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For LPG Thermodynamic

(Four cylinder, 2.5 liter)

𝑉1 = 𝑉𝑑 + 𝑉𝑐 = 0.000625
+ 0.0000822
𝑉1 = 0.0007072 𝑚3
𝑃1 𝑉1 (100)(0.0007072) 𝑚𝑚
= =
𝑅𝑇1 (0.287)(333)
𝑚𝑚 = 0.000740 𝑘𝑔

State 1: 𝑇
1 = 60℃ ≈ 333𝐾 , From Table 1 𝑃
1 = 100𝑘𝑝𝑎 , From Table 1

State 2: The compression stroke 1-2 is isentropic:

𝑃2 = 𝑃1 (𝑟𝑐 )𝑘 = (100𝑘𝑝𝑎)(14)1.35 = 𝟑𝟓𝟐𝟓. 𝟗 𝒌𝑷𝒂
𝑇2 = 𝑇1 (𝑟𝑐 )𝑘−1 = (333𝐾)(14)1.35−1 = 𝟖𝟑𝟗𝑲
𝑻𝟐 = 𝟓𝟔𝟔℃

State 3: Using equation for the heat added during one cycle:

𝑄𝐻𝑉 𝐸𝑐 = (𝐴𝐹 + 1)𝑐𝑣 (𝑇3 − 𝑇2 )
(46500)(1.0) = (15.6 + 1)(0.821)(𝑇3 − 839)
𝑻𝟑 = 𝟒𝟐𝟓𝟏𝑲 ≈ 𝟑𝟗𝟕𝟖℃
𝑇3 4251
𝑃3 = 𝑃2 ( ) = (3525.9) ( )
𝑇2 839
𝑷𝟑 = 𝟏𝟕𝟖𝟔𝟒. 𝟖𝟒 𝒌𝑷𝒂

84) ( ) 𝑟𝑐 14 𝑷𝟒 = 𝟓𝟎𝟔. 𝟔𝟕 𝒌𝑷𝒂 𝑇1 333 𝐸𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜 = 1 − ( ) = 1 − ( ) 𝑇2 839 𝑬𝒐𝒕𝒕𝒐 = 𝟎.35−1 𝑇4 = 𝑇3 ( ) = (4251) ( ) 𝑟𝑐 14 𝑻𝟒 = 𝟏𝟔𝟖𝟖𝑲 ≈ 𝟏𝟒𝟏𝟓℃ 1 𝑘 1 1.35 𝑃4 = 𝑃3 ( ) = (17864.State 4: Power stroke 3-4 is isentropic: 1 𝑘−1 1 1. 𝟔𝟎𝟑 ≈ 𝟔𝟎. 𝟑% .

0007072 𝑚3 𝑃1 𝑉1 (100)(0.821)(𝑇3 − 707) 𝑻𝟑 = 𝟒𝟎𝟔𝟒.6)1.35 = 𝟏𝟖𝟐𝟔 𝒌𝑷𝒂 𝑇2 = 𝑇1 (𝑟𝑐 )𝑘−1 = (333𝐾)(8.0000822 𝑉1 = 0. From Table 1 𝑃1 = 100𝑘𝑝𝑎 . From Table 1 State 2: The compression stroke 1-2 is isentropic: 𝑃2 = 𝑃1 (𝑟𝑐 )𝑘 = (100𝑘𝑝𝑎)(8. 𝟒 ℃ For Constant Volume: 𝑇3 4064.000740 𝑘𝑔 State 1: 𝑇1 = 60℃ ≈ 333𝐾 . 2.287)(333) 𝑚𝑚 = 0.6 + 1)(0.6)1.0) = (14.000625 + 0.0007072) 𝑚𝑚 = = 𝑅𝑇1 (0.35−1 = 𝟕𝟎𝟕𝑲 𝑻𝟐 = 𝟒𝟑𝟒℃ State 3: Using equation for the heat added during one cycle: 𝑄𝐻𝑉 𝐸𝑐 = (𝐴𝐹 + 1)𝑐𝑣 (𝑇3 − 𝑇2 ) (43000)(1. 𝟑 𝒌𝑷𝒂 .5 liter) 𝑉1 = 𝑉𝑑 + 𝑉𝑐 = 0.4 𝑃3 = 𝑃2 ( ) = (1826) ( ) 𝑇2 707 𝑷𝟑 = 𝟏𝟎𝟒𝟗𝟕. 𝟒 𝑲 ≈ 𝟑𝟕𝟗𝟏.For Gasoline Thermodynamic Analysis: (Four cylinder.

