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University of Caloocan City

Gen. San Miguel St., Sangandaan, Caloocan City

Name : Geralene O Rada

Subject : Statistic in Criminal Justice and Criminology

Professor : Dr. MelchorJulianes

Date : December 3, 2017

TITLE : Collection and Presentation of Data

Background:

Researchers in any field should follow the scientific process of collecting data to arrive at valid
and reliable results. They may utilize various instruments and methods in collecting data, but they
use similar research design in selecting the most appropriate for their study.

Any researcher in any field follows different scientific process of collecting and presenting data to
arrive with their valid and reliable results. In collecting and presenting a data they may utilize
different instrument and methods but whatever method or instrument they use they follow a similar
research design that is the most appropriate for their study.

THE NINE (9) TYPES OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH


1. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
2. DESCRIPTIVE-NORMATIVE
3. DESCRIPTIVE-ANALYSIS
4. DESCRIPTIVE-STATUS
5. DESCRIPTIVE-CLASSIFICATION
6. DESCRIPTIVE-EVALUATE
7. DESCRIPTIVE-COMPARATIVE
8. CORRELATION SURVEY
9. LONGITUDINAL SURVEY

These are the different research design that the researcher may follow, but as I said before whatever
research design you did, you’re still going to have a proper method or instrument to collect your
data.

EXAMPLES
1. CORRELATION JOB-RELATED PROBLEMS AND JOB-RELATED PERFORMANCE OF PROFESSORS IN
STATE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES IN REGION VI (WESTERN VISAYAS)

From this example the research instrument that the researcher use is a questionnaire (a series of
questions to be answered or to be filled-up by a subject (person)

2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS ACHIEVEMENTS OF TEACHER


EDUCATION STUDENTS IN PRIVATE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN REGION IV (WESTERN
MINDANAO)

From the above example the investigator uses a test (it can be a multiple choice, identification,
essay, and the like) as a research instrument.

3. CORRELATE SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN URBAN AND RURAL COMMUNITIES IN METRO MANILA

For the above example the researcher uses a questionnaire as a research instrument (a series of
questions to be answered or to be filled-up by a subject (person)

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WHAT IS VALIDITY?
 The degree to which the research instrument measures what it purports to measure.
 Truthfulness or veracity of information.

From our research it is said that there they might use several method and instrument, but before we
proceed to have a research we must first check whether our instrument is valid or not.
Now, what do you mean by valid or validity? It is a degree to which the research instrument
measures what it purports to measure what or the focus of your research instrument.

We can also say our research instrument is valid if the respondent’s answer true.

EXAMPLE OF VALIDITY IN A TEST


THE TEST ITEM IN ENGLISH (MYTHOLOGY). “WHO IS THE GODDESS OF BEAUTY?”.
OF THE 120 OR 100 STUDENTS IN ENGLISH 120 OR 100 PERCENT ANSWERED THAT THE GODDES
OF BEAUTY IS VENUS.

Here is an example of validity on a test in English.


From the question “Who is the Goddess of beauty” the respondents or the students answered that
“the Goddess of beauty is Venus” which is correct therefore we could say that the test is a valid.

From the above students answer were correct and both are valid and reliable.
Valid in a sense that their answer are correct or true.
Reliable in a sense that their answer is consistent.

IS A VALID TEST ALWAYS VALID? AND A RELIABLE TEST ALWAYS VALID?


FOR EXAMPLE:
The test in mathematics is “How many meters are there in one (1) kilometer?”
Of the 100 students on mathematics 10 percent said that there are 1000 meters in one kilometer.
THE ANSWER IS CORRECT AND VALID

But from the previous example 90 percent answered that there are 950 meters in one kilometer.
THEIR ANSWER IS INCORRECTBUT RELIABLE BECAUSE IT IS CONSISTENT.
THEREFORE, A RELIABLE TEST IS NOT ALWAYS VALID.

Is a valid test always a valid and a reliable test always valid? That is the question that came to think
about it. From slide 9 only 10% of the respondents got a correct answer that is why the question is
valid and reliable.
But of 100% respondents only 10% is correct but the 90% got the wrong answer, and since their
answer is incorrect it is no longer a valid but areliable because the answer is consistent, consistent in
a sense that 90% all answer the same answer which is 950 meter in 1 kilometer.

Therefore we could say that a reliable test may be a valid but also not valid.

TESTING THE VALIDITY OF THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT


In validating the questionnaire by the expert the options retain(3), revise(2), and delete(1) are at the
end of each item. And the weighted mean (x̅) is computed to determine if the item is to be retained,
revise or delete.

