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The Study of Tissues


• A group of closely
associated cells that
perform related functions
and are similar in
• Four types-
– epithelium (covering)
– connective (support)
– muscle (movement)
– nervous (control)


cells and extra cellular matrix (fibers 3 and ground substance). smears. spreads • fixative • Dehydrated (might occur with fixation stage) • stained • Review your planes and be sure you can “see” how to put a tissue back together! 4 . Interpreting tissue sections • Histological sections are prepared by a microtome (thin slices of the tissue). Extracellular Matrix • Extracellular Protein Fibers • Ground substance- syrup like fluid – ECF – Interstitial fluid – Tissue fluid So lets summarize: • Tissues.

Avascular but innervated.anchored to a basement membrane 3. 4. inner lining of blood vessels. peritoneal cavity. form slippery surfaces 5 Special Characteristics of Epithelia 6. Regeneration: Friction resistance! Constantly being rubbed off 6 and replaced. Epithelia and Glands • Epithelium is a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity – Inner lining of stomach and viscera. secrete.composed of cells with minimal extracellular material 2. Cellularity.lack blood vessels but do receive nerve endings 5. absorption. 1. Polarity. ion transport. . Attachment. provide a boundary • Protect and provide sensory edge (apical) and lower (basal) surface. respiratory tubes. most of body’s glands • Occur at interfaces between two different environments.

all cells touch basement membrane! 8 . Classification of Epithelia Number of layers Shape ALWAYS LOOK AT APICAL LAYER 7 • Single layer of cells Simple Epithelia • Important for passive diffusion (squamous) or absorption/secretion (cuboidal or columnar) • Special cases: – endothelium (found in heart and blood vessels) – mesothelium (lines serosal cavities) – Pseudostratified columnar.

Simple Squamous Epithelium • Common sites of diffusion and filtration • Alveoli • Endothelium of blood capillaries • Glomerulus 9 Simple Cuboidal Epithelium • Functions in secretion and absorption • Kidney tubules • Ducts of salivary glands. thyroid gland. pancreas 10 .

ciliary movement • often ciliated • Many goblet cells • Lines passages of respiratory system- trachea. secretion. bronchi 12 . Simple Columnar Epithelium • Specialized for absorption • Presence of goblet cells ( secrete mucus) • Gastrointestinal tract 11 Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium • Protection.

2 or more layers • More durable and major role is protection • Regenerate from below • Keratinized (waterproofed by dead layer of cells- skin) vs. Stratified Epithelia. nasal cavity. non- keratinized (esophagus. skin 14 . esophagus. anus. vagina. vagina-) 13 Stratified Squamous Epithelium • Protection ( wear and tear areas) • Outer layers flattened • Blocks various chemicals and microorganisms from entering • Found in mouth.

store and carry nutrients. Transitional Epithelium • Lines the inside of hollow urinary organs (bladder) and umbilical cord • Allows for distention (stretching) • Thus. . physical protection. form skeleton (lever system). fight against infection. heat production. surround all the blood vessels and nerves of the body.connect cells. • Cells always separated by a large amount of nonliving extracellular material (extracellular matrix) 16 • Originate from mesoderm (mesenchyme). 15 Connective Tissue • Most abundant – Connective tissue proper – Supportive (cartilage and bone) – Fluid (blood and lymph) • Function. it goes through “transitions” in shape.

open packed Solid.inhibits blood clotting • Adipocytes (fat cells) 18 . Contained in Contained in matrix framework crystalline Cardiovascular lymphatic system system matrix Areolar Regular Adipose 17 Irregular reticular Cells you would find in Connective Tissue Proper • Fibroblasts.increases blood flow by dilating blood vessels – Heparin.a type of WBC) • Mesenchymal cells • Leukocytes (WBC) • Mast cells- – Histamine. Types of Connective tissue Connective tissues Connective tissue proper (fibrous) Fluid Supporting Loose Dense Blood lymph cartilage bone Fibers create Fibers densely Solid. rubber loose.produce fibers and ground substance that forms the matrix • Macrophages (derived from monocytes.

Fibers you would find in Fibrous Connective Tissue • Collagenous fibers. rather the ability to recoil when released) 19 Areolar connective tissue (model type) • Support and binding of tissues • Holding body fluids • Defending the body against infection • Storing nutrients as fat • Waste removal 20 .thin collagen fibers--Form sponge-like framework (spleen and lymph nodes) • Elastic.NOT the ability to stretch.white fibers. tough and flexible (resist stretching) • Reticular fibers. skin.Allows stretching and recoiling (rubber band) – Lungs. arteries – Elasticity.

thymus and bone marrow 21 Dense Connective Tissue • Dense irregular connective tissue. elastic tissue) 22 .fibers run in the same direction. aponeuroses. • Dense regular connective tissue. Highly vascularized. Other loose connective tissues • Adipose tissue . Two layers running perpendicular to each other. spleen. but only has reticular fibers in extracellular matrix.function is to store nutrients.parallel to the direction of pull (ligaments. lymph nodes.similar to areolar tissue. but collagen fibers much thicker. tendons. Mostly found in hypodermis (tela subcutanea) • Reticular Connective tissue – resembles areolar tissue.

menisci. epiglottis • Fibrocartilage – resists strong compression and strong tension – An intermediate between hyaline and elastic cartilage. Cartilage • Resist compression and tension • no blood vessels or nerves. pubic symphysis. many delicate collagen fibrils – Provides support through flexibility – Epiphyseal plates. trachea. many thick collagen fibers – Intervertebral discs. fetal skeleton. external auditory canal. larynx • Elastic cartilage – contains many elastic fibers and collagen fibrils – Able to tolerate repeated bending – Ear. – Hyaline-most abundant – Elastic – fibrocartilage 23 Cartilage • Hyaline cartilage – (glass) – most abundant cartilage. 24 .

basophils. gases • Erythrocytes (RBCs) • Leukocytes (WBCs)- neutrophils. monocytes. lymphocytes (T and B cells) • Platelets (thrombocytes) 26 . eosinophils.heads of long bones • Compact • Haversian system (osteon) – Central canal (Haversian canal) – Lacunae – Lamellae – Canaliculi – Osteocytes – Periosteum – Osteoblasts – osteoclasts 25 • Fluid ground substance Blood • Transports nutrients. • matrix contains inorganic calcium salts and Bone collagen fibers. • Spongy. wastes.

Muscle • Movement • Posture/joint stability • Heat Production • Communication (facial muscles) • Control of body openings 27 3 Classes of Muscle Based on histological appearance and function • Skeletal – Striated. fusiform in shape (spindle) 28 . voluntary. involuntary. branched. involuntary. cardiocytes • Smooth – Non-striated. myofibers • Cardiac – Striated.

Skeletal Muscle • Striated • Voluntary • Multi-nucleated 29 Cardiac Muscle • Striated • Involuntary • Branched • “Cardiocytes” 30 .

Smooth Muscle • Smooth (non-striated) • Involuntary • Fusiform (spindle shaped) 31 Nervous Tissue • Conductive cell = neuron • Receives/transmits electrochemical impulses • Dendrites. body (soma). axon • Glial cells (supportive) 32 .

due next meeting .• Homework: Pages 23.24.