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The International Journal of

TRANSPORT & LOGISTICS
Međunarodni časopis
TRANSPORT I LOGISTIKA

UDC: 65.012.22

BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS

BENČMARKING I LOGISTIKA

Gordana RADIVOJEVIĆ1, Momčilo MILJUŠ1
1
Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering, Belgrade, V. Stepe 305, Belgrade

Abstract: In order to assess their position in the market companies have always felt a need to compare
with other companies. Benchmarking is a contemporary method of comparing the best practices standards
with the company’s performance in order to achieve optimum results.
Benchmarking is a process which incorporates the components of modern management practice as part of
total quality management (TQM - Total Quality Management). It is a new conception in strategic
management whose implementation is aimed at the enhancement of performances of economic entities.
Benchmarking may be defined as a learning process which ensues from the study and analysis of the
positive experiences of others where such experiences - along with the necessary adjustments – would be
applied with a view of promoting one’s own performance. From the standpoint of applicability
benchmarking is a tool which enables the monitoring and improvement of performance, based on the
knowledge acquired from the best-practice examples and understanding of the processes underlying the
attainment of such successful results.
This paper is dedicated to the description of the benchmarking process and the possibility of its
implementation in logistic systems. In part II of this paper the place and role of benchmarking have been
described, as well as its history, the various types of bench-marking research projects and implementation
stages. Part III deals with the logistics performances and the performance metrics determination. In part
IV some examples have been given of benchmark research on logistics along with the identification of
possible problems that may be encountered during the conduct of research. Part V contains conclusive
deliberations.

Key words: benchmarking, logistic, logistics performances

Apstrakt: Kompanije, u cilju sagledavanja svoje tržišne pozicije, uvek imaju potrebu za poređenjem sa
drugim kompanijama. Jedan od savremenih postupaka poređenja pokazatelja i unapređenja poslovanja
kompanije je benčmarking.
Benčmarking je proces, koji obuhvata komponente moderne upravljačke prakse kao dela sveukupnog
kvaliteta upravljačke operacije (TQM - Total Quality Management). To je novi koncept strategijskog
menadžmenta, koji se primenjuje u cilju unapređenja poslovanja ekonomskih subjekata. Benčmarking se
može opisati kao proces učenja, koji proizilazi iz posmatranja i analiziranja pozitivnih iskustava drugih,
kako bi se data iskustva, uz neophodna prilagođavanja, primenila u cilju unapređenja sopstvenog
poslovanja. Sa aspekta primene, benčmarking je alat za praćenje i poboljšanje performansi, učenjem iz
najboljih primera u praksi i razumevanjem procesa pomoću kojih su ti primeri postignuti.
U ovom radu je opisan proces benčmarkinga i mogućnost njegove primene u logističkim sistemima. U
drugom delu rada opisano je mesto i uloga benčmarkinga, istorijat, vrste benčmarking istraživanja i faze
primene. U trećem delu rada opisane su logističke performanse i izmeritelji za njihovo oređivanje. U
četvrtom delu su prikazani neki primeri primene benčmarking istraživanja u logistici, sa ukazivanjem na
moguće probleme u realizaciji. Peti deo rada je su zaključna razmatranja.

Ključne reči: benčmarking, logistika, logističke performanse

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G. Radivojević, M. Miljuš, BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L - 07/04

1 INTRODUCTION 1 UVOD

In the market economy the growth of U tržišnoj privredi porast konkurentnosti
competitiveness is inevitable. The users’ major predstavlja neminovnost. Za korisnike nisu
concerns are no more confined to the quality and više presudni samo kvalitet i cena
price of products; the service parameter proizvoda, već i parametri usluge
(accuracy, reliability, efficiency of realization of (pravovremenost, pouzdanost, efikasnost
their requirements etc.) is playing an equally realizacije njihovih zahteva i dr.). Sa druge
important role. On the other hand companies strane, kompanije sa kvalitetnom uslugom
rendering quality services may quote higher mogu zahtevati veće cene za svoje
prices for their products which, in some way, proizvode, što je na neki način i opravdano,
should be regarded as justifiable since the quality jer usluga je onoliko kvalitetna, koliko je
of service is assessed by the amount of money the korisnik spreman da plati. Ključna činjenica
user is prepared to pay. The two crucial facts that u zadovoljenju zahteva korisnika leži u
must be recognized in order to satisfy the user’s shvatanju i razumevanju dve stvari: šta
requirements are: what is it the user wants and korisnik želi i kada to želi. Iz tih razloga,
when does he want it? For these reason the kompanija mora svoje ciljeve da definiše u
company should define its objectives so as to skladu sa zahtevima korisnika i zbog toga
comply with the users’ requirements and in doing mora da prati svoje performanse, da ih
so it has to monitor its own performance and upoređuje sa drugim kompanijama, kako bi
compare it to other companies’ performances in sagledala svoj položaj i prednosti i
order to assess its position and its advantages and nedostatke u odnosu na konkurenciju.
shortfalls versus the competition’s.
Kompanije, u cilju sagledavanja svoje
In order to assess their position in the market tržišne pozicije, uvek imaju potrebu za
companies have always felt a need to compare poređenjem sa drugim kompanijama.
with other companies. The standard methods of Uobičajeni postupci za poređenje se
comparing are based on the company’s making a zasnivaju na poređenju skupa pokazatelja,
comparison with a group of indicators, the poređenju konkurentskih proizvoda sa
comparing of its own products to competitive svojim i identifikovanju “slabih” mesta u
products and on the identification of “weak” kompaniji. Jedan od savremenih postupaka
points within the company itself. Benchmarking poređenja pokazatelja i unapređenja
is a contemporary method of comparing the best poslovanja kompanije je benčmarking.
practices standards with the company’s
performance in order to achieve optimum results. Benčmarking je proces, koji obuhvata
komponente moderne upravljačke prakse
Benchmarking is a process which incorporates kao dela sveukupnog kvaliteta upravljačke
the components of modern management practice operacije (TQM - Total Quality
as part of total quality management (TQM - Total Management). To je novi koncept
Quality Management). It is a new conception in strategijskog menadžmenta, koji se
strategic management whose implementation is primenjuje u cilju unapređenja poslovanja
aimed at the enhancement of performances of ekonomskih subjekata. Benčmarking se
economic entities. Benchmarking may be defined može opisati kao proces učenja, koji
as a learning process which ensues from the proizilazi iz posmatranja i analiziranja
study and analysis of the positive experiences of pozitivnih iskustava drugih, kako bi se data
others where such experiences - along with the iskustva, uz neophodna prilagođavanja,
necessary adjustments – would be applied with a primenila u cilju unapređenja sopstvenog
view of promoting one’s own performance. From poslovanja. Sa aspekta primene,
the standpoint of applicability benchmarking is a benčmarking je alat za praćenje i
tool which enables the monitoring and poboljšanje performansi, učenjem iz
improvement of performance, based on the najboljih primera u praksi i razumevanjem
knowledge acquired from the best-practice procesa pomoću kojih su ti primeri
examples and understanding of the processes postignuti.
underlying the attainment of such successful
results.

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da bi se ta process that is based on the close monitoring and iskustva uz neophodne promene primenila u study of other companies’ positive experiences sopstvenom poslovanju. the benčmarkinga. as well as its history. proces učenja iz posmatranja i analiziranja improvement. sa ukazivanjem na moguće problems that may be encountered during the probleme u realizaciji. 2 MESTO I ULOGA 2 PLACE AND ROLE OF BENČMARKINGA BENCHMARKING Benčmarking predstavlja novi koncept Benchmarking is a new conception in strategic strategijskog upravljanja. Part V contains conclusive zaključna razmatranja. In part IV some examples četvrtom delu su prikazani neki primeri have been given of benchmark research on primene benčmarking istraživanja u logistics along with the identification of possible logistici. the comparing of one’s own spoljašnjeg upoređivanja. To je i knowledge and generate conditions for self. improve the performance of one’s own company. The popularization of benchmarking process was Gillete. vrste benčmarking various types of bench-marking research projects istraživanja i faze primene. it is a learning pozitivnog iskustva drugih. i dr) u drugoj initiated by a number of major world companies polovini XX veka. unutrašnjeg i evaluation. kako performance parameters of established leaders in bi se steklo znanje i stvorili uslovi za the best practices the aim of which is to gain poboljšanje sopstvenih performansi. poređenjem 12 countries in South America. In part II of primene u logističkim sistemima. Exel Logistics and other) in the second half of the 20th century. u odnosu na parameters with the external and internal ustanovljene lidere u najboljoj praksi. Ovako comparing 12 parameters of logistics organizovano ″takmičenje″ predstavlja jedan performances determined at the company’s level. 95 . which can subsequently be used to implement improvements in one’s own company. U trećem delu and implementation stages. koji prenose svoja logistics performances are logistics managers iskustva kolegama i time unapređuju ukupno who transfer their experiences to their associates poslovanje kompanije. Peti deo rada jesu conduct of research. BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . deliberations. Exel Logistics. U metrics determination. M. su “winners” in each of the twelve categories of logistički menadžeri.G. Kompanija Gillete ima svoje proizvodne i distributivne centre u osam zemalja Južne The Gillete Company has got a network of Amerike. Part III deals with the rada opisane su logističke performanse i logistics performances and the performance izmeritelji za njihovo oređivanje. Radivojević. ″Pobednici″ u svakoj od 12 competition at the company’s level. Gillete. The kategorija logističkih performansi. (Xerox. Proces benčmarkinga je popularisan od strane velikih svetskih kompanija (Xerox. Benčmarking se može opisati kao proces It can be described as a process of continuous neprekidnog merenja.07/04 This paper is dedicated to the description of the U ovom radu je opisan proces benchmarking process and the possibility of its benčmarkinga i mogućnost njegove implementation in logistic systems. Miljuš. “contest” is organized among those countries by određenih na nivou kompanije. Furthermore. u svim zemljama. Every year a izmeritelja logističkih performansi. whereby the overall operations of the Company are improved in all the countries. koji se primenjuje u management which is implemented in order to cilju unapređenja poslovanja. oblik kolegijalne konkurencije na nivou Thus organized “contest” is a form of loyal kompanije. Svake godine se između njih production and distribution centers in eight organizuje ″takmičenje″. istorijat. U this paper the place and role of benchmarking drugom delu rada opisano je mesto i uloga have been described.