Let us go back to the to our research instrument. Before we proceed doing our research it is a must
that we must first validate our questionnaire by a expert in field that has an option of retain, revise,
and delete when they review our questionnaire.
After that we will compute the weighted average of their answers. Whether that falls under retain,
revise or delete.

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WEIGHTED MEAN COMPUTATION

For item number 6

𝛴𝑓𝑥
𝑋̅ =
𝑓
13
=
5
=2.6

To compute for the mean of the item in number 6 in slide 15 we first the number of respondent as f
(frequency) and x (is that for retain, revise or delete). And we add all the respondent or f (frequency)
and also we add fx to get the summation of fx.

After that we follow the formula mean is equal to the summation of fx divided by total
number of respondent or f

From the above example of questionnaire all items will be retained because the weighted mean value
ranged from 2.6 to 3 when validated by the experts

WHAT IS REALIBILITY?
 Consistency of information
 The information can be both reliable and valid but sometimes the information is correct
although it is consistent.
 If that is the case a test may be reliable but not valid or it can be both valid and reliable.

MOST COMMON METHOD OF TESTING THE REALIBILITY OF A GOOD RESEARCH INSTRUMENT


The most common methods in testing the reliability of a good research instrument are:
1. Test-retest method
2. Product form method
3. Split-half method
4. Internal-consistency method

We cannot only say that our research instrument is good by just following the definition but rather by
testing it through this four most common method.

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TEST-RETEST METHOD
 The same research instrument are administered twice to the same group of correspondents to
determine the correlation coefficient.

This test-retest method was one of the most common methods to test the reliability of our research
instrument. In this method we will administer a group twice with the same research instrument.

DISADVANTAGES OF TEST-RETEST METHOD


1) When the time of the research instrument is too short wherein the responders may recall their
previous responses making the correlation coefficient high.
2) When the time interval is too long and factors such as forgetting, unlearning, and many others
may results to low correlation.
3) Regardless of the time interval, separating the administrators, other varying environmental
conditions such as noise, temperature, lighting, health, lenient and strict proctor and many
others may affect the correlation coefficient of the research instrument.

Since that, we will administer the same research instrument in one group there are some factors that
will affect the correlation coefficient.

WHAT STATISTICAL TOOL USED TO DETERMINE THE RELIABILITY OF TEST-RETEST METHOD


 The SPEARMAN CORRELATION COEFFICIENT METHOD or SPEARMAN RHO.
 To obtain the spearman rho value, we apply the formula:
6𝛴𝐷2
𝑟𝑠 = 1 − 3
𝑁 −𝑁

There is a method, a statistical method for us to determine the reliability of our chosen method, the
test-retest method, it is the Spearman correlation Coefficient. Read as “The Spearman rho is equal
to one (1) minus quotient of 6 times the summation of D squared and N cubed minus N.”
Where D is the difference between two ranks and N is the total number of cases.

WHAT ARE THE STEPS TO APPLY THE FORMULA?


 STEP 1: Rank the scores of the correspondents from highest to lowest in the first
administration and mark these rank as 𝑅1 . The highest score mark 1; the second highest score
2; the third highest score 3; and so on.
 STEP 2: Rank the second set of scores in the same manner as in STEP 1 and mark as 𝑅2 .
 STEP 3: Get the difference of ranks for every pair of rank.
 STEP 4: Square each difference to get 𝐷2 .
 STEP 5: Add the squared difference to get 𝛴𝐷2 .
 STEP 6: Compute the Spearman rho using the formula.

This are the steps that we must follow in order for s to use the formula or apply that formula for us
to determine the reliability of test-retest method.

6𝛴𝐷 2
Σ𝐷2 = 13.5 𝑟𝑠 = 1 − 𝑁3−𝑁
6(13.5)
𝑁 = 20 = 1 − (20)3 −20
81
= 1 − 7980
=0.9898496
or 0.99 very high

The Spearman rho value obtain is 0.99 which is very high reliability. Hence, the questionnaire is
reliable.

