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Fick’s Law

Steady-state diffusion is the situation when the diffusion flux is

independent of time (e.g. diffusion of a gas through solid medium where

concentration/pressure of the gas is kept constant at both the end).

J = -D dC / dx

Where, J is the diffusion flux or the mass transported per unit time per

unit area and dC/dx is the concentration gradient. D is known as the

diffusion coefficient.

-’ sign: flux direction is from the higher to the lower concentration; i.e. it

is the opposite to the concentration gradient

Fick’s Second Law

In most practical situations, diffusion is non-steady state i.e. diffusion

flux and concentration gradient varies with time. This is described by

Fick’s second law

Diffusing species

The magnitude of the diffusion coefficient, D, is an indication of

the rate at which atoms diffuse. As the value of D is fixed for a

given element in a given material, the extent of diffusion is first

decided by the diffusing species itself.

Temperature

Temperature is a major factor which affects diffusion.Temperature

dependence of the diffusion coefficient isexpresses as

activation energy for diffusion

constant source,

𝝏𝑪(𝒙,𝒕) 𝝏𝟐 𝑪(𝒙,𝒕)

=𝑫 ----------(1)

𝝏𝒕 𝝏𝒙𝟐

C(∞,t) =0

conition is given by,

𝑥

C(x,t) = Cs erfc( ) -------(2)

√𝐷𝑡

Where CS concentrtion

D constant iffusivity

x distance

t diffusion time

erfc complementary error function

Ion Implantation

introduction of impurities (dopants) into semiconductors and offers more

flexibility than diffusion.

accurately adjust the threshold voltage.

directed at a target that is typically a silicon substrate. The atoms enter

the crystal lattice, collide with the host atoms, lose energy, and finally

come to rest at some depth within the solid. The average penetration

depth is determined by the dopant, substrate materials, and acceleration

energy.

Ion implantation energies range from 1keV to 1MeV, resulting in

ion distributions with average depths from 10A0 to 10µm. Doses range

from 1012 atoms/cm2 for threshold adjustment to 1018 atoms/cm2 for

buried dielectric formation.

Range theory:

Ion Stopping:

As each implanted ion impinges onto the target, it

undergoes a series of collisions with the host atoms until it

finally stops at some depth, as depicted in Figure below,

much higher than lattice binding energies, the ion scattering

process can be simulated based on elastic collisions between

pairs of nuclei while ignoring the relatively weak lattice forces.

A second component of scattering comes from inelastic

collisions with electrons in the target. The total stopping power

S of the target, defined by the energy loss (E) per unit path

length (x) of the ion, is the sum of these two terms:

atoms, and can be described by classical kinematics. If the

atoms were bare nuclei, then at a separation r, the coulombic

potential between them would be:

and target atoms, respectively,

€o is the permittivity, and q is the electronic charge. In

reality, electrons screen the nuclear charge and a screening

function, fs(r), must be included such that:

V(r) = Vc(r) fs(r)

Given the interaction potential, the equations of motion of

atoms can be integrated to yield the scattering angle for any

incident ion trajectory. Working in the center-of-mass frame,

the result is:

energy of the ion, ő is the scattering angle, and M1 and M2 are

the atomic mass numbers of the ion and target atom,

respectively. The rate of energy loss to nuclear collisions per

unit path length can be calculated by summing the energy loss

multiplied by the probability of that collision occurring. If the

maximum possible energy transfer in a collision is Tmax and

there are N target atoms per unit volume, then

where dσ is the differential cross section.

Nuclear stopping is elastic, and so energy lost by the

incoming ion is transferred to the target atom that is

subsequently recoiled away from its lattice site, thus creating a

damage or defect site.

Electronic stopping is caused by the interaction between

the incoming ion and the electrons in the target. The

theoretical model is quite complex, but in the low energy

regime, the stopping is similar to a viscous drag force and is

proportional to the ion velocity.

Electronic stopping is inelastic. The energy loss by incident

ions is dissipated through the electron cloud into thermal

vibrations of the target.

Annealing

After ion implantation, the wafer is usually so severely damaged that

the electrical behavior is dominated by deep-level electron and hole traps that

capture carriers and make the resistivity high.

Annealing is required to repair lattice damage and put dopant atoms

on substitutional sites.

The success of annealing is often assessed by the fraction of dopant that is

electrically active, as found experimentally using the Hall effect technique.

The Hall effect measures an average effective doping level, which is an

integral over local doping densities and local mobilities evaluated per unit surface

area:

where µ denotes the mobility,

n is the number of carriers,

xj is the junction depth.

If the mobility is not a strong function of depth, NHall measures the total

number of electrically active dopant atoms. If annealing activates all of the planted

atoms, this value should be equivalent to the dose, ϕ

Furnace annealing

The annealing characteristics depend on the dopant type and the dose. There

is a clear division between cases where the silicon has been amorphized and where

it has been merely partially disordered.

For amorphized silicon, regrowth proceeds via solid phase epitaxy (SPE).

The amorphous / crystalline interface migrates toward the surface at a fixed

velocity that depends on temperature, doping, and crystal orientation.

The presence of impurities such as O, C, N, and Ar impedes the regrowth

process, as it is believed that these impurities bind to broken silicon bonds.

Dopants such as B, P, and As increase the regrowth rate (by a factor of 10 for

concentrations in the regime of 1020 atoms/cm3), presumably because

substitutional impurities weaken bonds and increase the likelihood of broken

bonds.

The primary goal of annealing is to repair lattice damage, a process

with an activation energy of 5 eV, while minimizing dopant diffusion, which

typically has an activation energy of 3 to 4 eV. Because of these energy

differences, at sufficiently high temperatures, repair is faster than diffusion.\

Furnace annealing is capable of supplying high temperature but the practical

steps required to insert and remove wafers without stressing them lead to a

minimum furnace annealing time of about 15 minutes. This is much longer than

required to repair damages at high temperatures and so allows unnecessary

diffusion.

Rapid thermal annealing (RTA), which allows repair of damage with

minimal diffusion, is a generic term incorporating several methods of heating

wafers for periods of time from 100 seconds down to nanoseconds.

The most common type of RTA is rapid isothermal annealing using tungsten

halogen lamps to heat the wafer from one or both sides, as shown in Figure

Another method is furnace-based rapid thermal processing and the

apparatus is shown schematically in Fig

supplied to different zones of the bell jar, with the hottest zone on top. The

sample is introduced rapidly into the zone to achieve RTA. A wafer temperature

up to 1200oC and ramp rate of up to 150oC/sec can be achieved.

Both RTA schemes offer significant advantages for VLSI processing because

good activation can be achieved with insignificant dopant diffusion.

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