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Jordan Climate dataset

Mohammad Samawi
Deputy Director General

Mohammad Samawi
Deputy Director General

Jordan Meteorological Department (JMD)


Brief Outline JMD
Climate Feature in Jordan
Climate Data at JMD

Jordan Meteorological Department (JMD)


Brief Outline JMD
 Established in1951 as part of the Civil Aviation Authority
 Set up on 1967 as independent entity/MOT
 World Meteorological Organization member since 1955.
 Arab league member since 1955

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Jordan Meteorological Department (JMD)


Functions and Responsibilities

 Observe and record weather and climate


 Prepare and issue weather forecasts including warning
of severe weather conditions
 carry out studies for the progress of
meteorological activities
 provide meteorological services for the
development of national economic and social
activities
 cooperate and coordinate
Jordan Meteorological with other
Department (JMD)Met
Climate Feature in Jordan
Seasons
―winter season (22nd Dec to 21st March)
― Summer Season (21st Jun to 23th September)
― Autumn Season (23th September to 22nd Dec )
― Spring Season (21st March to 21st Jun)

Equinox

March 21 ‫الأعتدال‬
Sun ‫الربيعي‬
Solstice

21 Jun

Summer Solstice

22 Dec

Equinox Winter

23 Sep
Climate Feature in Jordan
 Jordan's topographic features
are variable:
h • A mountainous range from the
w Hig north to the south of the
Lo d
lan land country.
• To the east ,ground slopes
gently to form the eastern
deserts.
• To the west , ground slopes
steeply towards the Jordan Rift
m
valley.
50
13

-400m

500-900m
Ba
an di
de d a
se
rt
482
m
50

km2
17
Rainfall in Jordan
Rainey seasonClick to edit Master text styles
(mid-Oct to mid-April)
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level

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PRECIPITATION CHARACTERISTICS
Spatial Distribution of Rain Over Jordan

E W---
Annual total precipitation (mm)

600
500
400
300 S N---
200
100
0
R

A
A

T
a
l-

l-
l-
a

fi
s

S
S

'd
s

le
h
a

a
a

o
lt

h
b
m

u
b

Location
a
u

b
a
n

a
h
Annual total pre
500 S N---
400

300

200

100

0
Baqura Wadi Al- Dier Alla Ghour safi Aqaba
Rayyan A/P
Locations
120 N-S RainFall Dis tribution in the Valle y

N---
100

80

60
Rainfall mm

40
S
20

0
Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun
Baqura Deir Alla Saf i
Rainfall ( % )of
“mm” total
area

600-700 .15

500-600 .5

400-500 1.3

300-400 2.0

200-300 2.0

100-200 22.0

20-100 30.5

20--50 41.0
Interanual Variability of Rainfall
Amman
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
-20%
-40%
-60%
-80%
1923 1927 1931 1935 1939 1943 1947 1951 1955 1959 1963 1967 1971 1975 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007

Shoubak1938-2007 Rainfall Anomalies

500
400
"mm"

300
200
100
0
-100
-200
-300
3

3
8

8
3

0
9

0
1

2
Se ason
Below normal 42%
Round normal 24%
Above normal 34%
Water Balance - Jordan
Click to edit Master text styles
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level

 92% Evaporates

 Only 8% is available in
the form of flood flow
& groundwater
Water Balance
Baqura - North Valley
mm 10 day

80 Pr eci p i tati o n

Evap o tr an sp i r ati o n
70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul.

De ir Alla - Ce ntral V alle y


mm 10 day

80 Pr e cipitation
Evapotr ans pir ation
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Aug. Se pt Oct. Nov. De c. Ja n. Fe b. Ma r. Apr. Ma y Jun. Jul.
10 day

Ghor Safi - Southe rn V alle y

90 Pr e cipit ation
80 Evapo tr ans pir at ion

70
60
mm

50
40
30
20
10
0
Aug. Se p Oc t. Nov. De c. Ja n. Fe b. Ma r . Apr. Ma y Jun. J ul.
Data Received From Many Sources

Synoptic Reports
Monthly return reports
NWP Charts
Radiosonde
Doppler Radar

Satellites( MeteoSAT & other)

Jordan Meteorological Department (JMD)


Climate Data at JMD
 Station meteorological
data
 Interpolated station data
 reanalysis information

Jordan Meteorological Department (JMD)


