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Cambridge Ordinary Level - Physics

Work, Energy and Power


1. State briefly the energy changes in the production of electricity from,
a. the burning of coal
b. wind-power
c. nuclear fission

2. A boy of mass 30kg runs up a flight of stairs to a floor which is at a height of 5.5m in 6.0s. Taking the
weight of 1 kg = 10 N, calculate;
a. work done by the boy against gravity
b. average power developed by the boy

3.
a. Define force and state its SI unit.
b. Two forces acting at a point have magnitudes 3 N and 4 N. By means of a diagram, show the lines
of action of the forces when their resultant is,
i. 7 N
ii. less than 7 N but more than 1 N,
iii. 1 N
c. Two forces of magnitudes 70 N and 50 N act at a point so that the angle between their lines of action
is 40o. By means of a scale diagram, determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force
acting at the point.
d. In a study on impact, a bullet of mass 50g penetrates a target and is brought to rest from an initial
speed of 500ms-1 in 0.2 s.
i. calculate the average deceleration of the bullet over the 0.2 s
ii. find the retarding force acting on the bullet during its impact with the target

4. A student Ben, starting at point P, walks due North for 1hr at a constant speed of 4.0km/h and then, at
the same constant speed, walks 4.0km due East, finishing at a point Q. In the same total time but at a
different constant speed, a second student Tom walks directly from P to Q. Determine
a. the total distance walked by student Ben
b. the distance walked by student Tom
c. the velocity of student Tom

5. A petrol-driven car accelerates from rest to its cruising speed along a straight level road.
a. state the principal energy changes in the car and its surroundings
b. The car now climbs a slope with no change of speed. Explain whether the rate of petrol consumption
will increase, stay the same, or decrease

6. The useful power output of a small dc motor is used to raise a load of 0.75kg through a vertical distance
of 1.2m. The time taken is 18.0s. The voltage across the motor and the current through it are constant
at 6.0V and 0.30A respectively. Assuming that the gravitational force on a mass of 1.0kg is 10N,
calculate
a. the power input to the motor
b. work done in raising the load
c. useful power output developed by the motor

K. Suresh Senanayake 1
B.Sc. (Hon’s) Physics (Sp), MIP (SL)
Cambridge Ordinary Level - Physics

7. The figure below shows a simple pulley system. Calculate


a. the work done by the man in lifting the load
b. the gravitational potential energy gained by the load
c. the efficiency of the pulley system

8. A motor boat travels due north at a steady speed of 3.0m/s through calm water in which there is no
current. The boat then enters an area of water in which a steady current flows at 2.0m/s in a south-west
direction as shown. Both the engine power and the course setting remain unchanged.

a. In the space below, draw a vector diagram showing the velocity of the boat and the velocity of the
current. Use the diagram to find
i. the magnitude of the resultant velocity of the boat
ii. the angle between the due North and the direction of travel of the boat
b. Calculate the distance the boat now travels in 5.0 minutes
c. The mass of the boat is 3.0 x 103 kg (3000 kg). Calculate the additional force which needs to be
applied to give the boat an initial acceleration of 2.5 x 10-2 m/s2 (0.025 m/s2)

9.
a. In a laboratory experiment, a small trolley was accelerated from rest by applying a small force to it.
The distance travelled by the trolley was measured as 1.1 m in a time of 0.55 s. Calculate its average
speed.
b. During this movement, the trolley was uniformly accelerating from rest. Calculate its speed after
0.55 s and its acceleration during this speed.
c. The mass of the trolley is 1.2 kg. What is the force producing this acceleration?

10. In a crash test a car of mass 1500kg containing a dummy is driven into a rigid barrier at a speed of
15m/s. The recorded results showed that the interval between the first contact with the barrier and the
car coming to rest was 0.12s.
a. calculate the average deceleration of the car over the 0.12s
b. find the retarding force, assumed to be constant, acting on the car
c. One of the man-shaped dummies used in the above test was strapped in place with a safety belt. The
dummy was found to have moved forward 0.25m against the force exerted by the belt. Given that

K. Suresh Senanayake 2
B.Sc. (Hon’s) Physics (Sp), MIP (SL)
Cambridge Ordinary Level - Physics

the kinetic energy of the dummy just before impact was 7870 J, calculate the average force which
acted in the dummy as it was stopping.
d. Explain why it is an advantage for anyone riding in the car to be brought to rest steadily over this
distance of 0.25m rather than abruptly.