3) ( ) 𝑟𝑐 8.State 4: Power stroke 3-4 is isentropic: 1 𝑘−1 1 1. 𝟗% .35 𝑃4 = 𝑃3 ( ) = (10497.6 𝑻𝟒 = 𝟏𝟗𝟏𝟑.6 𝑷𝟒 = 𝟓𝟕𝟒. 𝟗 𝑲 ≈ 𝟏𝟔𝟒𝟎. 𝟓𝟐𝟖𝟗𝟗 ≈ 𝟓𝟐. 𝟗 ℃ 1 𝑘 1 1. 𝟕𝟖 𝒌𝑷𝒂 𝑇1 333 𝐸𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜 = 1 − ( ) = 1 − ( ) 𝑇2 707 𝑬𝒐𝒕𝒕𝒐 = 𝟎.35−1 𝑇4 = 𝑇3 ( ) = (4064.4) ( ) 𝑟𝑐 8.

This analysis is done to further learn about the advantages and disadvantages of each fuel in the otto cycle and also their thermal efficiency.9 kPa 1826 kPa P3 17. The result of the Thermodynamic Analysis for LPG and Gasoline (see Fig.864. 1) These equations were gathered from the book of Willard W.67 kPa 574. Pulkrabek entitled Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine (Second Edition) as the basis for our computations for each fuel namely the LPG and Gasoline.497.2) and in pressure (see Fig. The result of the analysis shows big difference in the temperature and pressure.3% 52.9% (FIG. other given values and the problem can be found at Pulkrabek’s book.4K T4 1415oC or 1688K 1640.4oC or 4064.84 kPa 10.1) LPG GASOLINE Temperature T1 60oC or 333K 60oC or 333K T2 566oC or 839K 434oC or 707K T3 3978oC or 4251K 3791.9oC or 1913.78 kPa Thermal Efficiency %E 60. This analyzation will also help us in defining the benefits of each fuel used in our cycle.3).9K Pressure P1 100 kPa 100 kPa P2 3525. . Constant values. These data will help us to understand the effect of different fuels in our cycle.3 kPa P4 506. To further understand the difference of LPG and Gasoline in temperature (see Fig.

3) .2) PRESSURE 20000 15000 10000 LPG GASOLINE 5000 0 P1 P2 P3 P4 (FIG. TEMPERATURE 4000 3000 LPG 2000 GASOLINE 1000 0 T1 T2 T3 T4 (FIG.

and sulfer dioxides. a primary ingredient in smog. secondary pollution results from chemical reactions between pollutants in the atmosphere.These pollutants react with nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight to form ground level ozone. Additional emissions are associated with the refining and distribution of vehicle fuel.  Nitrogen oxides (NOx) . including pollution emitted during vehicle operation. causing coughing. refueling.  Hydrocarbons (HC) . PM is a direct (primary) pollution and a secondary pollution from hydrocarbons. nitrogen oxides. In addition. and poisonous gas is formed by the combustion of fossil fuels such as gasoline and is emitted primarily from cars and . choking. Particulate matter is the sum of all solid and liquid particles suspended in air many of which are hazardous. and origin. and reduced lung capacity. This complex mixture includes both organic and inorganic particles. These particles vary greatly in size. pollen. and liquid droplets. The computations show that the LPG has higher thermal efficiency. and disposal. composition.These pollutants cause lung irritation and weaken the body's defenses against respiratory infections such as pneumonia and influenza. smoke. manufacturing. they assist in the formation of ground level ozone and particulate matter. soot. Though beneficial in the upper atmosphere. Diesel exhaust is a major contributor to PM pollution. Fine particles — less than one-tenth the diameter of a human hair — pose the most serious threat to human health. Air pollution from cars and trucks is split into primary and secondary pollution.These particles of soot and metals give smog its murky color. This emission contains particulate matters that harm our environment.  Carbon monoxide (CO) . This means that the LPG emits lesser emission unlike the Gasoline. Also. Higher thermal efficiency means more effective burning leading to lesser emissions. temperature and pressure compared with the Gasoline. such as dust. colorless.This odorless. at the ground level this gas irritates the respiratory system. Primary pollution is emitted directly into the atmosphere. Cars and trucks produce air pollution throughout their life. The following are the major pollutants from motor vehicles:  Particulate matter (PM) . as they can penetrate deep into lungs.