Meteorological Station JMD
Surface data are meteorological data that are measured at the earth’s surface
(technically, somewhere between the ground level and 10m).
This data contains physical parameters that are measured directly by instrumentation,
such as temperature, dew point, wind direction, wind speed, cloud cover, cloud
layer(s), ceiling height, visibility, current weather, and precipitation amount. Surface
data are reported by the National Weather Service for each hour

 Synoptic Station - A station at which meteorological observation are made for


the purposes of synoptic analysis
 Agricultural Meteorological Station (Agro-Met Station)-A station designed to
accumulate several types of soil and atmosphere
observations, and report weather variables related to agriculture,
representing conditions for a designated area
 Climatological Station:-A station at which meteorological observation are
made for the purposes of climate and weather analysis
 Upper Air Station:- A station at which meteorological Upper air data are
measured in the vertical layers of the atmosphere.
Upper air data are usually measured by twice daily radionsonde
soundings, taken at 00 and 12Z (Greenwich time).

Jordan Meteorological Department (JMD)


Climate Data at JMD

Meteorological Stations Period


type

Synoptic Station s 1922 – present

Agricultural Meteorological 1970 – present


stations

Climatological Stations 1970– present

AWS – present 2005

Upper Air 1964

Jordan Meteorological Department (JMD)


20

15
18
10
10
5 4 Stations
5 #
1
0
AWS Upper Air Climate Agromet Synoptic
Station Type

The JMD network is comprised of 32 surface weather


stations and one upper air station; the period of record
varies for each station but generally includes the period
1970-2011.

10
10
6 6 8
5 5
6
Stations #
4
2
0
South Valley Central Eastern Northern
Region

Jordan Meteorological Department (JMD)


‫•‬ ‫الصفاوي‬
‫•‬ ‫الروسشد‬
‫‪o‬‬ ‫الأزرق‬
‫•‬ ‫المفرق‬
‫•‬ ‫الضليل‬
‫•‬ ‫الزرقاء‬
‫•‬ ‫وادي‬
‫•‬ ‫الجغر‬ ‫الضليل‬
‫•‬ ‫الشوبك‬ ‫•‬ ‫اربد‬
‫•‬ ‫معان‬ ‫للل‬ ‫•‬ ‫راس‬
‫•‬ ‫الربة‬ ‫لل‬ ‫منبف‬

‫•‬ ‫القطرانة‬ ‫لللللل‬ ‫•‬ ‫صما‬


‫‪valley‬‬
‫‪North-East‬لللللل‬ ‫•‬ ‫الرمثا‬
‫•‬ ‫الباقورة‬
‫وادي‬ ‫•‬
‫الريان‬
‫•‬ ‫مطار عمان‬
‫•‬ ‫مطار الملكة‬
‫للل‬ ‫علياء‬

‫•‬ ‫الجغر‬
‫لل‬ ‫•‬ ‫وادي القطان‬

‫•‬ ‫الشوبك‬
‫‪Center‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫السلط‬
‫•‬ ‫صويلح‬
‫•‬ ‫معان‬
‫•‬ ‫الجامعة‬
‫•‬ ‫الربة‬ ‫الأردنية‬
‫•‬ ‫القطرانة‬ ‫لللللل‬ ‫•‬ ‫مزرعة‬
‫للللللل‬ ‫الجامعة‬
‫لللللل‬ ‫•‬ ‫دير عل‬
‫•‬ ‫البحر الميت‬
‫‪South-South East‬‬
Measured Data
Forecasting Center
Climate
Division
history
 Earliest Data Record:
• Data archiving
1923 and retrieval
Climatological Data:
•actual data
• Data processing
• Daily (statistics,
• Synoptic
• Upper air data display,..)
•Derived data
• Quality control
• Monthly
• Normals – JCDMS
• Extremes Oracle 2000
Categories Of Climate Data at JMD
 moderate-quality sized data set of
daily, hourly (every 3 or 6 hours) and
monthly averaged for
 The JMD starts to implement new
project for automatic weather stations,
two stations installed in Baqura and
Amman airport, recently two new
stations with temperature, wind and
rainfall sensors are installed in Deir ala
and Wadi Dhulall.
 Unfortunately, the automatic stations
are not networked and data is not
available in any format.

Jordan Meteorological Department (JMD)


Categories Of Climate Data at JMD

 The JMD starts to implement new project for automatic


weather stations, two stations installed in Baqura and
Amman airport, recently two new stations with
temperature, wind and rainfall sensors are installed in
Deir ala and Wadi Dhulall.
 Unfortunately, the automatic stations are not networked
and data is not available in any format.