11. A bricklayer lifts 12 bricks each weighing 20 N a vertical height of 1.2 m in 30 s. and place them at rest
on a wall. Calculate
a. the work done
b. the average power needed

12. A small, hard ball of mass 0.14 kg is thrown vertically upwards and reaches a height of 12 m above the
point from which it is thrown.
a. Calculate the least energy which it must be given when thrown. (take the force of gravity on 1 kg to
be 10 N)
b. On a windless day an inflated ball of much larger volume but having the same mass is propelled
upwards with the same energy. It reaches a considerably smaller height. Explain briefly why this is
so.

13. An athlete throws a javelin of mass 0.80 kg so that its centre of gravity is raised from a height of 2.0m
above ground level at the moment of release, to a maximum height of 14.0 during its flight.
a. Calculate the energy to lift it against gravity to this height. (force of gravity on 1 kg is 10N)
b. Explain why the energy with which the javelin leaves the athlete's hand is considerably greater than
the energy calculated above.

14. A steady force of 6.0 N is applied horizontally to a body of mass 4.0 kg, which is initially at rest. In the
2.0 s during which the force is applied, the mass moves 3.0 m in the direction of the force. Assuming
that there is no resistance to the motion, find,
a. the work done by the force
b. the resulting kinetic energy of the body
c. the resulting velocity of the body

15. An empty lift is counterbalanced by a heavy piece of metal. Some people of combined mass 350 kg
enter the lift and operate it. The lift rises 50 m in 60 s. Calculate,
a. the work done in raising the people
b. the power required to do this
(take weight of 1kg to be 10N)

16. A stunt man has one end of a thick elastic cord attached to him. The other end of the cord is firmly
attached to a point on a high bridge. When the man jumps from the bridge he falls freely under gravity
for 2.5s. Take the acceleration of free fall to be 10m/s2 and assume that the man is initially at rest.
a. Calculate,
i. the vertical speed the man acquires during his free fall
ii. the vertical distance fallen
iii. Suggest one reason why, in a real jump, the distance fallen in 2.5 s and the speed reached would
be less than your calculated answers, even though the cord was slack throughout the 2.5 s.
b. After this time the cord begins to stretch and the man falls with continually reducing downward
acceleration. Why is this?

K. Suresh Senanayake 3
B.Sc. (Hon’s) Physics (Sp), MIP (SL)
Cambridge Ordinary Level - Physics

c. Eventually his downward acceleration becomes zero. Explain why this happens.
d. If the mass of the man is 80 kg, suggest a value for the tension in the cord when his downward
acceleration is zero.
e. Without making any further calculation, describe his motion after the point where his downward
acceleration has become zero.

17. A spring has a length of 5.0cm when it has no load hanging on it. When a load of weight 30N is hung
from it, its length becomes 11.0cm. How long will it be if the weight of the load is changed to 20N?

18. A boy riding a bicycle has a total mass of 60kg and an acceleration of 0.6m/s2. Calculate the accelerating
force acting on the boy and the bicycle.

19. A mass of 8kg is given an acceleration of,


a. 5m/s2.
b. 40cm/s2.
What is the force acting in each case?

20. An object experiences 2 forces. A force of 3N pulls it horizontally to the right and one of 6N is applied
at 60˚ to the horizontal. Draw a scale diagram to find the resultant and its direction.

21. Two girls Amy and Betty are pulling a rope with a ribbon attached to the rope as shown below. Amy
is pulling the rope with a horizontal force of 550N while Betty is pulling the rope with a horizontal
force of 700N.

a. Calculate the net force on the rope. In which direction will the ribbon move?
b. The two girls have the same mass of 35kg each and the rope and ribbon have a combined mass of
5kg. Calculate the acceleration of the ribbon.

22. A 2.0kg mass has an initial speed of 2.0m/s. It is moved along by various forces as shown. For each
scenario, sketch the velocity-time graph for the first 8.0s of its motion, showing appropriate workings
where necessary.