Motor vehicles also emit pollutants. and airplanes. such as carbon dioxide. In fact two recent studies found conflicting results in terms of the production of hydrocarbons from the combustion of LPG. especially diesel. that contribute to global climate change. Fetuses. LPG. trains. and other vital organs. which includes freight. Fuels are tested and improved to help save our environment and also to become more economically efficient. and other serious illnesses. also known as propane and auto-gas. trucks. Many people who consider LPG as an alternative to petrol do so because they believe that the combustion of propane results in lower CO2 emissions. The first found a significant increase . the jury is still out on this matter. accounts for around thirty percent of all heat-trapping gas emissions. cancer. acetaldehyde. When inhaled. Sulfur dioxide can react in the atmosphere to form fine particles and poses the largest health risk to young children and asthmatics. cars and trucks account for over one-fifth of the United States' total global warming pollution. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that the air toxics emitted from cars and trucks — which include Benzene. Unfortunately. and 1. and people with chronic illnesses are especially susceptible to the effects of CO.Power plants and motor vehicles create this pollutant by burning sulfur-containing fuels. These emission help contribute in destroying our environment that is why this analysis is done to innovate towards greener engineering. CO blocks oxygen from the brain.  Sulfur dioxide (SO2) . newborn children.  Greenhouse gases . In fact.  Hazardous air pollutants (toxics) . transportation.These chemical compounds have been linked to birth defects.3-butadiene — account for half of all cancers caused by air pollution. heart. is a by-product of crude oil extraction and the refining process.

It also has a high octane rating (The octane rating is a measure of how likely a gasoline or liquid petroleum fuel is to self-ignite. What is for certain is that LPG burns cleaner than petrol therefore emission of particulates is very low. The cost of converting an existing petrol car so it can run on petrol or LPG costs between £1. more miles per gallon.. and the other showed a slight increase at a low engine load but a considerable decrease at a high engine load.000 miles p. Therefore you can get much more bang for your buck or in vehicle parlance. In short the benefits of LPG vs. In terms of fuel costs. but only make economic sense if you are running at high engine loads and doing at least 14. if you have a typical delivery van then you are most likely doing about 20.a. a third less than a petrol only car – but only once you’ve recovered the cost of the conversion. but fuel economy is about 20-25% lower. petrol fuel cars are significant. LPG costs a little more than half the price of petrol or diesel. non- corrosive and free of tetra-ethyl lead and additives. This conversion will cost you around 79. Moreover. LPG is therefore a good option to consider if you are trying to reduce your total life operating costs for the van).500 and £2. Vehicle emissions are recognised as one of the main contributors to climate change.69 Philippine Pesos making it expensive in terms of changing your fuel to LPG but it will only be advantageous for those who use their vehicles as their means of daily transportation. In order to make this investment worthwhile you will need to travel around 14.000 miles a year.21 Philippine Pesos to 132. the less likely an engine is to pre-ignite and suffer damage). A copy of this will be required by your insurance company. The higher the number.918. while up to 80% of damaging particulates are eliminated by replacing a diesel engine with an LPG .e. Autogas offers an immediate reduction of up to 15% in CO2 emissions compared to a petrol-powered vehicle. the AA advises that the installer should provide you with a registration receipt to show that the conversion has been done correctly.of CO2 emissions compared to petrol. From an insurance perspective. overall running costs of an LPG car is approx.751. LPG is non-toxic. but LPG is widely recognised for its inherent environmental benefits.500.000 miles a year (i. According to the AA.

LPG for cars is a definite option for those who want to go green because it produces fewer emissions. as the engine tends to overheat easily. chemical vapours escape into the atmosphere and can also be inhaled. Cars that run on LPG top end of engine performance may be 'clipped' by a small amount.The cost to convert a vehicle to use LPG can exceed $3.  Expensive Installation . This does not happen with Auto-gas. In reality.  Reduces exhaust emissions . While LPG has positives. no-one drives in the top-end range very often so this reduction is hardly significant. A further benefit is that LPG vehicles operate relatively more cleanly when the engine is cold – and most vehicles are used for very short journeys. Reduction of performance at the top end is least . When filling up with petrol or diesel. you may have to spend more money in order to fit a LPG tank inside the vehicle.  Higher octane rating . LPG isn’t readily available. Engine easily overheats.To date. there are some disadvantages:  Poor Availability .LPG has an octane rating of 108 compared to petrol’s numbers. Filling an LPG tank is a fully sealed process so it also benefits the environment during refuelling. using LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) is 50% cheaper than regular gasoline because of gas price hikes more people are becoming more open to using LPG for their vehicles. Also consider that most cars converted to LPG have the largest engines (cc). Few service stations offer LPG for vehicles.If you have a new car.fuelled equivalent. These are some advantages of LPG as fuel:  Cost efficient . Using LPG is not recommended for long trips. typically 5% (but not with every engine / gas system combination).  Bulky tank . which vary by location.Compared to petrol and diesel.000.

