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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED
LITERATURE

strength) when subject to lateral forces. fast and cost-effective new ways of wall construction. It is now possible to construct more than half-brick-thick walls. easy. to construct polygonal and curved walls using interlocking bricks. the effects of brick irregularities on wall alignment accuracy and wall behaviour (stiffness. and. Three methods (theoretical modeling. to attach more than half-brickwide piers (buttresses) onto walls. physical experiments and computer simulation) were used to analyze the effects of brick imperfections on wall alignment accuracy. alignment accuracy and load bearing Abstract The worldwide housing shortage has stimulated a search for appropriate.Design of interlocking bricks for enhanced wall construction. Among many technologies found to have promise is mortarless technology using dry-stack interlocking bricks/blocks. This thesis is about such mortarless walling technology and in particular: how to improve wall-construction flexibility. The flexibility of mortarless technology (MT) has been enhanced by the development of new bricks (centre-half bat and tee brick): the introduction of closer bricks led to the formation of two new bonds (patterns) namely Shokse and Lijuja bonds. using special bricks. Theoretical analysis confirmed that brick moulders should concentrate on achieving parallel top and bottom faces rather than . flexibility.

improved column alignment by factor 2.0. Simion Hosea Kintingu University of Warwick. The columns assembled using the “reversing” and “replace” strategies realized alignment improvement factors of 1. to prevent bricks making contact near their centre lines. this research recommends using full bricks with top and bottom surface irregularities not exceeding ±0.6 and 2.net/publication/41484580_Design_of_inte rlocking_bricks_for_enhanced_wall_construction_flexibility_align ment_accuracy_and_load_bearing (March 1. The research also revealed that grooving.13 and stiffness by factor 2. Department of Engineering https://www. 2018) .achieving true square-ness. water. Physical column assembly compared three brick-laying strategies namely: “random”. and up-to ±0. soil) of employing MT. Using MT will save 50% of wall construction cost and 50% cement consumption. thus allowing construction of longer and higher walls without strengthening measures.9mm for grooved bricks.9 respectively over “random” strategy.5mm for un-grooved bricks. which ultimately will reduce 40% of carbon emissions. “reversing” and “replace”.researchgate. In order to attain alignment accuracy in accordance with BS 5628-3:2005 in a dry- stack mortarless wall. Further analysis was undertaken with respect to resource-use implications (cement.

and 28 days for the concrete mixtures were applied in this work. 14. fresh density. 10%. and 20% with 800 kg of concrete mixtures. Curing ages of 3. and 54 prisms were cast for flexural strength and toughness indices tests. .Use Of Waste Plastic In Concrete Mixture As Aggregate Replacement Abstract Industrial activities in Iraq are associated with significant amounts of non-biodegradable solid waste. and toughness indices. These tests include performing slump. The results proved the arrest of the propagation of micro cracks by introducing waste plastic of fabriform shapes to concrete mixtures. dry density. This study insures that reusing waste plastic as a sand-substitution aggregate in concrete gives a good approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some of the solid waste problems posed by plastics. Thirty kilograms of waste plastic of fabriform shapes was used as a partial replacement for sand by 0%. flexural strength. waste plastic being among the most prominent. All of the concrete mixtures were tested at room temperature. Seventy cubes were molded for compressive strength and dry density tests. 7. This study involved 86 experiments and 254 tests to determine the efficiency of reusing waste plastic in the production of concrete. compressive strength. 15%.

Due to growing environmental concerns and the need for cleaner production.sciencedirect.Zainab Z. with the remaining majority requiring costly disposal processes. University of Baghdad. One such example that is gaining considerable interest in many parts of the world is the utilisation of fly ash in brick manufacturing. particularly by establishing its useful and economic utilisation.AL-Hashmi Department of Environmental Engineering. many researchers are actively working to find new and improved methods of combating the fly ash waste disposal problem. 2018) Development of low-cost fly ash bricks Abstract Fly ash is produced in vast quantities as a by-product of the burning of fossil fuels for the thermal generation of electricity.com/science/article/pii/S0956053X07002 784 (March 1. At present 10-15% of the fly ash produced in Australia is utilised in cement manufacturing and concrete industry. the management of fly ash has become an important issue facing the power generation industry.Ismail and Enas A. For that reason. Iraq https://www. College of Engineering. This paper examines the potential for using Class F fly ashes from Queensland as major .

Andreas Nataatmadja University of Southern Queensland https://www. sand. hydrated lime. Both fired. tensile strength. 2018) Experimental Study On Low Cost Bricks Using Copper Slag And Rice Husk Ash Abstract Since the large demand has been placed on building material industry especially in the last decade owing to the increasing population which causes a chronic shortage of building materials. Scaled-down pressed bricks were made by varying proportions of fly ash. the test results are analysed and effects of variables discussed. water absorption. and durability. Recommendations and conclusions as to whether or not the fly ash bricks can perform adequately alongside the clay bricks are included.researchgate. oven-dried and air-cured bricks were tested for their properties including compressive strength.net/publication/229025029_Development_o f_low-cost_fly_ash_bricks (March 1. sodium silicate and water.constituents in the manufacture of common residential building bricks. the civil engineers have been challenged to convert waste to useful . In the paper.

K. In the review of utilization of those waste.S. . hardness and soundness. Sivakasi .e. In this study. improvement of the population health and security preoccupation with environmental matters and reduction in waste disposal costs. India. primary RHA and copper slag. Recycling of such waste as raw material alternatives may contribute in the exhaustion of the natural resources. The experiments are conducted for variation in properties i.Mahendran Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering P. This reviewed approach on bricks making from waste is useful to provide potential and sustainable solution.R Engineering college. the conservation of non renewable resources. this paper reviewed recycling various waste like copper slag and rice husk ash(RHA) in bricks production. mechanical properties will be reviewed and recommendations for future research as out comings of this review will be given. The effects of those wastes (copper slag and RHA) on the bricks properties as physical. water absorption. RHA heat-treated at 500̊c and medium grained copper slag were used to substitute red soil as partial replacement in raw material mixtures. compressive strength.building and construction material like brick.

Department of Civil Engineering P.Kaleeswari Under Graduate Student .(ICRTCETM-2017) .R Engineering college.S.M.Bala Nivetha & P. SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering.Special Issue – April 2017 . Sivakasi . India.