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Reservoir engineering problems and numericals

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Two samples having porosity values of 12.3% and 22.7% have been tested to determine their water-oil relative permeability

characteristics. These are provided on the attached Data sheet. A large portion of the reservoir has porosities closer to 17.

and 55 md permeability.

Find a set of relative permeability characteristics that would apply to the rock characterized by the 17.5% porosity.

Hint: You want to consider permeability, porosity or some combination thereof as an indicator of rock quality for normalizing

the available data relating to the connate water saturation and the residual oil saturation.

Also you may want to normalize the saturation axis between the endpoints to compare the shape of the relative

permeability curves for the two samples.

er-oil relative permeability

as porosities closer to 17.5%

ROCK PROPERTIES

Sample A

Sample A

1.000

Porosity (frac) = 0.227

Permeability (md) = 135

0.800 Kro

Relative Permeability

Sw Kro Krw Krw

0.600

0.231 1.000 0.000

0.318 0.680 0.020

0.400

0.404 0.430 0.045

0.491 0.250 0.078

0.577 0.120 0.130 0.200

0.664 0.050 0.190

0.750 0.000 0.280 0.000

0.000 0.200 0.400 0.600

Water Saturation (fraction)

Sample B:

Sample B

Porosity (frac) = 0.123

Permeability (md) = 22

1.000

Relative Permeability

Krw

0.350 1.000 0.000 0.600

0.423 0.700 0.015

0.496 0.500 0.050

0.569 0.330 0.080 0.400

0.642 0.160 0.110

0.715 0.060 0.190 0.200

0.789 0.000 0.300

0.000

0.000 0.200 0.400 0.600

Water Saturation (fraction)

Sample A

Kro

Krw

er Saturation (fraction)

Sample B

Kro

Krw

r Saturation (fraction)

ROCK PROPERTIES

In order to estimate the endpoint saturations, plot the endpoint saturations versus a rock quality indicator.

For this purpose, the rock property index will be taken as [(permeability/porosity)^0.5] which is used

in the Leverrett J Function normalization.

(frac) (frac) (md) (frac) RQI

Since it is easy to draw a straight line through two known points, the selection of the best fit line through the

data is obvious.

24.4 0.231 0.250

13.4 0.350 0.211

0.400

0.350

f(x) = - 0.0108055789x + 0.49451296

0.300

0.250

Saturation

0.200

Connate Water Sat

0.150 Linear (Connate Water Sat)

0.100 Residual Oil Sat

Linear (Residual Oil Sat)

0.050

0.000

12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0

Rock Quality Index

Now for a RQI (x) = 17.6, find the Swc and Sor values Swc = 0.304

Sor = 0.225

LITY

quality indicator.

which is used

0108055789x + 0.4945129687

035413242x + 0.1636386069

er Sat

ate Water Sat)

Sat

ual Oil Sat)

Rock Quality Index

ROCK PROPERTIES

1. Normalize Saturation (S*) Axis Between Connate Water Saturation and Residual Oil Saturation

Sample A:

Permeability (md) = 135

0.318 0.680 0.020 0.167 0.680 0.020

0.404 0.430 0.045 0.333 0.430 0.045

0.491 0.250 0.078 0.500 0.250 0.078

0.577 0.120 0.130 0.667 0.120 0.130

0.664 0.050 0.190 0.833 0.050 0.190

0.750 0.000 0.280 1.000 0.000 0.280

Sample B:

Permeability (md) = 22

0.423 0.800 0.015 0.120 0.700 0.015

0.496 0.600 0.050 0.200 0.500 0.050

0.569 0.330 0.080 0.400 0.330 0.080

0.642 0.160 0.110 0.600 0.160 0.110

0.715 0.060 0.190 0.800 0.060 0.190

0.789 0.000 0.300 1.000 0.000 0.300

2. Plot both sets of relative permeability curves versus normalized water saturation.

Since both curves are almost identical on a normalized basis. Either one of these

samples can be used to denormalize the curves to the endpoint saturations of the

intermediate rock porosity of 17.5% and permeability of 54 md. This is done in item 3 below.

1.000

Sample A: Kro

0.800

Sample A: Krw

meability

Sample B: Kro

0.600 Sample B: Krw

Normalized Saturation Axis

1.000

Sample A: Kro

0.800

Relative Permeability Sample A: Krw

Sample B: Kro

0.600 Sample B: Krw

0.400

0.200

0.000

0.000 0.200 0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000

Normalized Water Saturation (fraction)

Use the Sample A normalized saturations to obtain the denormalized relative permeability curves.

0.167 0.680 0.020 0.383 0.680 0.020

0.333 0.430 0.045 0.461 0.430 0.045

0.500 0.250 0.078 0.540 0.250 0.078

0.667 0.120 0.130 0.618 0.120 0.130

0.833 0.050 0.190 0.697 0.050 0.190

1.000 0.000 0.280 0.775 0.000 0.280

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