According to most drivers of LPG converted cars report that they cannot find any difference in the overall performance of their vehicle when running on LPG. Although LPG produces less total heat (it has a lower calorific value) that heat is released in a shorter time. A greater heat 'spike' is the result. The engine will run slightly hotter. it follows that an engine running on LPG will ' warm up ' more quickly than it would on petrol.noticeable with a larger engine and so it becomes less of an issue. Petrol consumption is extremely high when the engine is cold as a choke or excess fuel device (both giving a very rich mixture) must be used. The driver will instinctively react to this by opening the throttle more to achieve the desired speed or rate of speed increase (often called acceleration). LPG is slightly less potent as an internal combustion engine fuel.) Simply put. Only the cylinder head temperature (CHT) will increase significantly (although not enough to cause any problems). which is much more of a general picture. A mean figure of 15% increase in fuel volume consumed is a good figure to rely upon. The cooling effect of liquid petrol droplets is not present with LPG and the total heat is released more quickly. more liquid fuel (LPG) will be used than when running on petrol. LPG does not need an artificially rich mixture and the engine warms (to its normal operating temperature. The actual increase in liquid volume consumed varies between 10 and 20%. LPG scores over petrol again. (It produces less total heat and therefore less peak pressure in the cylinder. The reason for this is that LPG is a 'perfect' gas at ordinary atmospheric temperatures whilst petrol vapour is liquid that has been forced to vaporize. although the difference may not be large enough to show on the temperature gauge. (If this does become an issue at some point remember that you always have the ability to revert to petrol at the flick of a switch). A typical car temperature gauge measures coolant temperature only. as this is not necessary. LPG gives slightly less 'bang' per charge. Thus. It has a lower calorific value than petrol. Leading on from that. . where it is most efficient) even more quickly as a result. Most cars do not have a device for monitoring CHT (unlike aircraft).

This is required by a federal law intended to reduce the amount of oil that the United States imports from other countries. and an inability to increase speed or even an 'engine cut'). Gasoline is a fuel made from crude oil and other petroleum liquids. but they all indicate the octane rating. Before 1996. Higher ratings result in higher prices. Manufacturers recommend the grade of gasoline for use in each model of a vehicle. One of the results of this can be a quieter and smoother running engine. 1995. Refineries in the United States produce about 19 gallons of gasoline from every 42-gallon barrel of crude oil that is refined. This is why you are well advised to run your engine up to temperature when such conditions exist. However. LPG has a high octane rating (it tends to give less 'knock') and is more easily and thoroughly mixed with air. In cold or damp ambient conditions. Leaded gasoline was banned for sale in the United States on December 31. lead was added to gasoline as a lubricant to reduce wear on engine valves. or super premium. There are three main grades of gasoline sold at retail gasoline refueling stations: o Regular o Midgrade o Premium Some companies have different names for these grades of gasoline. Meanwhile. which reflects the anti-knock properties of gasoline. The result can be narrowing of the induction system (at the venturi) by deposited ice. Most of the motor gasoline now sold in the United States also contains about 10% fuel ethanol by volume. Gasoline is mainly used as an engine fuel in vehicles. like unleaded. . Refineries and companies that produce the finished motor gasoline sold in retail gasoline fueling stations may add various liquids so that the gasoline burns cleaner and meets air pollution control standards and requirements. super. backfiring. A temporary reduction of performance may be experienced (manifested as 'flat' spots. rapidly vaporising LPG can cause refrigeration icing around the regulator and gas mixer unit.