koji pripadaju različitim privrednim Engineers from Xerox selected a of logistics oblastima. i na osnovu toga analyzed the obtained answers SBC made out a formirao izveštaj. formiran je upitnik na analysis of the companies’ performances was to be osnovu koga će se porediti kompanije.07/04 In recent years the Xerox Company has introduced Kompanija Xerox je poslednjih godina uvela some changes in its distributive network. In order to develop as za servis. Miljuš. na kome je svako dobio temu o kojoj partner was given a specific topic on which it was će edukovati ostale. M. Inženjeri iz Xerox-a su izabrali skup performances that were relatively easy to assess and logističkih performansi. The domaćinima. exchanged with hosts and particularly with those razmenjivane su informacije i iskustva sa whose performances were rated highly. The educators were osnovu izmerenih rezultata iz upitnika. Posle tri meseca report. Pri svakoj poseti. Kompanije koje su pozitivno affirmatively to this invitation Three companies odgovorile na poziv. improved performance at each of the companies. svaka company’s performance. questionnaire. a posebno sa onima koji su po exchange of information and experiences was quite performansama visoko procenjeni. Xerox je sebi obezbedio dobra were incorporated in its distributive center project praktična iskustva drugih. United Stationers and Exel Logistics which kompanije (John Deere. U nameri da razvije što produktivniji successful a conception of distributive centers as koncept distributivnih centara. On every visit information were distributivni centar. kada je kompanija postala ″svetska klasa″ (world-class rating). functioning till the present day where the company Proces benčmarking u Xerox-u funkcioniše i has attained world-class rating. Razmena open since the participating companies were not informacija i iskustava je bila veoma otvorena confronted as competitors. Each company furnished 12 questions kompanija je dostavila svojih 12 pitanja. Radivojević. Svaka carried out. Xerox je possible Xerox organized visits to the various organizovao obilazak različitih distributivnih distributive centers in different industry fields. Having done so Xerox jer se radi o nekonkurentskim kompanijama. BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . Menadžment je postavio zadatak rendered to its users be maintained at the same level smanjenja logističkih troškova za 20% uz or improved. Promene se changes relate to the number. U sledećem koraku. During the next stage each kompanija je popunila upitnik i SBC je uradio company filled out the questionnaire and having analizu dobijenih odgovora. Na benefited from other companies’ experiences which ovaj način. Edukatori su izabrani na to educate the other partners. koje su imale companies which were open for a cooperation and superiorne performanse u oblasti skladištenja i willing to furnish relevant information. i na osnovu njih su procenjivali svaki distributive center. Those izmene u svoju distributivnu mrežu. tako of its own so the final version of the questionnaire da je upitnik imao 48 pitanja o poslovanju contained 48 questions related to the respective kompanije. It took three months before a working benčmarking partneri su organizovali radni meeting was organized where each benchmarking sastanak. responded distribucije. 96 . centara.G. lokaciju i konstrukciju svih of all distribution facilities. Benchmarking process in Xerox has been svoje projektno rešenje distributivnog objekta. The process that lasted one year resulted in unapređene performansi za svaku kompaniju. The drugim kompanijama. SBC ranks as one of major national suppliers in America in the field of telecommunications. location and structure odnose na broj. koje su relativno lako on the basis of those parameters evaluated each izmerljive. United Stationers i entered into a successful partnership with SBC. U prvom drafted on the basis of which a comparative zajedničkom koraku. Direktor kompanije je uputio poziv in the field of warehousing and distribution. Izabrane su tri Deere. koje su sa SBC formirale a first step of this joint effort a questionnaire was uspešno benčmarking partnerstvo. koja je uključio u design. The SBC je jedan od najvećih nacionalnih management set up a task to cut the logistics costs snabdevača u oblasti telekomunikacija u by 20% provided that the quality of services Americi. As Exel Logistics). Posle selected on the basis of assessed results from the tri meseca organizovan je sledeći sastanak. danas. Another meeting followed after three Proces koji je trajao tokom godine je doneo months. final products and objekata distribucije gotovih proizvoda i delova serviceable ( spare) parts. bile su otvorene za were selected from among the invited ones: John davanje informacija i saradnju. The Company’s director invited other održavanje ili unapređenje nivoa opsluge companies which recorded superior performances korisnika.

The Association has its own kompanije i eksperti različitih oblasti. dobar izbor benčmark kompanije i .G. Članovi su vodeće professional fields. . Razumevanje sopstvenih procesa podrazumeva poznavanje svih podsistema To understand one’s own processes means to be kompanije. Navedeni primeri svetskih kompanija i The above examples of the world companies and udruženja. Dobra realizacija to the company’s successful performance. Within the EFQM a Benchmarking Group država članica. koji spheres. izradom različitih studija i pilot projekata. . poznavanje benčmarking postupka. indicators within the company will be used to set up guidelines for such changes whose implementation should lead to improved performance. adequate choice of benchmark . The Group se engages in the pripadaju različitim oblastima. APQC (American Productivity and Quality Center) is an American Association which. . M. linking of benchmarking partners. Grupa se organization of seminars. The results of an koje treba da unaprede poslovanje analysis of the operations. obučavanjem i edukacijom menadžera. benchmarking partners. Asocijacija se bavi pružanjem usluga engages in rendering services to other parties in u procesu benčmarkinga. njihovih hijerarhijskih nivoa i familiar with all subsystems within the company. APQC (American Productivity & Quality among other activities. Miljuš. the making of various studies and povezivanjem benčmarking partnera. Radivojević. . proper understanding of processes within kompaniji. BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . familiarization with benchmark methodology. razumevanje procesa u sopstvenoj . ukazuju da dobro realizovano associations suggest that a properly organized benčmarking istraživanje skoro sigurno benchmarking research will almost certainly lead donosi uspeh kompaniji. one’s own company. koja se bavi and exchange experiences in all fields of istraživanjem i razmenom iskustava u svim activities. 97 . database containing information on the Asocijacija ima svoju bazu podataka o companies and indicators of their performances kompanijama i njihovim pokazateljima rada. The Association oblasti. consulting. also engages in Center) je američka asocijacija. adequate choice of the benchmark object. of managers. The members of the Benchmarking oblastima rada. poslovnih procesa i funkcija koji se u njima the levels of their hierarchy and the operating realizuju. training and education bavi: organizovanjem seminara. koje obuhvata oko 30 states. pilot projects. In order that benchmarking research be adequately benčmarking istraživanja podrazumeva: conducted the following requirements should be met: . Its members are the leading jednom segmentu svog rada bavi companies and specialists in different benčmarkingom. on the basis of which a list of leaders is generated na osnovu koje formira listu lidera u svakoj for each activity segment. process and function kompanije. koja se u benchmarking. dobar izbor benčmark objekta. Članovi Benchmarking Group are renown European specialist in related Group su istaknuti stručnjaci iz Evrope. organizovanjem the benchmarking process. U okviru EFQM postoji was set up in order to carry out research work Benchmarking Group. within those subsystems. the organization of radnih skupova i povezivanjem benčmarking working conferences and linking of partnera.07/04 The European association EFQM (European U Evropi postoji udruženje EFQM Foundation Quality Management) with a (Europian Foundation Quality Management) business seat in Brussels covers some 30 member sa sedištem u Briselu. Analiza pokazatelja rada procesa i processes and functions that are accomplished funkcija u kompaniji ukazuje na promene. poslovima konsaltinga. companies.