K. Suresh Senanayake 4
B.Sc. (Hon’s) Physics (Sp), MIP (SL)
Cambridge Ordinary Level - Physics

23. Two masses, 20.0kg and 4.0kg, are connected to two ends of a rope
that passes over a smooth pulley as shown in the diagram.

a. Mark and label on the diagram all the forces acting on the two
masses.
b. The flat support is removed.
i. State the subsequent motion of the masses.
ii. Calculate the acceleration of the connected masses.

24. The mass of a train is 2 x 106 kg. The engine produces a forward force of 200kN. While accelerating,
the average drag force is 80kN.
a. Calculate the average acceleration of the train.
b. The train enters a tunnel as shown below, travelling downhill (A), horizontally (B) and uphill again
(C).

c. For safety reasons, the train must maintain a steady speed through the tunnel. Even though the speed
remains steady, the driving force from the motors varies.
i. State whether the driving force from the engine motor is greater, less than, or equal to the drag
force of 80kN along each of the following parts of the journey. Assume that the average drag
force remains the same.
ii. Downhill (A)
iii. Horizontal (B)
iv. Uphill (C)

25. Lily wants to hang a painting in a certain way. The diagram below shows what she has in mind.

a. Draw and label on the diagram all the forces acting on the painting.
b. The tension in the right string is 10N and the weight of the painting is 12N. By means of a scaled
diagram, find the magnitude and direction ø of the tension of the left string.

K. Suresh Senanayake 5
B.Sc. (Hon’s) Physics (Sp), MIP (SL)
Cambridge Ordinary Level - Physics

26.
a. Define power and give its unit of measurement in SI units.
b. Coal can be burned to produce steam to rotate turbines which drive an electricity generator. When
producing electricity, the rate of energy input to one generator is 1.2 x 1013 J/hr when the electrical
power output is 1.2 x 10-3 W. Determine the efficiency (% of output over input) of the system
working at this rate.

27. A trolley is released from rest on an inclined slope 1.5m high as shown. The motion is recorded by a
strobe photograph as shown. The strobe frequency is 10Hz (ie it takes 10 pictures in 1s)

a. Determine the acceleration of the trolley down the slope from the figure on the left given that the
mass of the trolley is 0.50kg and that it reaches the bottom after 0.55s.
b. Determine the acceleration of the trolley from the figure on the right.
c. Why are your answers in a. and b. different?

28. A box of mass 2kg achieves a constant speed of 4m/s when a 10N horizontal force is applied.
a. What is the friction force acting on the box?
b. Describe the motion of the box when the force increases from 10N to 12N.

29. The figure below shows a man making a bungee jump.

The man starts his jump from a platform above a river. The elastic rope tied to his feet becomes tight
when the man reaches point A. The lowest point he reaches is B. The mass of the man is 80kg. The
gravitational field strength is 10 N/kg.
a. Describe the energy changes as the man falls from A to B.
b. The man falls 56m from the platform to point B. Calculate the energy change in his gravitational
potential energy.
c. The maximum kinetic energy of the man is 23 000 J. Calculate his maximum speed.

K. Suresh Senanayake 6
B.Sc. (Hon’s) Physics (Sp), MIP (SL)
Cambridge Ordinary Level - Physics

MCQs – Work, Energy and Power


1. When a book of mass 2kg was pushed along the horizontal surface of the table, the friction force
measured was 5N. When the book was pushed along the same table with a force of 9N, it moved
with a constant,
a. acceleration of 2.0 m/s2
b. acceleration of 25 m/s2
c. speed of 2.0 m/s
d. speed of 2.5 m/s2
2. A balloon filled with gas has a total weight of 1800N. The balloon descends with a constant speed
of 3 m/s. What is the resultant force acting on the balloon during descent?
a. 0N
b. 600N
c. 1800N
d. 5400N
3. A crane lifts a load of 8000N through a vertical distance of 20m in 4s. What is the average power
during this operation?
a. 100W
b. 1600W
c. 40000W
d. 640000W
4. A toy car A moving with a speed of 30 m/s has a kinetic energy of 900J. Another toy car B has twice
the mass of toy car A. If toy car B moves with a speed of 15 m/s, what is the kinetic energy of toy car
B?
a. 450J
b. 900J
c. 1800J
d. 3600J
5. A 60W fluorescent lamp converts half the electrical energy supplied into light energy. How much
light energy does it emit in 1 minute?
a. 30W
b. 60W
c. 1800W
d. 3600W
6. An electric motor is used to lift a 200N load through 3m in 5s. If the motor has an efficiency of
40%, what is the total electrical energy used by the motor in one second?
a. 48W
b. 300W
c. 1200W
d. 3000W
7. A trolley of mass 1.5kg is placed on a smooth table. If a constant force of 6N acts on the trolley,
the acceleration produced by the force will be
a. 0.25 ms-2
b. 4 ms-2
c. 4.5 ms-2
d. 7.5 ms-2

