for preserve (murabbas), pickles, candy, jelly, jam etc.It is a great health
and vitality restorer. The fruit is useful in haemorrhages, diarrhoea, dysentry, anemia, jaundice, dyspepsia and
cough.

Aonla has great tolerance to salinity, alkalinity and sodicity. About its ability to stand drought conditions, it can
be said as if nature has created this plant only for drought conditions. Aonla is a deciduous fruit tree. In this
crop flower and fruit set take place in spring in February and soon after the fruits enter dormancy without any
growth throughout the summer till monsoon. Therefore, plants do not require irrigation during summer when
most crops would require it. With the onset of monsoon, the fruit starts growing and becomes ready for
harvest by December. This is the most ideal crop for arid conditions.

Distribution : Aonla thrives well throughout tropical India and is met with wild or cultivated in the region
extending from the base of the Himalaya to Sri Lanka and from Malacca to South China. It is more popular in
India and is commercially cultivated in Uttar Pradesh. The vast tracts of usar land widely spread in various
parts of Sultanpur district of Uttar Pradesh offer ample scope for aonla cultivation. Commercial aonla orchards
over 200 hectares are found in the districts of Azamgarh, Pratapgarh, Varanasi and Bareilly. These districts
also have potential for expansion of area under aonla. Of late, commercial cultivation of aonla has come up in
some parts of Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh also.

Climate : This is a fruit of sub-tropical region with distinct winter and summer. However, it is growing near the
sea coast upto 1800 m altitude.

Soil : The crop is not very specific in its soil requirement and grows well in sandy loan to clay soils. It comes in
the pH range of 6 to 8 very successfully. However, the production shall be highly benefitted in deep and fertile
soils.

Varieties : Aonla is successfully propagated by budding or softwood grafting. Popular varieties of aonla are
Banarasi, Chakaiya, Krishna, Kanchan, Anand-1 and Anand-2.
Planting : Grafts or buddings of aonla are best planted in June-July at a distance of 10 m under square
system of lay-out.

Training and Pruning : Aonla trees do not require regular pruning. However, pruning in early years for giving
proper shape and development of strong frame may be necessary for which trees should be trained to a
single stem upto the height of about 1 m and then primary branches can be allowed at regular space all round
the trunk.

Management of orchard : Since the fruit remains dormant in summer, the soil should not be disturbed during
that period. However, legumes and green manure crops can be grown during rainy season. Fertiliser
application at the rate of 1.5 kg N, 0.8 kg P & 1.0 kg K per annum is recommended for fruit retention, better
quality and higher yield. Aonla trees are hardy and stand very well against drought. Therefore, hardly any
irrigation is practised. However, the crop will be benefitted by giving 2-3 irrigations at the time of full bloom and
fruit set.

Pests and Diseases : Caterpillar, leaf rolling caterpillar, bark eating caterpillar, mealy bug etc. are the main
pests. Ring rust, fruit rot, leaf rust etc., are the diseases. Plant protection measures should be followed as
recommended by the local Department of Horticulture.

Harvesting : A vegetatively propagated tree starts fruiting commercial crop after 6 to 8 years of planting. The
economic life is considered to be about 60 years under good management. Generally, aonla fruits are ready
for harvest in November /December. Their maturity can be judged either by the change of seed colour from
creamy white to black. Banarasi is a poor yielder as compared to Chakaiya. On an average a grown up tree
should yield 100 to 150 kg per annum.

Economics : Financial institutions are extending credit for establishment of new orchards in various states as
Aonla is an important crop of commercial value.

Farm model for financing one hectare of aonla orchard is given in the Annexure I.

Unit Cost : The unit cost varies from state to state. The cost presented here is indicative only. The
entrepreneurs and the bankers are requested to consult our Regional Offices for availing the latest information
in this regard. The unit cost estimated for this model scheme is Rs.33600/- per ha capitalised upto the fifth
year. The break-up details are given in Annexure I.

Financial Analysis : Results of financial analysis are indicated below :

NPW at 15% DF : Rs.61501(+)


BCR at 15% DF : 2.48
IRR : 32.53%

Detailed analysis is presented in Annexure II.