reper (fiksna. The Japanese have improved prikupljenih saznanja. najbolja praksa sa selected benchmark is a prerequisite to successful kojom se kompanija poredi.G. BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . Benchmark methodology is a continuous process Postupak benčmarkinga je kontinualni proces of determining where a company stands in poređenja kompanije sa izabranim liderom u relation to the chosen leader in a specific field of business. Properly Benčmark je izabrani lider. The first stage of the process is nekoj oblasti. Strana iskustva ukazuju na to da za benchmark. In the zemljišta. a oznaka visine.1 ISTORIJAT BENČMARKINGA 2. starting point je prvobitna izvorna tačka sa koje mogu biti from which measurements can be made or a izvršena merenja ili standard u odnosu na koji se standard in relation to which measurements are rade merenja. ili neki or some of its subsystems or a process on which njen podsistem ili proces na koje se benchmark research is being conducted. kao chosen leader. The primenjuje benčmarking istraživanje. koji ima više značenja: standard za benchmark which has a number of meanings: standard for competitive assessment. a marked point of elevation. Miljuš. point of reference. kompanija će biti samo jedna od prosečnih. referentna tačka). Toward the middle of the 20th century Japanese Polovinom XX veka Japanci su počeli da specialists started visiting the most prominent posećuju najbolje kompanije Amerike i Evrope. being made. Dobar izbor benchmark research. cele kompanije). ali se improved. kompanija ima poboljšane research the company’s performance is performanse. company’s management makes a decision on the Menadžment kompanije donosi odluku o scope and level of changes to be implemented obimu i nivou realizacije promena (pojedini (individual operating processes or functions. oznaka za nivelaciju pri merenju mark used in land surveys. it Kada se za benčmark izabere prosečna will also end up as an average performer after kompanija. one of the company’s subsystems or changes at the poslovni procesi ili funkcije. goes on as an iterative process incorporating the company’s continuous evaluation of poređenja sa boljim od sebe i dostizanja novih performance. Radivojević. 2. performer and further pursuing of new objectives. chooses an average competitor as its leader. na kraju istraživanja i sopstvena research has been completed. Benchmark is the chosen leader. the best practice to which the company is compared. At the end of kraju istraživanja. but the benchmark process still iterativni proces stalnog merenja performansi. dostiže izabranog lidera. Primenom i modifikacijom conduct of business. M. If a company u oblasti. comparing itself to even better a ciljeva. u companies in America and Europe to acquire nameri da prikupe znanja i ideje o uspešnom knowledge and get ideas related to a successful poslovanju.1 THE HISTORY OF BENCHMARKING Osnovu benčmarkinga predstavlja termin The term benchmarking is derived from the word benčmark. a fixed poređenje. Na overcome initial differences. the company gets abreast with its proces benčmarkinga nastavlja i dalje. a model etc. Foreign experiences show benčmarka je preduslov za uspeh benčmarking that the best company should be chosen as istraživanja. jedan od level of the whole company) i. Japanci su u značajnoj 98 . lidera order to attain expected objectives. U najopštijem smislu benčmark broadest sense it is the original. it defines the podsistema kompanije ili promene na nivou benchmark object. da bi se ostvarili očekivani ciljevi. Prvi deo ovog procesa je benchmark research where a parallel is drawn benčmarking istraživanje. odnosno definiše benčmark objekat.e. Benčmark objekat je cela kompanija.07/04 The benchmark object can be the company itself. a leader in the respective field in benčmark treba birati najbolju kompaniju. kada se porede between the company’s performance and that of performanse kompanije i lidera i preduzimaju the leader and measures are taken in order to akcije u cilju prevazilaženja početnih razlika. model.

opreme i postupaka kompanija the companies with best practice.07/04 their performance to a considerable extent by meri unapredili svoje poslovanje i japanske modifying and implementing the collected kompanije su postale konkurentne i vodeće na expertise thanks to which their companies have svetskom tržištu. equipment and procedures within proizvoda. with the view of s najboljom praksom u cilju poboljšanja improving its own business.G. . The aim of comparing is setting the best najbolje prakse i primera. depends upon the object of research. BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . external. najbolja praksa sa kojom se Benchmarking is a chosen example. which would be transferred kompaniju. services. and as a rule. Objekti istraživanja mogu biti targets of research can be different: products. sa ciljem aiming to improve its business performance. Benčmark most complex ones are for business operations. a po pravilu. usluga. Ideja benčmarkinga sažeta je u become competitive and are now holding leading japanskom terminu ″dantos″. a eksterni benčmarking je poređenje između while the external benchmarking is a comparison kompanija. što znači pokušaj da positions in the world market. understanding and adjustment of identifikacije. the organizational units within one company. koji bi se preneli u practice and example. educational institutions. nevladine asocijacije. The idea of benchmarking is summed up in the Japanese se bude najbolji među najboljima.2 VRSTE BENČMARKINGA 2. internal and . a the simplest researches are for products. Današnji koncept benčmarkinga je razvijen u Americi 60-tih godina XX veka. The target of sopstvenog poslovanja. Kompleksnost istraživanja zavisi od into the company. benchmarking can be divided into: . eksterni. različiti: proizvodi. Objekat benčmarking benchmarking research is a part of the company to istraživanja je deo kompanije na koji se which the process of benchmarking is being applied. najjednostavnija istraživanja su za proizvode. expression “dantos” which means to try to be the very best. je izabrani primer.). U svetskoj literaturi postoje the objective is compared with. non-governmental Uspešne kompanije na kraju XX veka i associations etc. M. metode. Miljuš. (production systems. The complexity of research objekta istraživanja. Generally smislu. The poboljšanja. peformanse methods. državni organi. usluge. while the najkompleksnija za poslovne procese. Cilj poređenja je određivanje processes. razumevanja i prilagođavanja products. There are different različite podele benčmarkinga. 99 . benčmarking se može podeliti na: speaking. Today benchmarking is applied to all forms of economic and non-economic entities (proizvodni sistemi. the best practice poredi objekat. performances or operating ili poslovni procesi. U najopštijem divisions of it in the world literature. obrazovne ustanove. U nastavku rada biće dato objašnjenje between the companies. services. century. governmental bodies. Interni benčmarking podrazumeva poređenje Internal benchmarking includes a comparison of organizacionih celina u okviru jedne kompanije. 2. benchmarking will be explained in the following section. primenjuje proces benčmarkinga. Radivojević. The modern conception of benchmarking was Originalno su ga razvile kompanije koje developed in America during the 60s of the last funkcionišu u industrijskom okruženju. These types of za navedene vrste benčmarkinga.) Since the end of the 20th and the početkom XXI veka koriste benčmarking beginning of 21st century benchmarking has been kao tehniku strategijskog upravljanja. It was originally developed by the Danas se benčmarking primenjuje na sve companies which functioned in industrial oblike privrednih i neprivrednih subjekata environment. used as a method of strategic management.2 TYPES OF BENCHMARKING Benchmarking is a continued process of Benčmarking je kontinuirani proces identification. interni i .

Nedostaci internog benčmarkinga su zatvorenost The disadvantages of internal benchmarking are u sopstveni sistem. uspešniji u odnosu na druge delove. Competitive − funkcionalni i . there will be no real basis for their mutual comparing. external dalje može podeliti na: benchmarking can be divided into: − konkurentski. koje imaju iste poslovne funkcije. i benchmarking is based on a hypothesis that the mrežu dislociranih filijala. reduce costs. u cilju business operations of different organizational poređenja poslovnih procesa različitih units. with organizacionih celina. The object of comparing are kompanije. BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . etc. što ne dovodi do najboljih that it is closed within the boundaries of its own rezultata do kojih bi se moglo doći poređenjem system. jasno definisanu system of dislocated affiliates. eksterni benčmarking se According to the type of benchmarking. represents good basis for external benchmarking. preko operations. which fails to reach the best results. Cilj je operational functions. političkim) operate in different conditions of economic. political and cultural environment. . Ovo je moguće u several organizational units. procesa i dr. Eksterni benčmarking External benchmarking Prema vrsti benčmarka.07/04 Internal benchmarking Interni benčmarking Internal benchmarking covers research within the Interni benčmarking podrazumeva own company. If organizational units in a company okruženja (ekonomskim. M. . Interno istraživanje obezbeđuje Internal research provides the standardization of ujednačavanje kvaliteta poslovanja svih the quality of business operating of all the organizacionih celina u kompaniji i predstavlja organizational units within the company and dobru osnovu za eksterni benčamarking. The advantages of internal benchmarking are Prednosti internog benčmarkinga su relativno comparatively low research costs and niski troškovi istraživanja i dostupnost svim accessibility to all the necessary data concerning potrebnim podacima o merama performansi koje the assessment of performances in question. Istraživanja obuhvataju 100 . Interni operating process in one part of the company is benčmarking polazi od pretpostavke da je more successful when compared with its other poslovni proces u jednom delu kompanije parts. Functional − generički. with a purpose of comparing istraživanje u sopstvenoj kompaniji. Generic Konkurentski benčmarking Competitive benchmarking Konkurentski benčmarking predstavlja Competitive benchmarking represents researches istraživanja između konkurentskih kompanija. Radivojević. clearly defined velikim kompanijama. improve the quality of sniženja troškova. Miljuš. between competitive companies. kulturnim. Kada organizacione celine is possible by making comparisons at the external kompanije funkcionišu u različitim uslovima level. koje imaju više organizational structure and hierarchy. se porede. engaging in the koje se bave istom delatnosti na istim ili same business activity within the same or različitim tržištima.G. Internal benchmarking includes the comparing of Interni benčmarking podrazumeva poređenje operational functions within different parts of the poslovnih funkcija u različitim delovima iste same company. Internal organizacionu strukturu i hijerarhiju rada. Upoređuju se različite organizacione different organizational units having the same celine. poboljšanja kvaliteta usluga i services and operating process. This is applicable in large companies. as it na eksternom nivou. The aim of monitoring and da se posmatranjem i analizom rada unapredi analyzing performance is to improve business poslovanje objekta benčmarkinga. nema realnih uslova za njihovo poređenje. and with a organizacionih celina.