K. Suresh Senanayake 7
B.Sc. (Hon’s) Physics (Sp), MIP (SL)
Cambridge Ordinary Level - Physics

8. An object of mass 2kg moves with uniform velocity when a constant force of 10N acts on it. When
the force is increased to 20N, the acceleration will be
a. 4 ms-2
b. 5 ms-2
c. 6 ms-2
d. 10 ms-2
9. The weight of a rocket in outer space is zero because
a. its mass becomes zero
b. there is no frictional force
c. there is no gravitational force
d. the rocket is stationary
10. A ball of mass 0.2kg is thrown to a height of 15m. What is the change in its gravitational potential
energy? (g=10N/kg)
a. 0.3 J
b. 3.0 J
c. 7.5 J
d. 30 J
e. 75 J
11. A boy pushes a toy cart along a level road and then lets it go. As the cart is slowing down, the
biggest energy change is from
a. chemical to heat
b. chemical to kinetic
c. heat to kinetic
d. kinetic to chemical
e. kinetic to heat
12. A girl weighing 400N takes 4s to run up the stairs 3m high. What is her average speed?
a. 0.75 m/s
b. 0.8 m/s
c. 1.25 m/s
d. 1.33 m/s
e. 12 m/s
13. How much potential energy does she gain? (from question 12)
a. 120 J
b. 200 J
c. 400 J
d. 1200 J
e. 2000 J
14. A block of mass 2kg slides from rest through a distance of 20m down a frictionless slope 10m
high. What is the kinetic energy of the block at the bottom of the slope? (g = 10ms-2)
a. 20 J
b. 40 J
c. 200 J
d. 400 J
e. 800 J
15. What are the main energy changes in a hydroelectric power station?
a. electrical -> kinetic -> heat
b. heat -> electrical -> kinetic

K. Suresh Senanayake 8
B.Sc. (Hon’s) Physics (Sp), MIP (SL)
Cambridge Ordinary Level - Physics

c. kinetic -> light -> electrical


d. kinetic -> potential -> light
e. potential -> kinetic -> electrical
16. An electric motor runs with a steady input of 250 V and 4 A while raising a load of 1000N.
Assuming the motor and transmission to be 100% efficient, what time is taken to lift the load
vertically through a distance of 10m?
a. 1 s
b. 1.5 s
c. 4 s
d. 10 s
e. 250 s
17. No work is done by an object at rest because
a. no force is acting on the object
b. no distance is moved
c. heat is not produced
d. friction is acting on the object
18. A mass of 40g is raised vertically from the ground to a height of 50cm, the work done in lifting
the mass is
a. 0.02J
b. 20J
c. 0.2J
d. 2000J
19. During free fall, work is done by
a. frictional force
b. magnetic force
c. gravitational force
d. centripetal force
20. Kinetic energy is transformed into gravitational potential energy when
a. a raindrop falls from the sky
b. a rubber band is stretched
c. a stone is thrown upwards
d. a bullet is fired horizontally
21. A hammer of a pile-driver is lifted to a height of 2m in 0.5s. If the mass of the hammer is 500kg,
the power required for the lifting is
a. 500W
b. 1000W
c. 2000W
d. 20000W
22. A car travels at a constant speed of 10m/s. What is the power of the car if the total resistant forces
acting on it is 400N?
a. 1/40 W
b. 40W
c. 400W
d. 4000W
23. A known force is applied to an object on a horizontal, frictionless surface. What property of the
object must be known in order to calculate its acceleration?
a. Density

