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SN043a-EN-EU

This NCCI provides the rules for the design of fixed column base joints. The rules are

17

limited to covering the design of symmetric un-stiffened base plate joints of I section

/2 0

columns subjected to normal force, shear force and moment about the column major axis.

The design of a shear nib, if required, is covered by NCCI SN021. The rules given can be

/0 5

easily extended to bases of other types of column sections.

19

on

Contents

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1. Introduction 2

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2. Parameters 4

gm

3. Design model and limitations 5

4. n@

Design situation 1: Dimension a base plate for the loading at the base of a given

da

column section 8

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an

gd

bo

to

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ns

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m

ed

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Page 1

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

1. Introduction

17

This NCCI covers the design of fixed bases of I section columns transmitting a normal force,

/2 0

a shear force and a moment. The rectangular base plate is welded to the column section in a

symmetrical position so that it has projections beyond the column flange outer edges on all

/0 5

sides (see Figure 1.1). Anchor bolts rows, normal to the column major axis, are symmetrically

placed about the column minor axis. The base plate may be located eccentrically on the

19

concrete foundation.

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In practice, the following two design situations are encountered:

m

.co

1. The column section and the concomitant design normal force, shear force and moment

are known. The dimensions of the required base plate and anchor bolts are to be

ail

determined.

gm

2. The column section, base plate and foundation dimensions in a particular structure are

known. It is required to check that the different combinations of axial force, shear force

and moment that arise can be safely resisted.

n@

da

The design procedures for these two situations are given in Sections 4 and 5 respectively.

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Noting, in particular, the importance of the intrinsic relationship between the values of the

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design moment and the concomitant normal force, the satisfactory determination of the

fundamental characteristics of the joint components (i.e. grout/foundation bearing resistance,

gd

base plate area, base plat thickness, anchor bolt dimensions and anchor bolt positions) usually

bo

requires separate checking of all joint components for the concomitant forces and moments

resulting from a number of different load combination cases acting on the structure.

to

ed

The shear force resistance of the base plate joint is either covered by SN037 and, if the

friction resistance is insufficient, by SN043. The shear force is not considered to have any

ns

ice

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er

at

m

ed

ht

rig

py

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Page 2

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

1

5 2

3

4

17

/2 0

/0 5

df

19

on

m

.co

ail

bp bf

gm

n@

da

hp

hf

.va

Key :

an

1. I section column

gd

2. Base plate

3. Grout

bo

4. Concrete foundation

5. Anchor bolt

to

ed

ns

ice

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ial

er

at

m

ed

ht

rig

py

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Page 3

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

2. Parameters

17

/2 0

Table 2.1 Parameters

/0 5

Definition Definition

19

beff Effective width of a base plate T-stub in As Sectional area of an anchor bolt

compression.

on

c Additional bearing width (measured from the Ft,Rd Design resistance in tension of an anchor bolt

column section perimeter) for a compression section

T-stub.

m

eN Effective normal load eccentricity expressed Ft,bond,Rd Anchorage bond design resistance of an anchor

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by the ratio, MEd/NEd , of the applied bolt

concomitant moment MEd and axial load NEd

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bf, hf, df Width, length and depth of the foundation. Ft,anchor,Rd Design resistance of an anchor bolt in tension

gm

= min(Ft,Rd: Ft,bond,Rd)

fyb Yield strength of the anchor bolt. FT,l,Rd Design resistance in tension of the left-side anchor

n@

bolt row T-stub.

fyp Yield strength of the base plate. FT,r,Rd Design resistance in tension of the right-side

da

anchor bolt row T-stub.

fjd Design bearing strength of the foundation FC,l,Rd Design resistance in compression of the left-side

.va

an

fcd Design compressive strength of the concrete FC,r,Rd Design resistance in tension of the right-side

according to EN 1992-1-1. compression flange T-stub.