Most commonly angažovanjem trećih lica. 101 . BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L .07/04 different markets. The problem is often praksi se ovaj problem prevazilazi resolved by engaging a third party. Saznanja o netipičnim typical examples is stimulating for implementation primerima imaju podsticajni i inovativni karakter in the own company. countries. finansijske. Kompanija poređenjem poslovnih a company gathers new and original ideas which funkcija sa kompanijama iz drugih oblasti dobija can help it promote the entire quality of business. etc. Each poređenje kompanija. The knowledge on non. the mutual aim of developing the respective Formiranje partnerstva je moguće kada businesses. Each of the industriji. za primenu u sopstvenoj kompaniji.G. Administrative. The week point of competitive Nedostatak konkurentskog benčmarkinga je benchmarking is that it engages a great number of angažovanje velikog broja saradnika na collaborators on the standardization and exchange standardizaciji i razmeni podataka. institutes or konsalting firme. To su najčešće these are consulting companies. proizvodne ili uslužne procese. imaju različitu delatnost. Veliki problem u ovim istraživanjima Gathering information can be a major problem in predstavlja prikupljanje informacija. Forming a partnership is possible kompanije imaju i ista i različita tržišta. functions with other functions from different fields. Gathering bogatstvu iskustva drugih kompanija iz različitih the necessary information is a simple task. Miljuš. when companies have both the same and different Primena konkurentskog benčmarkinga i markets. for they concern competitive o konkurentskim kompanijama. By comparing such business funkcije mogu biti proizvodne. which exist in developed centri. partnership relations. jer se radi these researches. Prednost funkcionalnog easier access to the information and experience of benčmarkinga je u lakšem pristupu podacima i other companies covering different areas. service processes can be the subject of research. since oblasti. sa forming of a partnership between companies. production or administrativne. Functional benchmarking Funkcionalni benčmarking Functional benchmarking comprises a comparison of the same business functions in the companies Funkcionalni benčmarking obuhvata poređenje having different activities. a posebno u automobilskoj areas. iz različitih kompanija. Istraživanje se odnosi Those functions can be associated with production. Radivojević. Te financial. koji potiču of facts coming from different companies. nove i originalne ideje. without jeopardizing the bez ugrožavanja ranije osvojenih tržišta. instituti ili benčmarking benchmarking centers. M. koje the same business functions of different origins. koje se porede. kojima unapređuje ukupni The advantage of functional benchmarking is an kvalitet poslovanja. a informacije companies. Research work covers istih poslovnih funkcija u kompanijama. Comparative advantages Komparativne prednosti kompanije mogu biti of the company can be a starting point for creating polazna osnova za donošenje strateškog plana za a strategic plan to be used in benchmarking benčmarking istraživanje. kompanija. jer ne postoji konkurencija između subjected to comparing. Jedan oblik konkurentskog benčmarkinga je A type of competitive benchmarking is the formiranje partnerstva između kompanija. tertiary. In Za realizaciju konkurentskog benčmarkinga order to realize competitive benchmarking. especially in the car industry. previously gained markets. within specific segments. with zajedničkim ciljem unapređenja poslovanja. uslužne i dr. research. It is possible to apply competitive formiranje partnerstva je prisutna u mnogim benchmarking and create a partnership in many oblastima. U secret of each company. a neophodno je da postoji realna osnova za realistic basis for comparison is necessary. Prikupljanje neophodnih informacija je there is no competition between the companies jednostavno. koji postoje u razvijenim zemljama. Dobro definisan partnerski odnos companies can benefit through carefully defined može da donese prednosti svakoj kompaniji. Svaka kompanija mora company must be fully aware of both its own and dobro da poznaje svoje i konkurentske prednosti the competitor’s advantages and superiorities i superiornosti u određenim segmentima. na iste poslovne funkcije različitog porekla. and information are part of business su deo poslovne tajne svake kompanije.

multifunctional business processes and is Ovo istraživanje se primenjuje za characterized by a wide range of approaches in multifunkcionalne poslovne procese i comprehending and application. pre svega. to make the treba da izabere benčmark iz srednje klase comparison as realistic as possible. Coopers & Lybrand njih su Camp (1989). u pronalaženju ideja za handle aircraft and passengers at airports. Prosečna kompanija from the middle-class companies. bez obzira na to kojom engage in. skraćivanje vremena opsluge aviona i putnika na aerodromima. regardless of the activities they koje su u tome najbolje. da bi poređenje bilo što realnije.G. The aim of it is to poređenje sa najboljim kompanijama. Royston & Harland (1993). Braithwaite (1992). This type of benchmarking is widely applied in Ova vrsta benčmarkinga našla je najširu air traffic. najčešće navode najbolje svetske kompanije An average company should choose a benchmark (Coca-Cola. Each of je proučavao različite modele benčmarkinga. (1993). but primarily in finding problema zadržavanja vazduhoplova u linijskom solutions for reducing the time necessary to saobraćaju. Na globalnom nivou the realization of benchmarking may be realizacija benčmarkinga se može prikazati kroz described through several phases. benchmarking is an extremely complex research Generički benčmarking je izuzetno kompleksno project. M. Cilj je da compare the functions and the processes with the se porede funkcije i procesi sa kompanijama best companies. Braithwaite (1992). Radivojević. delatnošću se bave. James-Moore & Keeble (1994). Generic benchmarking is a procedure of finding Generički benčmarking je postupak the best new solution which could be applied in pronalaženja najboljeg novog rešenja. the models consists of almost the same units. U have been dealing with the problem of svetskoj literaturi veliki broj autora se bavio benchmark research. Some of them were Camp problemom benčmarking istraživanja. 102 . Miljuš. In realizovane u različitim kompanijama. This research is applied to moglo da se primeni u sopstvenoj kompaniji. In the largest number of published papers a U najvećem broju objavljenih radova proces benchmarking process is represented on both the benčmarkinga se prikazuje na globalnom i/ili global and detailed levels. The papers contain (1993).07/04 Generic benchmarking Generički benčmarking Generic benchmarking comprises a comparison Generički benčmarking podrazumeva with the best companies. Most frequently karakteriše ga velika širina u shvatanju i cited benchmarks in literature are the best primeni.3 BENCHMARKING PROCESS 2. detaljnom nivou. Svaki od international literature a great number of authors modela se sastoji od gotovo istih celina. i drugi. 2. a na detaljnom nivou se opisuju detailed level. ali se razlikuju u depending on actual circumstances where they pojedinim koracima zavisno od konkretnih have been applied. Generic kompanija. individual steps of realization are pojedinačni koraci realizacije. IBC (International Benchmarking Clearnighouse) realized in different business companies. On the global level. koje zahteva angažovanje velikog number of collaborators having extensive broja saradnika sa velikim benčmarking experience in benchmarking.3 PROCES BENČMARKINGA IBC (International Benchmarking Clearinghouse) has been studying various benchmarking models. Neki od (1989). in solving the problems of delayed primenu u vazdušnom saobraćaju pri rešavanju flights on line services. Royston & Harland & Keeble (1994) and other. descriptions of various work methodologies that U radovima su prikazane različite metodologije have the same essence but differ in some steps rada. described. iskustvom. koje bi one’s own company. while on nekoliko faza. Kao benčmarkovi u literaturi se companies in the world ( Coca-Cola. James-Moore Coopers & Lybrand (1993). BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . koje imaju istu suštinu. uslova gde su primenjene. Xerox i dr.). which demands the recruitment of a large istraživanje. Xerox etc ).

koji bi uz podršku viših backup from the senior levels of management. A selection of the best business companies is U ovoj fazi se radi izbor najboljih kompanija. will be applied. which will point to the own advantages sopstvene prednosti i nedostatke i u zavisnosti and shortcomings and depending on that. Benčmarking tim obuhvata well acquainted with the company’s business. carried out in this phase. to the od toga na obuhvatnost benčmarking comprehensiveness of benchmarking research. nivoa menadžmenta obezbedili realizaciju definisanog plana. stručnjake iz kompanije. M. kako bi se order to determine the units where benchmark odredile celine gde će se primeniti benčmark. Izbor zavisi od 103 . A long-term benchmarking research requires a Za dugoročno benčmarking istraživanje well. Plan realizacije treba of these particular activities. which could be a koje mogu biti benčmark. Radivojević. A benchmarking da sadrži vremenske rokove za svaku od team includes experts from the company that are aktivnosti. BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . istraživanja. that could realize the defined plan with a drugih institucija. The pojedinačnih aktivnosti. I planiranje. III Analysis and III pnaliza i IV Application IV primena. EFQM and other koje postoje kod APQC-a. if rad kompanije. (Figure 1) that exist in APQC. koji dobro poznaju Experts from other institutions will be hired. II Data collection II prikupljanje informacija. PLANNING APPLICATION INFORMATION I GATHERING ANALYSIS Figure 1 Phases of Benchmarking process slika 1Faze Benčmarking procesa I Planning I Planiranje At the beginning of research it is necessary to Na početku istraživanja potrebno je uraditi analyze the business of the whole company in analizu rada cele kompanije.07/04 The basic phases of the benchmarking process Osnovne faze benčmarking procesa (slika 1). A preliminary appraisal of Preliminarna ocena konkurentnosti obuhvata competitiveness includes internal and external interne i eksterne analize.defined realization plan of individual neophodno je definisati plan realizacije activities that may be foreseen in this phase. su: I Planning. koje se mogu realization plan should include deadlines for each predvideti u ovoj fazi. EFQM-a i drugih companies are: kompanija. koje će ukazati na analyses. Miljuš. i po potrebi stručnjake iz needed.G.