Now. This means that. pipelines and tankers.  It can be extracted at a low cost . there exists a massive infrastructure to transport it through ships. have also become quite easy.Technologies that are used for extracting oil beneath the planet’s surface are well developed.Aside from being the primary energy source of power plants to supply the high demands for energy of the modern world. which is usually the least expensive grade.  It has broad areas for application .most gasoline-fueled vehicles will operate on regular gasoline.Oil is widely distributed to almost every part of the globe. Aside from easy transport. petroleum can generate a substantial amount of energy.The average 1 kilogram of burnt oil can generate up to 10. it can also be stored conveniently. it is used to . These days. it is being mined off sea coasts and tar sands. it is extremely easy to exploit oil deposits in different geological conditions. It does not matter if these reserves are to be extracted beneath the ocean’s surface or in regions with special climate conditions. Gasoline is the most commonly used fuel for our vehicles. In fact. it is sold cheaper compared to other sources of energy. for only small amounts.000 kilocalories. These are the advantages of using Gasoline as fuel:  It can be extracted easily . such as gas and diesel. which means that refining it to get valuable products.  It can easily be transported .  It is highly available with good infrastructure for transport and use . though most of the low-cost locations are already depleted. It can be brought from extraction sites to power plants through pipes or vehicles.  It has high density .Due to the fact that petroleum production requires reduced technical and physical effort. Technology for oil refineries has also reached its maturity. Petroleum is also not that difficult to produce.Because petroleum is in liquid form. it is just easy to transport.

medicines and clothing. studies reveal that almost half of oil reserves (which is about 2 trillion barrels) have been utilized.  It can support constant power use . they can be run by oil. The decrease in supply is clearly indicated by the ever increasing cost of petroleum on the market these days. Now. Whether they are diesel or gasoline vehicles. power plants are having a hard time extracting petroleum as reserves are nearly drought.This is an obvious advantage of petroleum.  It contributes to environmental pollution . including heavy equipment.  It can power up almost all types of vehicles . power generators and vehicles. there are some disadvantages:  Its resources are limited . oil engines are a technology in a mature state and are highly reliable to work with. they can travel longer and run faster when powered by petroleum.Besides being an essential commodity for transport. . such as vaseline. High demands for energy by the modern society have stressed the conventional sources of oil reserves. petroleum is a critical component in a wide variety of industries. Plus. but experts say that these cannot produce enough oil to sustain all our needs. While Gasoline has positives. It is difficult to think of another product that has such a huge role to play for creating other products.Like any other natural fossil fuel.  It is a crucial element in industries . petroleum is a limited resource. In fact.Extracting and burning petroleum generates greenhouse gases that contribute to environmental pollution and. where only one trillion barrels left.  It is a powerful source of energy . There might be some other sources of petroleum on earth. power machines of all types.Unlike alternative energy sources. Using oil is beneficial in terms of satisfying our need to quickly move from one place to another. such as solar and wind. oil can produce power 24/7 and is highly reliable.Taking into consideration cars.

This gives rise to violence and growth in terrorism. especially refining. this powerful pool of money also managed to suppress voices of protests. adverse effects in marine life are expected. such as carbon monoxide. Oil money goes directly into the hands of despots who are amassing trillions of dollars. According to the Department of Energy. . Thus.Production of petroleum. global warming. Aside from this. Take note that oil exists as a mixture of hydrocarbons with traces of sulfur and other compounds. Depletion of fuels can occur overtime and can lead to their limited supply. When this happens and demands are high. leading economical conflicts between nations. causing the death of thousands of animals and fishes each year.Truth be told. This means that degradation of our ecosystems will be made faster if we choose petroleum as our main source of energy. the BP Oil Spill had caused billions of dollars in losses. including plastic.  It sustains growth of terrorism and violence . which are elements of harmful gases. and plastic. Spills have caused massive ocean pollution. consequently. as oil money is somehow used in funding terrorist organizations. it still cannot be denied that it also leads to unfavorable consequences. Gasoline compared with LPG is much more expensive especially in the Philippines. oil costs will significantly increase.35 per liter to Php 45. oil is drilled in some of the worst dictatorships in the world. petroleum cannot be replaced. produces harmful and toxic materials.If petroleum spills in bodies of water.  It produces hazardous substances . so oil reserves can still continue to supply energy for many years to come.Once burned to generate electricity.  Its transport can cause oil spills . As an example. Despite the many advantages brought by petroleum. So. we should find alternative energy resources.  It is a non-renewable form of energy . we need to be aware of these factors and take them as reminders that petroleum needs to be utilized wisely.21 per liter for Gasoline and Php 471 per liter to Php 690 per liter. their price ranges from Php 40.

. These difference in fuel benefits lets us know how to become more decisive in terms of buying our cars according to what kind of fuel they are using and converting our cars from petrol to LPG and how it affects our engine’s performance.