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From slide number slide number 29, it is a must for us to arrange first the ranking in either increasing
or decreasing that is,

SCORES RANKS DIFFERNCES


PROFESSORS
1 2 R1 R2 D D2
1 70 69 13 14.5 -1.5 2.25
2 69 69 15.5
3 75 75
4 70 70
5 72 72
6 70 70
7 65 64
8 77 77
9 65 65
10 74 74
11 68 68
12 71 70
13 78 78
14 69 68
15 72 71
16 73 72
17 68 68
18 77 77
19 76 77
21 78 78
TOTAL

To rank the score say one got 78 it is rank 1 but if two got 77 that is not rank 2 and rank 3 that is
add the two ranks (i.e. 2+3=5/2=2.5) therefore the rank of two score (the score that is 77) is rank
2.5

For R1 that is only for score 1 and R2 is only for score 2….
Under the differences to find D, we find the difference between R1 and R2. For example 13-14.5=-
1.5.
For D2 we just multiply our answer in D to itself twice or we raised our D by the exponent 2. For
example:
D=-1.5, to find D2 we multiply (-1.5 ) times (-1.5) it is equal to 2.25.
Or
D=-1.5 to find D2 we only (-1.5)2=2.25 through the use of our calculator.

Then we add all values we obtained from D2 to get the ΣD2 and it is equal to 13.50 and we substitute
it to our formula. And we get the Spearman rho equal to 0.99 and we can say that our questionnaire
is reliable.

DATA GATHERING
Having found the questionnaire valid and reliable. The researchers proceeds to get permit and
approval of the head of the agency where the subjects are employed.
Once the permit is issued the investigators administer the questionnaire to the subjects of the study.
The subjects are given ample time to answer the questionnaire.
The date of the administration of the questionnaire, the retrieval date of the questionnaire and the
percentage of return of the questionnaire must be stated.
If we found out that our questionnaire is reliable we must first get some permit and approval of the
head of your agency before proceeding to a research process because approval makes our research
legal.

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DATA PROCESSING PROCEDURE
Once the questionnaire was retrieved the researchers process the data in either qualitative or
quantitative forms.
Data processing involves input, throughput, and output.
Input involves the responses in the questionnaire of the subjects.
Throughput includes statistical treatment.
Output is the result of the study.

STATISTICAL TREATMENT
The statistical tools used to answer the specific research questions of the study must be described
and formula must be presented and explained with authorities. The level of confidence must be
stated to determine the significance of the study.

PRESENTATION OF DATA
After the data was processed the result should be processed using three (3) forms:
1. Textual forms
2. Tabular form
3. Graphical form
In order to show the significant characteristics.

TEXTUAL FORM
It is the simplest way to present the data when there are few numbers to be presented. In this form
the result are explained in paragraph form. See the example:

The performance of instructors and professors at the State Universities and Colleges in
region VI are as follows; 15 or 8.33% have outstanding performance;80 or 44.44% have
very satisfactory performance; 55 or 30.56% satisfactory performance; and 30 or
16.67%, fairly satisfactory.

TABULAR FORM
This form is done by presenting the data in tables. Presenting the data by means of statistical tables
is a systematic way of arranging them in rows and columns. Each category in in the category is
placed in a row or column and the data are placed in the respective cells.

EXAMPLE OF TABULAR FORM

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WHAT ARE THE ESSENTIAL PARTS OF THE STATISTICAL TABLE
A good statistical table consist of four essential parts namely;
1. Table Caption
2. Stub
3. Box Heads
4. Body

1. TABLE CAPTION
This includes the table number and heading. The researcher usually use a double number for the
tables wherein the first number refers to the chapter number and the second number refers to the
number of table in the chapter.

2. STUB
This refers to the rows of the table which is found at the left.

3. BOX HEADS
These are the headings within the box of the table wherein the data are emphasized.

4. BODY OF THE TABLES


This refers to the main part of the table containing the figures which are placed in columns aligned
with

SLIDE 43:
GRAPHICAL FORM
 A graph is a geometric image or mathematical picture of a set of data.
 There are numerous kinds of graphical representation but the most common used in
presenting research data are;
 line graph; bar graph; circle graph and pictograph

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LINE GRAPH
It is made by plotting the data with a dot and connecting the plotted points by means of straight
lines.
A graph has four essential parts, namely (1) caption, (2)stub, (3)reasonable proportion of data,
(4)body.

BAR GRAPH
It is another way of presenting data in graphical form. It represents data by areas in the form of
vertical rectangles or bars.
Bar graph has clearer presentation of data than line graph even if there are two or more variables.

CIRCLE GRAPH
It is a way of presenting data in circular form. The data divide the circles into parts and are
represented in percent or in actual figures. The total of the whole circle is 100%

PICTOGRAPH
It is a kind of graph which uses pictures or symbols to represent information.