information that is being gathered largely koji se istražuje (benčmarking proizvoda. M. direct communication with the Vrsta informacija. jer predstavlja duration since it constitutes the beginning of a 104 . III Analiza III Analysis Benčmarking tim u kompaniji obrađuje sve A company benchmarking team processes all prikupljene podatke i na osnovu njih formira compiled data and on the basis of such finalni izveštaj. i. Ako se posmatraju prve tri faze realization. A report rada svih obrađenih kompanija. which are the end result of benčmarking istraživanja. Neki od and goals that are to be achieved. Prikupljanje podataka se može obaviti companies that have been selected in the previous anketiranjem. functional benčmarking).e. 30%. The type of najvećoj meri zavise od tipa benčmarkinga. performance level to be attained. koje su rezultat realization of changes. data omogućavaju kvantitativno poređenje from the report make possible quantitative sopstvenog poslovanja sa drugim comparison of own business operations with that kompanijama. The fourth phase is practically of infinite neograničenog trajanja. direktnom razmenom sa phase. strategic benchmarking). Ovaj contains business performance indicators of all izveštaj predstavlja osnovu za konačan izbor processed companies. Some of the kriterijuma za izbor benčmark kompanije criteria for the selection of the benchmark mogu biti: veličina kompanije. APQC ukazuje na benchmarking research. stepen poverenja prema position on the market. benchmarking. IV Primena IV Application U ovoj fazi kompanija počinje sa In this phase.07/04 benchmark. prikupljanje informacija 50% i analiza collecting of information 50% and data analyzing podataka 20%. strateški researched (product benchmarking. i. njihovo učešće u vremenu je: planiranje their share in time is as follows: planning 30%. as well as the benčmarking istraživanja. conducting a poll. relativna company could be: the company size. commences.e. degree of confidence in kompaniji i dr. i definisanje konačnih ciljeva of other business companies. II Prikupljanje informacija II Data collection U ovoj fazi se radi prikupljanje podataka o In this phase. A selection depends on the karakteristika sopstvene kompanije. its relative pozicija na tržištu. Radivojević. This report represents a benčmarka. BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . environment i ciljeva koji se žele postići. APQC points to the značaj ovih faza i navodi američka iskustva importance of these phases and quotes American u pogledu vremena potrebnog za njihovu experiences in relation to time needed for their realizaciju. researches. depends of the benchmarking type that is funkcionalni benčmarking. odnosno. a company commences the realizacijom promena. odnosno.G. data collection (information svim kompanijama izabranim u prethodnoj gathering) is performed on all business fazi. the company etc. Izveštaj sadrži pokazatelje information makes its final report. The information may be gathered by kompanijom ili angažovanjem trećih lica. podaci iz izveštaja of the benchmark partner. Miljuš. If the first three phases are observed. Opisane faze su prisutne u svakom The described phases are present in each benčmarking istraživanju. Četvrta faza je praktično 20%. On the other hand. nivoa defining of ultimate goals of benchmarking performansi koje se žele dostići. benčmark partnera. okruženja characteristics of the own company. druge strane. koje se prikupljaju u company or by hiring third persons. Collected information informacije i saznanja se primenjuju u and knowledge are applied in business operations poslovanju i počinje da se prati ostvarivanje and follow-up of the realization of set goals postavljenih ciljeva. Prikupljene benchmarking research. Sa basis for the final selection of the benchmark.

njihovo rešavanje primenom obtaining a new state of business operation.4 BENCHMARKING ADVANTAGES 2. Mere Measurements of performances are the business performanse predstavljaju pokazatelje rada.07/04 new method of company’s living cycle. podrazumevaju identifikovanje problema u their solving by applying specific methods and kompaniji. Unit of Improved measurement continual development Best benchmark Jump function gap Own starting point Time Benchmarking Transition into best class Figure 2 Company and benchmark development trend slika 2 Trend razvoja kompanija prei posle benčmark istraživanja 2. U or qualitative. On the basis of their comparison one razlike («praznine» . Classic approach poslovanja kompanije. koja postoji na arrives at the difference (“gap”) that exists at the početku istraživanja. and in the analysis phase they are kod benčmarka (najboljeg repera). M. In figure 2 a graphic grafički prikaz trenda razvoja kompanije pre representation of the company’s development i posle benčmarking istraživanja. benčmarkovih mera performansi. where početak novog načina života kompanije.4 PREDNOSTI I NEDOSTACI AND DISADVANTAGES BENČMARKINGA Benchmarking process has great advantages in Benčmarking proces ima velike prednosti u comparison to classic methods of improving the odnosu na klasične metode poboljšanja company’s business operations. BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . je benčmarking deo poslovne strategije. gde benchmarking is a part of business strategy. In the first phase of research the prvoj fazi istraživanja se određuju mere measurements of performances in the company performanse u kompaniji. uz izuzetno velike vremenske. Klasični pristupi means identifying problems within the company. Ishod ovakvog 105 .G. Radivojević. trend is given before and after benchmarking research. An important part in the realization of Važan deo u realizaciji benčmarking benchmarking research is the determining of own istraživanja je određivanje sopstvenih i and benchmark measurements of performance. Miljuš. Na slici 2 je dat onset of research. a u fazi analize are determined. performance indicators that may be quantitative koji mogu biti kvantitativni i kvalitativni. The poslovanja. outcome of such problem solving is most often materijalne i ljudske resurse.gap). material and human resources. Na determined at the benchmark (the best point of osnovu njihovog poređenja dolazi se do reference). with određenih metoda i dobijanje novog stanja large time.

. bolje razumevanje konkurencije i . The basic areas realizacije logističkih aktivnosti. Miljuš. . povećanje delivery. uz minimizaciju logističkih troškova. better companies. koji se. . . the activities to which benchmarking benčmarking.e. zahtevaju promene u nivou kvaliteta pruženih Improvement of the quality of services relates to usluga. Benchmarking points to the use of rešavanja problema je najčešće veoma experience of other. kontinualno poboljšanje poslovanja. izbor i mogućnost poređenja . overcoming of poor performances. and . . . . increased competitiveness on the market. . BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L .savings in the costs of improvement. koje su iste probleme uspešno rešile. process. Benčmarking ukazuje na korišćenje have already successfully resolved the problems. will be applied. .better understanding of the competition . porast profita. selection of a benchmarking company se radi poređenje. performance indicators.increase in profits. . increase in safety of merchandise etc. . which neizvestan. benchmarking has its Uz sve navedene prednosti. Radivojević. increase in punctuality of skraćenja vremena isporuke. inadequate selection of benchmark objects aktivnosti na koje će se primeniti i. nerazumevanja procesa benčmarkinga. . Poboljšanje nivoa kvaliteta usluga an increase in the speed of transport. adekvatno planirani troškovi i vreme . iskustava drugih.setting of new business goal. selection and possibility of comparison of izmeritelja perfomansi. povećana konkurentnost na tržištu. of delivery time. Neuspeh benčmarking procesa could be the consequence of the following može biti posledica sledećih faktora: factors: . Osnovne of these changes are: oblasti ovih promena su: 106 . povećanja sigurnosti robe. prevazilaženje loših performansi. shortening odnosi se na povećanje brzine transporta.07/04 uncertain. izbor benčmarka – kompanije sa kojom . uštede u troškovima poboljšanja. boljih kompanija. These market trends have brought about Ovakve tržišne tendencije dovele su do extensive structural changes in the concept of krupnih strukturnih promena u konceptu realization of logistic activities. . With all above advantages. with which a comparison is made. dr. pre svega misunderstanding of the essence and technique of odnose na nerazumevanje suštine i tehnike research. .G. insufficient support of the whole company to benchmarking 3 PERFORMANSE LOGISTIČKIH 3 LOGISTIC SYSTEMS PERFORMANCES SISTEMA Demands of the customers in the contemporary Zahtevi korisnika na savremenom transportation and logistics services market transportnom i tržištu logističkih usluga require changes at the level of rendered services. The basic benchmarking advantages are: Osnovne prednosti benčmarkinga su: . i with minimization of logistic costs and expenses. A failure in the benchmarking process istraživanja. . lack of understanding of benchmarking . tačnosti isporuke. loš izbor benčmark objekata tj. M. podrška cele kompanije benčmarkingu . benčmarking own shortcomings which primarily relate to the ima i svoje nedostatke.. inadequately planned costs and time of istraživanja i research and . continual improvement of business operations. postavljanje novih poslovnih ciljeva.