gd

bfc, tfc, twc, Flange width, flange thickness web thickness LB Length of anchor bolt submitted to tensile

hc and depth (height) of an I section column elongation.

bo

bp, hp, tp Width, length and thickness of the base plate. MEd Design moment applied by the column (positive if

Mj,Ed clockwise) to the base joint, in conjunction with

to

NEd.

ed

beff, leff Effective length of a T-stub in tension. Mj,Rd Design resistance moment of the column base

joint for a given effective eccentricity, eN = MEd/NEd

ns

m, n, e Tension T-stub geometric parameters NEd Design normal force (positive if in tension) applied

ice

the moment MEd.

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γM0 Partial factor on the base plate bending Nj,Rd Design normal force resistance of the column base

ial

Mj,Rd/Nj,Rd

er

at

m

to foundation joint.

zT,r Distance of a right-side anchor bolt row from

ed

ht

the column major axis.

rig

py

zC,r Distance of a right-side T stub centre of

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Page 4

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

3.1 Design model

17

/2 0

The design model for a fixed column base plate joint for a combined normal force plus a

moment about the major column axis is given in §6.2.8 of EN 1993-1-8.

/0 5

The most common load distributions in a fixed column base joint, shown in Figure 3.1 a), b)

19

and c) respectively, are as follows:

on

Compression on both sides of the joint due to a dominant axial compression load

m

combined with

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- either a clockwise moment

ail

- or an anticlockwise moment.

gm

Tension on the left hand side and compression on the right hand side due to a dominant

clockwise moment combined with

- either a compressive axial load

n@

da

- or a tensile axial load (uplift) .

.va

Compression on the left hand side and tension on the right hand side due to a dominant

an

gd

bo

In the design formulae given Table 6.7 of EN 1993-1-8 a distinction made between the latter

to

two cases which permits the use of parameters, symbols and a sign convention which

ed

facilitate treating non symmetric joints subjected to multiple load cases. An additional load

distribution case with tension on both sides of the joint (Figure 3.1d)), for which an axial

ns

tensile load is dominant, completes the theoretical possibilities for the load distributions.

ice

While having tension throughout a fixed column base is uncommon in typical buildings, it

could arise in vertical members of bracing sub-structures required to transmit high lateral

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loads, for instance in industrial buildings in which cranes operate or in buildings under

ial

er

A simplified mechanical model is adopted which considers that the possible reaction force on

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any one side of the joint can be either tension in a single anchor bolt row or compression on

m

the foundation joint over a bearing area centred under the column flange. The design

ed

resistance of the critical joint component (T stub in compression or in tension) determines the

design resistance moment acting in concomitance with the given normal force.

ht

rig

The formulae given in Table 6.7 of EN 1993-1-8 are derived from the equilibrium between

the applied moment - normal force combination and the reaction forces induced on the base

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plate. They cover each of the four possible and distinct load distribution scenarios for the

Co

Page 5

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

M M

N N

17

/2 0

/0 5

19

on

a) b)

m

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M M

N N

ail

gm

n@

da

.va

c) d)

an

Key :

gd

bo

b) Compression on the right hand side and tension on the left hand side

c) Compression on the left hand side and tension on the right hand side

to

ed

ns

ice

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For the compression side of a joint the design approach is to ensure that the bearing stresses

ial

under the base plate neither exceed the design bearing strength of the foundation joint

material nor lead to excessive bending of the base plate.

er

at

The design model assumes that the bearing resistance is provided by one or both of the

m

column flange T-stubs in compression, depending on whether compression reigns over part or

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all of the column base plate respectively as shown in Figure 3.1. For a flange T-stub in

compression the bearing stresses are assumed to be uniformly distributed over the T-stub area

ht

centred beneath the flange as shown in Figure 3.2. In the simplified approach given in

rig

EN 1993-1-8 for the design of column base joints transferring moment, no direct account is

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taken for any compression force that may be transferred through a column web T-stub in

compression.

