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6th Semester

Batch 2015-2019

Submitted to: Submitted by:

Dr. Umer Mehmood Hafiz Tanveer Ashraf 2015-PE-20

University of Engineering and Technology Lahore

Polymer Compounding

Additives are the substances that are added in resin in a minute quantity to achieve the desire
properties, for the ease of processing and to reduce the cost of product. For example, carbon black.

Multifunctional additives:
Multifunctional additives are those which are used for more than one function. For example, zinc
borates function as flame retardant, smoke suppressant, afterglow suppressant and anti-tracking

Recent development in multifunctional additives:

Zinc Borates:
Zinc borates function as flame retardant, smoke suppressant, afterglow suppressant and anti-
tracking agent in both halogen containing and halogen free polymers
They also showed that zinc borate enhanced the fire performance of composite. Many studies have
shown that the using together antimony trioxide and zinc borate is more effective in high
temperature polymer applications (Shen, Kochesfahani, and Jouffret, 2008). [1]
Anion Multifunctional Additive:
Anionic additive can apply in paint, textile, coating, foam, plastic, etc. There are three types of
additives available:
1. Anion-releasing Multiple-function Additives of Paint, Adhesive and Coating.
2. Anti-bacteria, Healthy Anion Additives to Plastic and Rubber.
3. Healthy Functional Additives to Textile, Fiber Fabric and Household Textiles. [2]

N-Chloro-Hindered Amines as Multifunctional Polymer Additives:

The transformation of hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) into N-chloro-hindered amines
(NCHA) in the presence of diluted sodium hypochlorite bleach at room temperature is discussed.
NCHA-containing samples showed powerful, durable, and rechargeable antimicrobial functions
against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. They also showed strong photostability
and thermal stabilizing effects. The wide availability, low cost and low toxicity of HALS, the ease
in NCHA preparation and the unique properties of resultant materials suggest that NCHA have the
potentials to be a class of multifunctional additives of polymeric materials. [3]
Carbon Black:
Dispersion Efficiency: Main Issue to be Solved While Using Carbon Black Pigments. [4]
Carbon blacks (CB) are added to polymers for:
1. The reinforcement of the elastomers, which induces an increase of the mechanical properties.
2. During many years tires were reinforced with carbon black only but now the precipitated silica
competes it.
3. The light protection: a low-level stops UV at the surface but the colour is dark grey or black.
4. Coloring.
Polymer Compounding

5. Conductivity enhancement. [5]

6. Special conductive blacks are developed to make conductive the inherently insulating polymers.
The new grades and the research works follow three strategies:
1. New improvements in their properties thanks to innovative manufacturing processes,
2. Modification of interactions with the polymer host by surface treatments,
3. Enter in an alliance with another reinforcing filler to combine their forces and mitigate their
weaknesses. [5]
Carbon black filled conducting polymers and polymer blends. [6]

Surfactants as additive:
Although surfactant-facilitated crystallization has been widely used in pharmaceuticals, metal–
organic frameworks (MOFs), chalcogenides and colloidal nanocrystals, using surfactants as
additives to control the crystal growth of metal halides in the macroscale is unexplored. In this
contribution, we used N-methylate 4,4′-bipyridine Bromo plumbates as a model system to prove
that surfactants as additives could make the structures of organic–inorganic hybrid Bromo
plumbates diverse. [7]

Epoxy base Additives:

The use of multifunctional epoxy-based modifiers to increase the melt strength of poly (ethylene
terephthalate) (PET) has been investigated, with the aim of producing PET foams by an extrusion
process. The reaction conversion has been studied as a function of time by the measurement of
torque in an internal mixer. [8]

Multifunctional Paint Additive:

(2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol containing 5% water) Multifunctional Additive for Latex Paints:
AMP-95® is widely recognized as a multifunctional additive for all types of latex emulsion
paints. In a formulation, AMP-95 can be used as a powerful co-dispersant to prevent re-
agglomeration of pigments. At the same time, AMP-95 will contribute significant benefts to the
overall performance of the coating. The benefts and performance improvements made possible by
AMP-95 in different stages of paint manufacture are: [9]
AMP-95 in the Grind - Reduces dispersant demand when used in conjunction with conventional
dispersants - Optimizes pigment dispersion - Reduces foam (through dispersant reduction)
Provides effective pH control - Lowers raw material costs. [10]
AMP-95 in the Letdown
- Improves thickener performance - Eliminates need for ammonia, resulting in a lower odor paint
- Improves color acceptance of shading pastes [10]
AMP-95 and Coating Performance - Improves scrub, water, and block resistance through
formula optimization - Reduces in-can corrosion - Effective in low odor systems. [10]

Novel Applications for Fluoro surfactants in Low-VOC Coatings:

Fluoro surfactants have long been used to address surface tension-related performance problems
in coatings. New research demonstrates that traditional methods of using Fluoro surfactants limited
Polymer Compounding

their effectiveness in solving issues facing today’s low-VOC architectural coating formulation
needs. The multi-functional properties provided by Fluoro surfactants include anti-crater,
improved leveling, reduced foaming, decreased block, open-time extension, oil repellency and dirt
pick up resistance. [11]

Multifunctional Additives as Zinc-Free Curatives for Sulfur Vulcanization:

Concern about the release of eco-toxic zinc species from rubbers into the environment leads to an
increasing interest in potential substitutes. This investigation reports on the application of
Multifunctional Additives, amines complexed with fatty acids, for sulfur vulcanization of rubbers.
Good physical properties can be obtained in s-SBR compounds using the MFA/S cure system,
albeit at the cost of a shortened scorch time as compared to a ZnO/stearic acid system. Inclusion
of ZnO lengthens the scorch time, though it reduces the state of cure and ultimate properties. The
amount of ZnO used in the MFA-formulations is considerably lower than in the conventional
systems. The introduction of CaO and MgO leads to an improvement in the state of cure and
physical properties. Amines play a vital role in the vulcanization process, hence various amine-
complexes have been synthesized and investigated as zinc-free curatives in s-SBR compounds. It
is observed that the scorch time is related to the basicity of the amines. The results of Model
Compound Vulcanization studies with MFAs reveal a fast decomposition of the accelerator and
some differences in the distribution of the crosslinked products. The conclusion must be drawn,
that the chemistry involved in the MFA-systems is fundamentally different from the conventional
vulcanization systems. [12]

Waste natural gum as a multifunctional additive in rubber:

Bahera gum, extracted from the bark of Terminalia Billerica, is a waste material. The present study
involves the use of this natural gum as a multifunctional additive in natural rubber (NR) and
brominated isobutylene-co-Para methyl styrene (BIMS). It was found that fatty acids/esters in the
gum act as accelerator activator and can replace stearic acid in rubber formulations. Polyphenols
in the gum act as antioxidant. The gum improves the tack strength of the rubbers (21% at 2.5 phr
loading for NR and 54% at 10 phr loading for BIMS). The gum imparts plasticization effect. The
activation energy of flow is also reduced with the addition of the gum. Moreover, it decreases the
elastic memory of the system which causes reduction in die swell. [13]

Polypropylene glycol di glycidyl ether:

Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) was melt mixed in a laboratory extruder with poly(butylene
adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) in the presence of
polypropylene glycol di glycidyl ether (EJ400) that acted as both plasticizer and

Joncryl and PBAT:

Blown film extrusion of poly(lactic acid), which mainly presents poor shear and elongation
viscosities, and its blends. In order to enhance its melt strength, two main routes were selected
(i) a structural modification through chain extension and branching mechanisms by adding a
reactive multifunctional epoxide (named Joncryl) and
(ii) blending with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate), named PBAT [15]
Polymer Compounding

[1] Kelvin K. Shen, Saied Kochesfahani, Frédéric Jouffre (2008). Zinc borates as multifunctional
polymer additives. Polymers for advanced technologies. 19: 469–474. doi:10.1002/pat.1119.
[2] S. M. Ni et al., "Application of Anion Multifunctional Additive in Polymer", Advanced
Materials Research, Vol. 427, pp. 13-18, 2012.
[3] Yuyu Sun, Zhaobin Chen (2005). N-Chloro-Hindered Amines as Multifunctional Polymer
Additives. Article in macromolecules. DOI: 10.1021/ma050874b
[4] Dispersion Efficiency: Main Issue to be Solved While Using Carbon Black Pigments
Special Chem / Mark DeMeuse – Mar 18, 2013
[5] Carbon Blacks: What’s New? Special Chem / Michel Biron – Aug 26, 2008
[6] Huang, J.-C. (2002), Carbon black filled conducting polymers and polymer blends. Adv.
Polym. Technol., 21: 299–313. doi:10.1002/adv.10025

[7] Surfactants as additives make the structures of organic–inorganic hybrid Bromo plumbates
[8] S.JaponL.BooghY.LeterrierJ.-A.E.Månson. Reactive processing of poly (ethylene
terephthalate) modified with multifunctional epoxy-based additives

[9] Richard Henderson, Senior Customer Application Specialist; Kent Alexander, Marketing
Manager; Mary Redmond, Senior Customer Applications Specialist; and John Quinn,
Applications Technologist, ANGUS Chemical Co., Buffalo Grove, IL. (2016). Formulating With
Zero-VOC Multifunctional Paint Additives.

[11] Novel Applications for Fluoro surfactants in Low-VOC Coatings By Jean Meng PhD. April
09, 2007

[12] Geert Heideman, Jacques W. M. Noordermeer, Rabin N. Datta, and Ben van Baarle (2006)
Multifunctional Additives as Zinc-Free Curatives for Sulfur Vulcanization. Rubber Chemistry and
Technology: September 2006, Vol. 79, No. 4, pp. 561-588.

[13] Guhathakurta, S., Anandhan, S., Singha, N. K., Chattopadhyay, R. N. and Bhowmick, A. K.
(2006), Waste natural gum as a multifunctional additive in rubber. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 102: 4897–
4907. doi:10.1002/app.24880

[14] Norma Mallegni, Thanh Vu Phuong, Maria-Beatrice Coltelli, Patrizia Cinelli, ID

and Andrea Lazzeri. (2018). Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) Based Tear Resistant and Biodegradable
Flexible Films by Blown Film Extrusion

[15] Racha Al-Itry, Khalid Lamnawar and Abderrahim Maazouz (2015) Biopolymer Blends
Based on Poly (lactic acid): Shear and Elongation Rheology/Structure/Blowing Process