Jordan Meteorological Department (JMD)


Table 6 Jordan Meteorological Department Weather Stations
Methods of Data Collection and Instrumentation
* Observations are taken hourly and the standard G.M.T (00, 03, 06, 09, 12, 15, 18, 21)
Observations

Station Name District Name Station Type Time of measurements WMO # Longitude Longitude Elevation
Repetition
G.M.T

AMMAN SYNOP 8* 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40270 31 59 N 35 59 E


781

NORMAL CLIMATE 32 1 N 035 53 E


2 06,12 980

Roman Ampt.Amman AMMAN NORMAL CLIMATE 31 57 N 035 57 E


3 06,09,12 750
Swaileh AMMAN SYNOP 3 06,09,12 40269 32 0 N 035 54 E 1050
Q.A.I.Airport AMMAN SYNOP 8* 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40272 31 43 N 035 59 E 722

Wadi Al-Qattar MAIN CLIMATE N E


2 06,12 863
Baqura IRBID AGRICULTURE 8 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40253 32 40 N 035 37 E -170
Irbed IRBID AGRICULTURE 8 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40255 32 33 N 035 51 E 616
Ramtha IRBID AGRICULTURE 8 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40252 32 30 N 035 59 E 590
Wadi El-rayyan IRBID AGRICULTURE 8 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40256 32 24 N 035 35 E -200

Sama IRBID AGRICULTURE 032 35 N 035 42 E


8 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 332
Deir Alla BALQA AGRICULTURE 8 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40285 32 13 N 035 37 E -224
Salt BALQA SYNOP 8 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40268 32 2 N 035 44 E 796

University Farm BALQA CLIMATE 32 10 N 035 37 E


2 06,12 -230
Mafraq MAFRAQ SYNOP 8* 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40265 32 22 N 036 15 E 686

AL-MEDWAR MAFRAQ NORMAL CLIMATE 032 17 N 036 0 E


2 06,12 840
Rwaished (H4) MAFRAQ SYNOP 8* 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40250 32 30 N 038 12 E 683
Safawi (H5) MAFRAQ SYNOP 8* 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40260 32 12 N 038 08 E 674
Shoubak MA'AN AGRICULTURE 8 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40300 30 31 N 035 32 E 1365
Ma'an MA'AN SYNOP 8 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40310 30 10 N 035 47 E 1069
Wadi Mousa MA'AN NORMAL CLIMATE 3 06,09,12 40313 30 19 N 035 28 E 1115

Al Fjaij MA'AN MAIN CLIMATE 30 33 N 035 38 E


2 06,12 1263

Ouhadeh MA'AN MAIN CLIMATE 30 10 N 035 36 E


2 06,12 1293
Al Jafer MA'AN SYNOP 8* 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40305 30 17 N 036 09 E 865
Wadi Dhulall ZARQA AGRICULTURE 8 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40267 32 09 N 036 17 E 580

Azraq North ZARQA MAIN CLIMATE 31 51 N 036 49 E


2 06,12 533

Zarqa Refinery ZARQA NORMAL CLIMATE 32 05 N 036 07 E


2 555
Ghabawi ZARQA SYNOP 8* 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40244 31 59 N 036 13 E 725
ZARQA ZARQA NORMAL CLIMATE 4 06,12 40273 032 08 N 036 07 E 644

Al-Hashimiah ZARQA MAIN CLIMATE 32 06 N 036 11 E


2 06,12 575
Azraq South ZARQA SYNOP 8* 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 40288 31 50 N 036 49 E 521
Alhasan/Tafileh TAFILEH NORMAL CLIMATE 2 06,12 40298 30 47 N 035 43 E 1200
Methods for Quality Assurance

Historically, the climate section manager would receive reports from field stations once per month in
a hand-written format (no real time data).
Most climate and agro-climate data in JMD have been recorded on charts; most of the emphasis on
quality assurance is on chart data and the comparison with the recorded values on the logbooks.
 The general procedure used is to first inspect the charts for problems such as stuck pens or missing
ink lines and to read observer notes before fixing any numbers.
The staff would quality control these data and pass them along to data-entry staff to input the
values to the JMD database (Oracle 9i).
These values would then be printed and reviewed again for data-entry accuracy.