K. Suresh Senanayake 9
B.Sc. (Hon’s) Physics (Sp), MIP (SL)
Cambridge Ordinary Level - Physics

b. Mass
c. surface area
d. volume
e. weight
24. Which expression is used to calculate force?
a. frequency x wavelength
b. mass x acceleration
c. power + time
d. pressure x area
e. work x distance
25. Which of the following is a vector quantity?
a. Energy
b. Mass
c. Temperature
d. Time
e. velocity
26. When a force is applied to a body, several effects are possible. Which of the following effects could
not occur?
a. the body speeds up
b. the body rotates
c. the body changes direction
d. the pressure on the body increases
e. the mass of the body decreases
27. A girl weighing 400N takes 4s to run up the stairs as shown in the diagram. What is her average
speed?

a. 0.75 m/s
b. 0.8 m/s
c. 1.25 m/s
d. 1.33 m/s
e. 12 m/s
28. How much potential energy does she gain? (from question 27)
a. 120 J
b. 200 J
c. 400 J
d. 1200 J
e. 2000 J
29. An electric motor can lift a weight of 2000N through a height of 10m in 20s. What is the power of
the motor?
a. 10 W
b. 1000 W
c. 2000 W
d. 4000 W
e. 400 000 W

K. Suresh Senanayake 10
B.Sc. (Hon’s) Physics (Sp), MIP (SL)
Cambridge Ordinary Level - Physics

30. What are the main energy changes in a hydroelectric power station?
a. electrical --> kinetic --> heat
b. heat --> electrical --> kinetic
c. kinetic --> light --> electrical
d. kinetic --> potential --> light
e. potential --> kinetic --> electric
31. A spiral spring has a natural length of 10.0cm. When a load of 5N is placed at one end while the
other end is fixed on a hook, the length of the spring becomes 11.0cm. What is the new length of
the spring if the load is 20N?
a. 12.0cm
b. 14.0cm
c. 20.0cm
d. 44.0cm
32. A body whose mass is 4kg, is placed on a frictionless surface. It is being pulled by a spring balance
and the acceleration produced is 1m/s2. What is the reading on the spring balance?
a. 4N
b. 5N
c. 36N
d. 40N
33. A body weighs 50N on earth where the acceleration due to gravity is 10m/s2. When taken to the
moon, where the acceleration due to gravity is 1.6m/s2, the body would have a weight, in newtons,
of
a. Zero
b. 8
c. 50
d. 80
34. A parachutist, whose body and equipment have a total mass of 150kg, descends vertically through
the air at a steady speed of 10m/s. Taking g = 10m/s2, the resultant force acting on him in this
descent is
a. 1500N upwards
b. 150N upwards
c. 0N
d. 1500N downwards
35. A man weights 600N. He runs upstairs of total height 4 m in 3 s. How much power is exerted by
the man?
a. 450 W
b. 800 W
c. 2400 W
d. 7200 W
36. When two forces are combined, the size of the resultant depends on the angle between the two
forces. Which of the following cannot be the magnitude of the resultant when forces of magnitude
3N and 4N are combined?
a. 1 N
b. 3 N
c. 7 N
d. 8 N
37. A rock of mass 20kg is travelling in space at a speed of 6m/s. What is its kinetic energy?
a. 60 J
b. 120 J
c. 360 J
d. 720 J