one su odraz i. organizacione. there are “hard” and “soft” postoje ″tvrdi″ i ″meki″ izmeritelji.) i odnose se na tehničko- technical-technological. organizational. delivery etc. . the concept. performanse su različiti parametri. Logistic logističkih performansi. profit. Logističke performase su rezultat the result of business strategy.. These changes have imposed certain Ove promene nametnule su u oblasti logistike requirements in the logistics field upon each određene zahteve svakom od sistema koji system which participates in the realization of učestvuju u realizaciji robnih tokova. systems. Methods and procedures of follow-up. skladišnih). Technologies of realization of logistic . tehnologije realizacije logističkih processes (transportation. U grupu measurers. (transportnog. merenja i of logistic systems. In a wider koeficijenti i pokazatelji u logistici. warehousing. technology primenjenog nivoa tehnike.. logističke performances can be divided into internal and performanse se mogu podeliti na interne i external ones. taktičkog logistic processes control. From the system theory aspect. logistic Sa aspekta teorije sistema. while the “soft” indicators mogu kvantifikovati. logističkih procesa i measuring and analysis of performances . pretovarnog. they are a reflection of the logistic system and logističkog sistema i načina njegovog 107 . i operativnog planiranja i upravljanja . ekonomske i druge and other relevant characteristics of these relevantne karakteristike ovih sistema. lociranje. centara. method. M. profit. logističke performanse se mogu seen as a subset of all characteristics (business posmatrati kao podskup svih karakteristika and organizational performances) of the (poslovnih ili organizacionih performansi) rada company’s operations. i work and applied level of technique. information subsystem…) and are related to informacionog. način organizacije. Interne performanse su "unutrašnje" “inner” characteristics of logistic subsystems karakteristike logističkih podsistema (transportation. Methods and procedures of strategic. Miljuš. Information technologies that secure the . economic and financial indicators.G. ekonomski i finansijski pokazatelji. External performances represent the Eksterne performanse predstavljaju "rezultat" “result” of functioning of logistic systems and are funkcionisanja logističkog sistema i odraz an expression of the degree of quality and nivoa kvaliteta i ekonomičnosti realizacije economical realization of the logistic processes. metode i postupci praćenja. a ″meki″ pokazatelji most often represent the customer’s perception najčešće predstavljaju percepciju korisnika o on realized service. organization . Radivojević. sistema. koncept. Ti flow of trade. tactical and operational planning and . metode i postupci strateškog. informacione tehnologije koje functioning of logistic systems. These requirements are stated by zahtevi se iskazuju skupom vrednosti sets of values of corresponding indicators – odgovarajućih pokazatelja – zahtevanih requested logistic performances. Logistic performances are kompanije. From the aspect of grouping of logistic Sa aspekta grupisanja logističkih performasi. analize performansi logističkih sistema. . measurers. economic tehnološke. coefficients and indicators in logistics. realizovanoj usluzi. organizacije rada. delay in servis stepen. pretovarnih i warehousing). service level. logističkih procesa. costs. obezbeđuju funkcionisanje logističkih . ″Meki″ The “soft” indicators are: degree (level) of pokazatelji su: nivo zadovoljenja korisnika. odnosno. kašnjenje isporuke i drugi. Internal performances are the eksterne. The “hard” measurers include: the ″tvrdih″ izmeritelja spadaju: troškovi. categorization and functions of kategorizacija i funkcije logističkih logistic centers.. Logističke performances are various parameters. The “hard” indicators can relatively ″Tvrdi″ pokazatelji se relativno jednostavno easily be quantified. skladišnog.e. reloading. performances.07/04 . customer satisfaction. izmeritelji. reloading and procesa (transportnih. tehnologije i and information systems in a company. logistic performances may be smislu. U širem sense of meaning. informatike u kompaniji. BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . organization of strategije poslovanja. Locating.

BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L .07/04 its method of functioning in a given environment. . Both problems point to the need of kompanije utiču na promenu vrednosti logističkih deeper analysis of interdependence of logistic performansi. their struktuiranje. eksterne je uslovna. energije i informacija i represent an economic measure of a successful predstavljaju ekonomsku meru uspešnosti functioning of logistic systems. depending on the structure and kompanije. Istovremeno. Jedan problem je kako analyzing the logistic performances. Miljuš. 108 . jer su logistički podsistemi since the logistic subsystems are the links of one karike jednog istog logističkog lanca.). energy and information and protoka roba. . so celine. Pri tome. logistic performances performanse se mogu podeliti u četiri may be divided into four categories.level of quality of . in the remaining (tehničke. aktivnosti koje se realizuju u cilju oblikovanja. navedenih osnovnih logističkih performansi. merenje i ocena efekata promenom structuring. same performance in one instance may be a u drugom eksterna veličina. technological. there are two problems in postoje dva problema. informacione i dr. Safety of logistic processes and impact to . the performansa u jednom slučaju može biti interna. The division of these logistic performances into Podela ovih logističkih performansi na interne i internal and external is only a conditional one. Oba problema ukazuju na potrebu performances and organization of work in the dublje analize međuzavisnosti logističkih company (technical. servis stepen – nivo kvaliteta logističke logistic service. The said performances may performanse se mogu posmatrati sa aspekta be looked upon from the aspect of one subsystem jednog podsistema ili sa aspekta sistema kao or from the aspect of the system as a whole. performances. directing. resursa i . Service degree . Navedene single logistic chain.) Due to this reason. internal and in other an external value.G. At the same time. 3. logističke requirements they fulfill. Logistic productivity – efficiency of . njihovo An analysis of logistic performances. funkcionisanja u okruženju. Logistic costs. One definisati organizaciju rada u kompaniji. da bi se problem is how changes in individual company dostigle željene vrednosti performansi. controlling and regulating projektovanja.1 LOGISTIC COSTS 3. Imajući u vidu prirodu logističkih procesa i In view of the nature of logistic processes and zahteve koje oni realizuju. kategorije: . Analiza logističkih performansi. . kod analize logističkih performansi With this said. usmeravanja. eko sistem u okruženju. Drugi units bring about a change in logistic problem je kako promene u pojedinim delovima performances. hierarchical level of the company. M. u nastavku rada će biti dat kraći prikaz of the said basic logistic performances. Iz tog part of this paper a short summary will be given razloga. bezbednost logističkih procesa i uticaj na environment (ecological system).1 LOGISTIČKI TROŠKOVI Logistic costs include costs of all activities that Logistički troškovi obuhvataju troškove svih are realized for the purpose of forming. external performances are eksterne perfomanse su kompleksne complex multifaceted functions of internal višeatributne funkcije internih performansi. logistički troškovi. tehnološke. ista that in relation to the level of observation. usluge. zavisno od strukture i hijerarhijskog nivoa complex job. tako da u odnosu na nivo posmatranja. designing. Radivojević. measurement and appraisal of effects njihovih vrednosti može bit izuzetno kompleksan by change of their values can be an extremely posao. information performansi i organizacije rada kompanije system etc. vođenja i regulisanja the flow of trade. logistička produktivnost – efikasnost resources. funkcionisanja logističkih sistema.

degree of the korisnika. M. preferenciju korisnika o dobijenoj preference for provided services. To je veoma teško since logistics is a service function. jer je logistika uslužna funkcija. koja je most of the subsystems. without celini. utvrđivanje logističkih logistic costs depends on a large number of troškova zavisi od velikog broja faktora i factors and is a very complex and extensive task. Određivanje punctuality of delivery. Radivojević. kompanije kao celine. it can be concluded that some da je neka usluga ″loša″. Na osnovu suda o servis stepenu. “good” or “excellent”. present in uraditi. primenjeni nivo detaljnosti i quantity and calculation method depend on the metod proračuna zavise od postavljenog cilja. In order to calculate and follow up the logistic Da bi se logistički troškovi mogli proračunavati i costs it is necessary to make their breakdown. utvrđivanje faza i elemenata procesa process that generate these costs. utiču na profit kompanije. The most frequent izmeritelji servis stepena navode se: vreme measurers of service degree are: time cycle of realizacije ciklusa kupčeve porudžbine i executing the customer’s order. Definisanje performance of logistic systems. Maintaining an adequate level of service degree Obezbeđenje odgovarajućeg nivoa servis is directly connected with an increase in logistic stepena direktno je povezano sa porastom costs and both performances are in mutual logističkih troškova. Each customer usluzi. set goal. since it može kvantitativno izraziti.G. Svaki korisnik ima svoj subjektivni has his own subjective value system and in sistem vrednosti i u skladu sa tim zaključuje conformity with it. pruženom uslugom.e. Miljuš. Kao najčešći of important factors. po pravilu ne ulazeći u unutrašnju delving into internal organization and organizaciju i podsisteme. jer predstavlja represents a customer’s opinion and his osećaj. 109 . Servis stepen se teško Service degree can hardly be quantified. predstavlja veoma obiman i kompleksan zadatak. koji generišu te troškove. technology applied and relevant primenjene tehnologije i relevantnih characteristics of the logistic process that is being karakteristika logističkog procesa koji se considered.2 SERVIS STEPEN Service Degree is the level of quality of services Servis stepen je nivo kvaliteta usluge provided to the customers. pratiti potrebno je izvršiti njhovo raščlanjavanje. to determine the phases and elements of the odnosno. It is a tall order. basis of the opinion formed on the service degree. ″dobra″ ili service is “poor”. On the ″odlična″. prisutna u većini podsistema. 3.07/04 As it has already been said. a obe performanse su conflict since they impact the company’s profit in međusobno konfliktne jer na različite načine different ways. i. Servis stepen predstavlja veoma kompleksu Service degree represents a very complex performansu logističkih sistema. razmatra. BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . Determining the service izmeritelja servis stepena može se raditi za degree measurers can be done for each logistic svaki logistički podsistem ili na nivou subsystem or at the company level as a whole. reliability and pouzdanost i tačnost isporuke. mera korisnikovog zadovoljenja customer’s satisfaction with the provided service. determining the Kao što je već rečeno. a customer will form his judgment of a business korisnik formira mišljenje o kompaniji kao company as a whole and as a rule. applied level of detail Struktura troškova. subsystems. The structure of costs. Defining a strukture servis stepena najčešće se bazira na structure of service degree is most often based on anketiranju korisnika i statističkom polling the customers and statistical determining utvrđivanju značajnih faktora.2 SERVICE DEGREE 3.