 Another step for quality control take place while computerized the data using the entry
forms of the JCDMS “Jordan Climate Data Management” software, an Oracle-based system built by
the JMD also used for data processing and retrieval.
Climate and Agro-climate databases at JMD
The JMD Database Contains data tables needed for:


Information system (Site, Definition, Instrument, User Privilege).

Metadata (Station info., Station Instrument, Elements, Station Elements, Station location Update).

Data Entry (Upper Air, Daily, Synoptic).

View Climate Data (Daily element extreme, Synoptic element extreme, Monthly Data, Daily Data,
Synoptic data)

Details Information in what those tables contain

 Reporting or output (Climate data, Metadata, Normals )

Rainfall intensity Data for selected stations through open date has been

digitized and exists in digital format from Access and Oracle databases

JCDMS application “ Jordan Climate Data Management System “based on Oracle developed by

Jordan Meteorological Service-Climate Division, has the capability to import and export climate data
in digital format and also has the capability to generate other climate and agro -climate
information.
“JCDMS Data Management System Reference Manual”, gives full details on how to use the JCDMS

application for data entry, data retrieve and generated reports.
Modification can easily be done for any request of climate data through new SQL statements.

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nov le vels time v00
dec time day v03
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win d_d ir v18
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Source Jordan Meteorological department


Water Information System at MWI
 The water information system database at the ministry of water and irrigation (MWI)
is the largest database for water in Jordan.
It is comprehensive and contains data on all water resources found and monitored in
Jordan that spans from for some data from the 1950’s to our current day.
This database is used to store the collected monitoring data for all ground and surface
water resources and is available upon official request from the MWI.
 Here are a few points on the principles of the WIS database structure:
 ORACLE 9i bases database.
 Related data grouped in tables based on station types – Primary Tables.
 All stations uniquely defined by station ID, agency code.
 Data are uniquely defined in the data tables using Primary Keys (e.g. Station ID, Agency, Date).
 Consistency in the database supported by the use of Look-up Tables (LUTs) – tables containing standard
codes required to qualify data stored in the Primary Table (e.g. aquifer, village, etc..)
 LUT data are linked to Primary Tables in the database using Foreign Keys.
 General data relationships based on Agency Code, Station ID and station type.
 Time series data related to station type based on Station ID, date and time.
 Production data related to station type.
 Facility data treated as independent data type.
 Water use data related to administrative unit.
MOA (Agricultural Statistics) database structure

USFEL READING

• Drought early Warning System in Jordan REPORT


• 1st & 2nd Jordan National Communication report
The main operating entities in the energy sector are
Natural Resources Authority (NRA), a governmental agency, responsible for the exploration of minerals and
hydrocarbon
 energy resources.
- National Electric Power Company. (NEPCO), a state-owned company responsible for the planning, development,
control,
 and system management of the national electricity transmission network, and electricity dispatch center.
- Central Electricity Generating Company (CEGCO), a state-owned company responsible for the management and
operation
 of the existing power generation facilities that have been transferred to it after restructuring of NEPCO.
This company is subject to privatization.
- Three Electricity distribution companies:-
 - Jordan Electric Power Company (JEPCO), a private – owned
 company responsible for distribution of electricity in the middle areas of Jordan.
- Irbid District Electricity Company (IDECO), a partially state owned company (55.4%) responsible for distribution of electricity
in the north district of the country. This company is subject to privatization.

- Electricity Distribution Company (EDCO), a state owned company responsible for distribution of electricity outside the
concession areas of the other two aforementioned distribution companies. This company is subject to privatization.

- National Petroleum Company (NPC), a state-owned company responsible for production of gas and for
development of the Risha gas field resources.

- Jordan Petroleum Refinery Company (JPRCO), a private sector company operating
 JordanAtomic Energy Commission (JAEC), an independent regulatory body responsible for peaceful uses of
nuclear
 energy, in the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine, water and mineral exploration.
- National Center for Energy Research ( NCER) , a scientific center which was established in 1998 to be responsible
for
 scientific research and development, transfer of technology of new and renewable energy, energy conservation
and oil shale.
- Jordan Biogas Company (JBCO), a private shareholding company equally owned by the Central Electricity
Generating Company and Greater Amman Municipality . It was established in 1997 to follow up and implement a

pilot project ( round 1MW) to generate electricity by burning the methane gas produced from the Municipal Wastes,
and
- Rural Electrification Project (REP), a separate department under full management and control of MEMR,
established
 in 1992
USFEL READING

• Drought early Warning System in Jordan REPORT


• 1st & 2nd Jordan National Communication report
Thank you