K. Suresh Senanayake 11
B.Sc. (Hon’s) Physics (Sp), MIP (SL)
Cambridge Ordinary Level - Physics

38. A block of mass 6kg is pulled across a rough surface by a 54N force, against a friction force F.
The acceleration of the block is 6m/s2. What is the value of F?
a. 9 N
b. 18 N
c. 36 N
d. 54 N
39. A girl of weight 500 N runs up a flight of stairs in 10 s. The vertical height of the stairs is 5 m.
What is the average power developed by the girl?
a. 50 W
b. 100 W
c. 250 W
d. 1000 W
40. When a block of wood of mass 2 kg is pushed along the horizontal flat surface of a bench, the
friction force is 4N. When the block is pushed along the bench with a force of 10 N, it moves with
a constant
a. speed of 3 m/s
b. speed of 5 m/s
c. acceleration of 3 m/s2
d. acceleration of 5 m/s2
41. A person exerts a horizontal force of 600 N on a box that also experiences a friction force of 200N.
If it takes 4.0s to move the box 3.0m, what is the average useful power?
a. 150 W
b. 300 W
c. 450 W
d. 600 W
42. Which of the following best describes the useful energy change that takes place inside a mobile
phone when sound is being produced?
a. electrical energy --> sound energy
b. chemical energy --> electrical energy --> heat energy
c. chemical energy --> heat energy --> electrical energy + sound energy
d. chemical energy --> electrical energy --> sound energy
43. A car is being driven up a slope at a constant speed. Which of the following describes the energy
conversion of the system?
a. chemical into kinetic
b. chemical into potential
c. kinetic into potential
d. potential into kinetic
44. A car goes down a slope at constant speed. Which of the following describes the energy
conversion?
a. chemical into kinetic
b. chemical into potential
c. kinetic into potential
d. potential into heat
45. What is the effect of the air resistance on a falling object?
a. the speed of the object is reduced
b. the acceleration of the object is reduced
c. the distance travelled by the object is reduced
d. the direction of motion of the object is changed
46. An object is moving due east at a constant speed of 5m/s before two equal and opposite forces of
10N each act on the object at the same time. The object will
a. move with higher speed in the same direction

K. Suresh Senanayake 12
B.Sc. (Hon’s) Physics (Sp), MIP (SL)
Cambridge Ordinary Level - Physics

b. move with lower speed in the same direction


c. continue to travel at the same speed in the same direction
d. change the direction of motion and travel in the opposite direction
47. A uniform rectangular board 8m x 2m is acted on by three forces on the edges. X is a pivot at the
centre of the board.

What should be the value of F such that the board remains in equilibrium?
a. 35N
b. 40N
c. 45N
d. 50N
48. A man exerts a horizontal force of 500N on a box, which also experiences a frictional force of
100N. How much work is done against friction when the box moves a horizontal distance of 3m?
a. 300J
b. 1200J
c. 1500J
d. 1800J
49. A mass of 30kg is being pulled up a slope as shown.

What is the total work done in moving the box up the slope?
a. 500J
b. 600J
c. 800J
d. 1400J
50. A force is applied to an object on a surface with a frictional force of 2.0N. It produces an
acceleration of 3ms-2. Which are the possible values of the applied force and the mass of the
object?
Force/N Mass/kg
a. 15 5
b. 6 2
c. 2 2
d. 17 5
51. A trolley weighing 5.0N is pulled along a level bench by a horizontal force of 10N. The force of
friction acting on the wheels of the trolley is 2.0N. What is the size of the resultant force causing
the trolley to accelerate?
a. 3.0N
b. 8.0N
c. 10N

K. Suresh Senanayake 13
B.Sc. (Hon’s) Physics (Sp), MIP (SL)
Cambridge Ordinary Level - Physics

d. 13N
52. A bus has a total mass of 12 000kg. It moves along a horizontal stretch of road at a speed of 10m/s.
It then accelerates, reaching a final speed of 30m/s after 16s. What is the size of the average
resultant force acting on the bus when it is accelerating?
a. 7500N
b. 9600N
c. 15000N
d. 22500N
53. A boy pushes a toy cart along a road and then lets it go. As the cart is slowing down, the biggest
energy change is from
a. heat to kinetic
b. kinetic to heat
c. kinetic to potential
d. potential to heat
54. At a height of 20m above the ground, an object of mass 4.0kg is released from rest. It is travelling
at a speed of 20m/s when it hits the ground. The object does not rebound and the gravitational
field strength is 10N/kg. How much energy is converted into heat and sound on impact?
a. 40J
b. 80J
c. 800J
d. 1600J
55. A car moves from rest with uniform acceleration along a horizontal road. After travelling a
distance of 100m, it has kinetic energy equal to 200 000J. What resultant force is acting on the
car?
a. 100N
b. 1000N
c. 2000N
d. 20 000N

K. Suresh Senanayake 14
B.Sc. (Hon’s) Physics (Sp), MIP (SL)