ali i na nivou level of individual means or activity (e. a drugi on determining the probability of occurrence of na određivanju verovatnoće nastanka povrede i injury and possible damage. Na osnovu njih se određuju logistički determined. Pursuant pretpostavke za adekvatno povezivanje to this. tehno- technical-exploitation characteristics of forklift or eksploatacione karakteristike viljuškara ili time factors of order processing). logistic costs and service degree are podsistema. characteristics that determine a service − karakteristike kojima se određuje servis degree by the customer. kvantifikovanje logističkih troškova. tehničke i eksploatacione pokazatelje The measurers of logistic productivity can be logističkih sistema. 3. Radivojević. Logistic productivity can be skladišnog prostora i dr. Miljuš. stepenu iskorišćenja pretovarne mehanizacije. za donošenje odluka na višim hijerarhijskim nivoima. M. technical-exploitation characteristics for − tehno-eksploatacione karakteristike za quantifying the logistic costs. while the other is based osnovu direktnih i indirektnih troškova. BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . industrial safety and fire protection.3 LOGISTIC PRODUCTIVITY 3. In bezbednost rada.3 LOGISTIČKA PRODUKTIVNOST Logistic productivity comprises various technical Logistička produktivnost obuhvata različite and exploitation indicators of logistic systems. izmeritelja). vremenske karakteristike obrade porudžbine). a ovde se navode dva. Logistička produktivnost se observed on the subsystem level but also on the može posmatrati na nivou podsistema. pa se of the fleet of trucks (motor pool). pojedinačnog sredstva ili aktivnosti (npr. One is founded on monetary pristupa.4 SAFETY OF LOGISTIC PROCESSES 3. Analiza bezbednosti of safety of logistic processes can be seen on logističkih procesa se može posmatrati na strategic level (through solving of the problem of strateškom nivou (kroz rešavanje problema location of logistical systems) and on operational lokacije logističkih sistema) i operativnom nivou level (through determining the values of the said (kroz određivanje vrednosti pomenutih measurers). Izmeritelji logističke subdivided into three groups: produktivnosti mogu se podeliti u tri grupe: . utilization of reloading mechanization.07/04 3. The measurers of logistic productivity are Izmeritelji logističke produktivnosti se calculated at lower levels of logistic system izračunavaju na nižim nivoima upravljanja control and they provide conditions for an logističkog sistema i preko njih se obezbeđuju adequate interconnection of subsystems. Uticaj logističkih logistic processes to environment is expressed as procesa na ekologiju okruženja se izražava a degree of environmental pollution. An analysis stepenom zagađenja okoline. warehouses etc.4 BEZBEDNOST LOGISTIČKIH PROCESA Safety of logistic processes includes: workplace Bezbednost logističkih procesa obuhvata: safety. koji predstavljaju osnovu decisions at higher hierarchical levels. The impact of eventualno nastale štete. stepen korisnika. which are the basis for passing troškovi i servis stepen. technical--exploitation characteristics that − tehno-eksploatacione karakteristike describe a degree of exploitation of koje opisuju iskorišćenje resursa i resources and . degree of može govoriti o produktivnosti voznog parka. 110 . Jedan se zasniva appraisal of safety of these processes based on na novčanoj proceni bezbednosti ovih procesa na direct and indirect costs. bezbednost radne sredine i regard to safety of logistic processes there are požarnu bezbednost. . U pogledu izmeritelja several approaches.G. while at this point only two bezbednosti logističkih procesa postoji više are mentioned.g. The structure of measurers of logistic productivity can be subdivided into basic logistic Struktura izmeritelja logističke produktivnosti može subsystems so that one can speak of productivity se raščlaniti na osnovne logističke podsisteme.

Primena benčmarking istraživanja. within them. savremenija tehnološka rešenja i dr. the right question is: how are the su bolji? Pri tome se naglašava da u better companies performing? On the same današnjim uslovima konkurentnost na tržištu occasion. Razlike u njihovoj position. Radivojević. odnosno conditions the market competition depends to a rešenja koja se primenjuju u toj oblasti za considerable extent on logistics. Upgrading of company’s business konflikta ciljeva. upgrading of koncepcija u radu. Primena bilo kakvih novih rešenja u Application of any new solutions in a company. koje imaju that have an approximately equalized level of približno ujednačen nivo tehničke i tehnološke technological and technical equipment. poor organization of work in the company − loša organizacija rada u kompaniji i njenim and its subsystems. Miljuš. has a wide application in logistics. više nego ikada pre. Ako se posmatraju dve kompanije. Every company’s goal is to provide na tržištu. the first place. solutions konkretnu kompaniju.G. primena novih organizacionih organizational work concepts. kompaniji. inadequate application of technique and − neadekvatna primena tehnike i tehnologije. pre svega. Some of them are: ostvari na različite načine. they opremeljenosti. large financial investments that are velika finansijska ulaganja. Each of these changes requires. reloading and transportation kapaciteta i facilities. što svakako nije temporary minor improvements. . technology. podistemima. If two companies are taken into consideration. logistic systems U savremenom poslovanju logistički sistemi function under conditions of very tough market funkcionišu u uslovima veoma oštre konkurencije competition. bez posmatranja okruženja i without taking into consideration the tržišta. skladišnih. Neki od njih su: implementation of information and primena informacionih i komunikacionih communication technologies. in Svaka od ovih promena zahteva. it is stressed that in present-day u sve većoj meri zavisi od logistike. due to kompleksnosti logističkih sistema i procesa u complexity of logistic systems and processes okviru njih. koja su po pravilu justified as a rule. ima veliku primenu u logistici. Differences in their market position can poziciji na tržištu mogu biti posledica različitih be a consequence of various factors: faktora: . uz što manje own costs. i. which is a typical example of conflict sopstvene troškove. unapređenje proizvodnih manufacturing plants. more than ever. Kada kompanija želi da is not the strategic goal. modernized technological kapaciteta. − nedovoljna iskorišćenost proizvodnih. between subsystems etc. . one mogu imati značajno could have significantly different market različitu poziciju na tržištu. solutions etc.e. pozicije na tržištu. može da se various methods. which certainly strateški cilj. − loša organizaciona povezanost između . but do not guarantee the opravdana. BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . Cilj svake kompanije je da obezbedi top quality services to customers with minimum što kvalitetniju uslugu klijentima. When a business poboljša svoje poslovanje na strateškom company wants to improve its operations at a nivou. can only produce minimalnih poboljšanja. M. može da dovede do trenutnih environment and market. inadequate utilization of production. ali ne garantuju dostizanje liderske attainment of leader’s position on the market. pretovarnih i prevoznih warehousing. zbog Application of benchmarking research. Unapređenje poslovanja today. pravo pitanje je: Kako to rade oni koji strategic level. application of new tehnologija.07/04 4 BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS 4 BENČMARKING I LOGISTIKA In contemporary business. can be realized through kompanija danas. applied in this field for the actual company. što je tipičan primer of goals. poor organizational interconnection podsistema i dr. 111 .