Margin Money : The margin money assumed in this model scheme is 5% of the total financial outlay.

Interest Rate : Interest rate may be decided by the banks as per guidelines of the RBI.

Security : Banks may charge such security as permissible under the RBI guidelines.

Repayment : The bank loan with interest is repayable within 13 years with a grace period of 7 years. The
details are presented in Annexure III.

Annexure - I

Model scheme for development of Aonla in one Hectare


Spacing : 10 m x 10m

Plant population : 100

Estimated cost (Rs.per Ha)

Sr. Particulars Year Total


No. 1 2 3 4 5
1 Planting material 2200 -- -- -- -- 2200
2 Manures & Fertilisers 3000 1100 1100 1400 1700 8300
3 Plant protection 450 600 600 700 700 3050
4 Sprayer & implements 1500 -- -- -- -- 1500
5 Fencing 2500 -- -- -- -- 2500
6 Irrigation 1800 500 500 500 500 3800
7 Labour 2700 1200 1700 1700 1700 9000
8 Intercropping 1500 -- -- -- -- 1500
9 Miscellaneous 450 300 300 300 400 1750
Total 16100 3700 4200 4600 5000 33600

Projected income

Year
1to5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13th
onwards
Yield (q/ha) 0 50 60 80 100 120 130 150 170
Gross value @ 0 20000 24000 32000 40000 48000 52000 60000 68000

Rs. 4/-per kg.


Maintenance cost 0 5500 5500 6000 6000 6500 6500 6500 7000
(Rs/ha)
Net Income (Rs/ha) 0 14500 18500 26000 34000 41500 45500 53500 61000

Annexure II

Financial Analysis (Aonla)

Particulars 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13-25
/Year
Capital cost 16100 3700 4200 4600 5000
(Rs)
Maintenance 0 0 0 0 0 5500 5500 6000 6000 6500 6500 6500 7000
cost (Rs)
Total cost 16100 3700 4200 4600 5000 5500 5500 6000 6000 6500 5000 5000 5000
(Rs)
Yield Kg/ha 0 0 0 0 0 5000 6000 8000 10000 12000 13000 15000 17000
Income @ 0 0 0 0 0 20000 24000 32000 40000 48000 52000 60000 68000
Rs 4/Kg
Net Benefit -16100 - - - - 14500 18500 26000 34000 41500 47000 55000 63000
(Rs) 3700 4200 4600 5000
DF at 15% 0.870 0.756 0.658 0.572 0.497 0.432 0.376 0.327 0.284 0.247 0.215 0.187 1.044
PWC 14000 2798 2762 2630 2486 2378 2068 1961 1706 1607 1075 935 5220 41624
PWB -14000 - - - - 6269 6955 8499 9665 10258 10102 10280 65772 103125
2798 2762 2630 2486
NPW at 15% 61501
Df (Rs)
BCR 2.48
IRR 32.53%

Annexure - III

Repayment Schedule (Aonla)

(Amount in Rs.)

Year Loan Net Interest Deferred Payment Payment Repayment Total Net Principal
disbursed benefit @ 12% of of outstanding
defied.
Interest Interest interest Principal outgoing Surplus
1 15295 0 1835 1835 0 0 0 0 0 15295
2 3515 0 2257 4093 0 0 0 0 0 18810
3 3990 0 2736 6829 0 0 0 0 0 22800
4 4370 0 3260 10089 0 0 0 0 0 27170
5 4750 0 3830 13919 0 0 0 0 0 31920
6 14500 3830 13919 3830 0 0 3830 10670 31920
7 18500 3830 6468 3830 860 860 5550 12950 31060
8 26000 3727 6468 3727 2036 2036 7800 18200 29024
9 34000 3483 4432 3483 3359 3359 10200 23800 25665
10 41500 3080 1073 3080 1073 8297 12450 29050 17368
11 47000 2084 0 2084 12016 14100 32900 5352
12 55000 642 642 5352 16500 38500 0

Repayment period is 12 years with 5 years grace period