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ROCK PROPERTIES

AVERAGING ROCK RELATIVE PERMEABILITY

Two samples having porosity values of 12.3% and 22.7% have been tested to determine their water-oil relative permeability
characteristics. These are provided on the attached Data sheet. A large portion of the reservoir has porosities closer to 17.
and 55 md permeability.

Find a set of relative permeability characteristics that would apply to the rock characterized by the 17.5% porosity.

Hint: You want to consider permeability, porosity or some combination thereof as an indicator of rock quality for normalizing
the available data relating to the connate water saturation and the residual oil saturation.

Also you may want to normalize the saturation axis between the endpoints to compare the shape of the relative
permeability curves for the two samples.
er-oil relative permeability
as porosities closer to 17.5%

by the 17.5% porosity.

ock quality for normalizing

hape of the relative


ROCK PROPERTIES

AVERAGING ROCK RELATIVE PERMEABILITY

Laboratory Relative Permeability Results

Sample A
Sample A
1.000
Porosity (frac) = 0.227
Permeability (md) = 135
0.800 Kro

Relative Permeability
Sw Kro Krw Krw
0.600
0.231 1.000 0.000
0.318 0.680 0.020
0.400
0.404 0.430 0.045
0.491 0.250 0.078
0.577 0.120 0.130 0.200
0.664 0.050 0.190
0.750 0.000 0.280 0.000
0.000 0.200 0.400 0.600
Water Saturation (fraction)

Sample B:
Sample B
Porosity (frac) = 0.123
Permeability (md) = 22
1.000

Sw Kro Krw 0.800 Kro


Relative Permeability

Krw
0.350 1.000 0.000 0.600
0.423 0.700 0.015
0.496 0.500 0.050
0.569 0.330 0.080 0.400
0.642 0.160 0.110
0.715 0.060 0.190 0.200
0.789 0.000 0.300

0.000
0.000 0.200 0.400 0.600
Water Saturation (fraction)
Sample A

Kro
Krw

0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000


er Saturation (fraction)

Sample B

Kro
Krw

0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000


r Saturation (fraction)
ROCK PROPERTIES

AVERAGING ROCK RELATIVE PERMEABILITY

In order to estimate the endpoint saturations, plot the endpoint saturations versus a rock quality indicator.
For this purpose, the rock property index will be taken as [(permeability/porosity)^0.5] which is used
in the Leverrett J Function normalization.

Sw connate So residual Permeability Porosity


(frac) (frac) (md) (frac) RQI

Sample A 0.231 0.250 135 0.227 24.4

Sample B 0.350 0.211 22 0.123 13.4

Sample C ? ? 54 0.175 17.6

Since it is easy to draw a straight line through two known points, the selection of the best fit line through the
data is obvious.

RQI Swc Sor Connate and Residual Sat


24.4 0.231 0.250
13.4 0.350 0.211
0.400
0.350
f(x) = - 0.0108055789x + 0.49451296
0.300
0.250
Saturation

f(x) = 0.0035413242x + 0.1636386069


0.200
Connate Water Sat
0.150 Linear (Connate Water Sat)
0.100 Residual Oil Sat
Linear (Residual Oil Sat)
0.050
0.000
12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0
Rock Quality Index

Now for a RQI (x) = 17.6, find the Swc and Sor values Swc = 0.304

Sor = 0.225
LITY

quality indicator.
which is used

fit line through the

ate and Residual Saturations

0108055789x + 0.4945129687

035413242x + 0.1636386069
er Sat
ate Water Sat)
Sat
ual Oil Sat)

16.0 18.0 20.0 22.0 24.0 26.0


Rock Quality Index
ROCK PROPERTIES

AVERAGING ROCK RELATIVE PERMEABILITY

1. Normalize Saturation (S*) Axis Between Connate Water Saturation and Residual Oil Saturation

Sample A:

Porosity (frac) = 0.227


Permeability (md) = 135

Sw Kro Krw S* Kro Krw

0.231 1.000 0.000 0.000 1.000 0.000


0.318 0.680 0.020 0.167 0.680 0.020
0.404 0.430 0.045 0.333 0.430 0.045
0.491 0.250 0.078 0.500 0.250 0.078
0.577 0.120 0.130 0.667 0.120 0.130
0.664 0.050 0.190 0.833 0.050 0.190
0.750 0.000 0.280 1.000 0.000 0.280

Sample B:

Porosity (frac) = 0.125


Permeability (md) = 22

Sw Kro Krw S* Kro Krw

0.350 1.000 0.000 0.000 1.000 0.000


0.423 0.800 0.015 0.120 0.700 0.015
0.496 0.600 0.050 0.200 0.500 0.050
0.569 0.330 0.080 0.400 0.330 0.080
0.642 0.160 0.110 0.600 0.160 0.110
0.715 0.060 0.190 0.800 0.060 0.190
0.789 0.000 0.300 1.000 0.000 0.300

2. Plot both sets of relative permeability curves versus normalized water saturation.
Since both curves are almost identical on a normalized basis. Either one of these
samples can be used to denormalize the curves to the endpoint saturations of the
intermediate rock porosity of 17.5% and permeability of 54 md. This is done in item 3 below.

Normalized Saturation Axis

1.000

Sample A: Kro
0.800
Sample A: Krw
meability

Sample B: Kro
0.600 Sample B: Krw
Normalized Saturation Axis

1.000

Sample A: Kro
0.800
Relative Permeability Sample A: Krw
Sample B: Kro
0.600 Sample B: Krw

0.400

0.200

0.000
0.000 0.200 0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000
Normalized Water Saturation (fraction)

3. Denormalize to a connate water saturation of 30.4% and an Sor of 22.5%


Use the Sample A normalized saturations to obtain the denormalized relative permeability curves.

S* Kro Krw Sw Kro Krw

0.000 1.000 0.000 0.304 1.000 0.000


0.167 0.680 0.020 0.383 0.680 0.020
0.333 0.430 0.045 0.461 0.430 0.045
0.500 0.250 0.078 0.540 0.250 0.078
0.667 0.120 0.130 0.618 0.120 0.130
0.833 0.050 0.190 0.697 0.050 0.190
1.000 0.000 0.280 0.775 0.000 0.280