time cycle of placing orders. kada je primenila interno internal benchmarking research.L. Frazelle navodi kako su nastali neki od postojećih quotes how some of the existing conceptual modela koncepcija prisutnih u logistici. lokaciju logističkih centara i/ili skladišta. Xerox je primenio eksterno benčmarking Xerox has applied external benchmarking istraživanje za preprojektovanje svoje research for preliminary projecting of its distributivne mreže. accuracy of inventory. when it has applied Južnoj Americi. intensity of replenishment. This is poslovnih funkcija.G. vreme productivity. prakse. Ovo potvrđuje niz primera iz examples. Frazelle models for the following applications.07/04 In this way.Bean. delivery. The comparison has been made sledećim performansama: godišnji obim according to the following performances: annual otpreme robe iz objekta i utrošeni radni sati volume of delivery of merchandise from the u objektu. a QR je nastao od JIT (Just-In- originated from JIT (Just-In-Time) from the Time) iz japanske automobilske industrije. zbog complexity are: njihove složenosti. Xerox-ov distributivni centar u Čikagu bio The research effect is that the Xerox distributive dobitnik godišnje nagrade za produktivnost. Za poređenje logistical performances have been used for poslovanja ovih centara korišćeno je 12 comparison of business performance of these logističkih performansi. Bean has been chosen izabran L. time period for execution of order. produktivnost. od kojih su neke: centers. models present in logistics have originated. poboljšanje kvaliteta opsluge corroborated by a large number of practical korisnika i dr. Basic problems in applying benchmarking Osnovni problemi primene benčmarking research in logistic systems. it is possible to solve various logistic Na ovaj način moguće je rešavati različite problems and to pass adequate decisions related logističke probleme odnosno donositi to: optimal location of logistic centers and/or odgovarajuće odluke vezane za: optimalnu warehouses.L. The Gillette Company has improved business Kompanija Gillete je unapredila poslovanje operations of its manufacturing and distributive svojih proizvodnih i distributivnih centara u centers in South America. Radivojević. center in Chicago was the winner of the annual productivity award. Miljuš. koje organizational concepts that are becoming postaju modeli za sledeće primene. CFR je nastao od industry. while the QR industrije. su: 112 . density of replenishment of ciklusa naručivanja i procenat tačnosti warehouse. Japanese car-manufacturing industry. gustina popunjenosti skladišta. tačnost zaliha. unapređenja osnovnih quality of customer services etc. Efekat istraživanja je da je facility and working hours spent in the facility. improvement in realizacije porudžbine. some of them being: punctuality in tačnost otpreme. due to their istraživanja i u logističkim sistemima. omogućavaju stvaranje logistics are making possible the creation of new novih organizacionih koncepcija. L. realizacije naručivanja. percentage of punctuality in realizing purchase orders. M. automatization of logistic processes. vreme of basic business functions. obrt zaliha. Poređenje je urađeno po as benchmark. Korišćenje dobre prakse i transfer znanja i The use of good practice and transfer of Know iskustva u benčmarking istraživanju u How in benchmarking research in the field of oblasti logistike. CFR has originated from QR (Quick QR (Quick Response) iz tekstilne Response) from textile industry. ECR ECR (Eficient Customer Response) u (Efficient Customer Response) in retail sale has maloprodaji je nastao od CFR (Continuous originated from CFR (Continuous Flow Flow Replenishment) iz domena Replenishment) from the domain of electronics elektronske industrije. inventory (stocks). Twelve (12) benčmarking istraživanje. Za benčmark je distribution network. improvement automatizaciju logističkih procesa. BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . turnover of intenzitet popunjavanja.

volume of work in warehouse. Tehnikama fuzzy teorije mogu se porediti be described by fuzzy numbers: excellent service.07/04 . safety of logistic systems) can hardly be bezbednost logističkih sistema) se teško mogu quantified and in practice they are usually kvantitativno prikazati. tačnost zaliha. If a benchmark object and the Ukoliko benčmark objekat i benčmark nisu benchmark are not comparable for their basic uporedivi po svojim osnovnim karakteristikama characteristics (e. obrt i dr. excellent service. a koje je potrebno discrepancies that exist in performances of prevazići. i ovde se može iskoristiti za business companies. density of storage.g. DST. verovatnoća nastanka štete). određivanje mera performansi i . kompanije. This illustration clearly points to analiziranog skladišta. Radivojević. Qualitative measures of kvalitet opsluge korisnika) su najčešće opisne i performances (e. surface area of warehouse. Poređenje ovih performansi zahteva njihovu good. površina skladišta. Performanse done for more performances. servis stepen se može opisati fuzzy used here to describe qualitative measures of brojevima: odlična usluga. research. analyzed warehouse that have to be overcome. Frazelle navodi primer benchmark objects and benchmark is most often benčmarkinga skladišnog sistema. By fuzzy technique numerički kvantifikovati. Figure 3 shows a graphic illustration i benčmark. Ovakva ilustracija jasno ukazuje na of performance measures for benchmark object razlike. (npr. Miljuš. The ″standardizaciju″ u nekom vrednosnom sistemu. proizvodnost. logističke performanse (servis stepen. time cycle of purchase orders ilustracija mera performansi za benčmark objekat and safety. Na showing of vagueness and ambiguity and can be primer. U zavisnosti od nivoa na kome se their description is becoming more complex. a comparison between različitih performansi. i u praksi se najčešće represented indirectly through adequate predstavljaju posredno preko odgovarajućih measurers (reliability and punctuality of delivery. polling the customers (e. Kvalitativne mere performansi (npr. accuracy i bezbednost. can be made possible. izmeritelja (pouzdanost i tačnost isporuke. loša isporuka). service degree can usluga. koje se mogu various hierarchical levels of the company. quality of customer services) dobijaju se anketiranjem korisnika (npr. determining performances measures and . U ovom radu se predlaže uvođenje fuzzy teorije u određivanje mera performansi i poređenje This paper suggests an introduction of fuzzy performansi u različitim kompanijama. Na slici 3 je prikazana grafička of delivery. Frazelle gives an skladišnog sistema.). 113 . comparison of these performances requires their “standardization” in some value system. poređenje mera performansi. Performances measures of logistic systems are Mere performansi logisitičkih sistema su very complex values. Warehousing system performances which are tačnost otpreme. obim rada u skladištu. dobra. vreme ciklusa narudžbine used: productivity. comparison of performances measures. dobra usluga ili loša performances.G. BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . Fuzzy theory enables the opisivanje kvalitativnih mera performansi. koje se teško mogu good or poor service. odlična are most often descriptive and are obtained by usluga. Comparison of logistic performances is the Poređenje logističkih performansi je drugi second practical problem in the realization of praktični problem u realizaciji istraživanja. probability of occurrence of damage).). definisati na različitim hijerarhijskim nivoima Depending on the level at which they are defined. satisfactory. For example. turnover etc. koje postoje u performansama and benchmark. services different performances can be compared that can hardly be quantified numerically. U benčmarking istraživanju poređenje benčmark objekta i benčmarka se najčešće radi po više In benchmarking research. definišu usložnjava se i njihov opis. različite performanse. DST. gustina skladištenja. zadovoljavajuća. tada se izmeritelji performansi moraju then the measurers of performances have to be svesti na jediničnu vrednost kako bi poređenje reduced to the unit value so that a comparison bilo moguće. poor delivery).g.g. Fuzzy theory into determining the performances teorija omogućava prikazivanje neodređenosti i measures and comparison of measures in various višeznačnosti. M. which could be defined at veoma kompleksne veličine. . Neke Some logistic performances (service degree. koje se koriste su: example of warehousing system benchmarking.

07/04 Besides the above given examples. . 114 . improvement of information flows. in permanentno mesto istraživanja. position. kompaniji. centara. − poboljšanje informacionih tokova. neke od mogućnosti possibilities for application of benchmarking primene benčmarking istraživanja u logističkim research in logistic systems could be: sistemima mogu biti: . Radivojević. Jedan od Benchmarking is one of the approaches to its pristupa njegovom rešavanju je benchmarking.G. Productivity 5 Safety Storage density 3 5 7 3 2 0 3 4 Tim e cycle 6 Accuracy of order 5 of inventory 3 Benchm ark - 4 6 best of the class 5 DST Accuracy Benchm ark object in delivery Figure 3 Performances of storage system of benchmark objects and benchmark slika 3 Performance sistema benčmark objekata i benčmarka 5 CONCLUSION 5 ZAKLJUČAK Nowadays. zbog svoje to its complexity and potential rationalization is a složenosti i potencijalnih racionalizacija. koja svojim instrumentima danas possible competitiveness on the market and due omogućava konkurentnost na tržištu. improvement of business functions etc. zbog kompleksnosti complexity of logistics. BENCHMARKING AND LOGISTICS … T&L . Miljuš. due to konkurencijom. osnove za donošenje strateških odluka. na ovaj differences as determined in this manner. je permanent area for research work. da order to be able to understand its status in that bi bila u mogućnosti da spozna svoj status u tom field usually strives to be compared with its domenu obično teži poređenju sa business competition. . defining the number and distribution of − definisanje broja i rasporeda logističkih logistic centers. M. it is not a simple task. to nije jednostavan zadatak. However. logističkom lancu. A company. − unapređenje poslovnih funkcija i druge. logistics with its instruments makes Logistika. Te These decisions make it possible to overcome the odluke omogućavaju prevazilaženje. logistike. način utvrđenih razlika. Međutim. some of the Osim opisanih primera. . By its methodology it makes it possible Svojom metodologijom on na efikasan način in an efficient way to compare own performances omogućava poređenje sopstvenih performansi sa with leaders in respective fields and the liderima u odgovarajućoj oblasti i formiranje formation of a basis to bring strategic decisions. better quality connection of all − kvalitetnije povezivanje svih učesnika u participants in logistic chain. . solving. better quality connection of company’s − kvalitetnije povezivanje podsistema u subsystems. Kompanija. dostizanje nivoa attainment of the performance levels of market performansi lidera i preuzimanje liderske leaders and the taking over of the leader’s pozicije.

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