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In this NCCI, reference is made to SN037 for the design resistance of T-stubs in compression.

Page 6

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

The design model for an anchor bolt row in tension is similar to that for a bolt row of an end

17

plate connection transmitting moment. Therefore, the design approach is to ensure that the

tensile force in the anchor bolt row does not exceed either of the following;

/2 0

The design tensile resistance of the base plate tension T stub. This involves the

/0 5

consideration of the three basic tension T stub failure modes as identified in

19

Table 6.2 of EN 1993-1-8. If relevant, the single mode replacing modes 1 and 2 shall be

considered (see Table 6.2 EN 1993-1-8). The latter mode is possible if the prying effect

on

disappears with the loss of contact between the base plate edge and the foundation

because of anchor bolt elongation.

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.co

If necessary, i.e. for anchor bolt rows between the column flanges, the design resistance

in tension of the column web component of the T stub.

ail

The design approach is identical to that for a bolt row of an end plate except that when

gm

determining the resistance of the anchor bolt in tension one must also consider that the

anchorage bond resistance may be more critical.

n@

In the simplified mechanical model the resistance in tension is presented for the case of there

da

being one anchor bolt row only. To permit the direct application of the design rules given for

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the case of anchor bolt rows on both sides of the column flange, it is recommended to use an

equivalent single row having a total tensile resistance of the two rows acting together at the

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centroid. It is not recommended to consider that other rows than those about the column

gd

flanges contribute to the resistance of a fixed column base subjected to a moment combined

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to

3.4 Limitations

ed

The design rules provided are limited to applications for the types of un-stiffened column base

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plates shown in Figure 1.1 subjected to axial load in combination with moment acting about

the column major axis only. The rules cover the case of two anchor bolts in a row.

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EN 1992-1-1 does not provide design rules for the bond anchorage resistance of plain bars. It

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is also believed also that the rules provided for the bends and hooks of the ribbed bars should

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not be applied to plain bars. No rules are given for the design of anchored bolts, such as with

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anchor plates or special heads. These issues may the subject of provisions in the National

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Annexes.

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In the present NCCI the design basic anchorage length of plain anchor bolts is taken as that

ed

for a ribbed bar divided by a factor of 2,25. This is in accordance with some existing national

ht

rules for reinforced concrete and with initial drafts for Eurocode 2. It is to be noted that,

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according to EN 1993-1-8 §6.2.6.12(5) that the yield strength of the steel for bent or hooked

anchor bars should not exceed 300 N/mm².

py

Co

Page 7

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

1

NEd

17

3

2 MEd

/2 0

/0 5

la

19

on

FT,l FC,r

m

zT,l zC,r

.co

z

4

ail

c tfc c

c tfc c

gm

c

n@

c

6

5 beff,c beff,c

da

5

.va

6

c

an

2 3 2 zT,l zC,r 3

zT,l zC,r

gd

z

z

bo

to

Key:

1 Both the normal force and the moment applied by the column to the column base plate joint are shown acting in the

ed

positive sense as defined by EN 1993-1-8, i.e. tensile axial forces are positive and positive moments act clockwise.

2 Left-side of the base plate joint when the anchor bolts are in tension: the tensile force is resisted by the T stub formed by

ns

3 Right side of the base plate joint when in compression: foundation joint offers bearing resistance on the underside of the

ice

base plate T stub which is acting in bending off the column flange.

4 Lever arm between the tension force in the anchor bolts and the compression force under the base plate.

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5 Anchor bolts.

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Figure 3.2 Compression and anchor bolt tension induced by the normal force and moment

at

m

ed

ht

rig

py

Co

It is recommended that the base plates be of the “long projection” type of sufficient width so

as to allow having an anchor bolt row situated on the projection on each side of the column.

This facilitates providing adequate compression resistance and, by increasing the lever arm

between the compression and the tensile zones, reduces the mechanical resistance

requirements on the anchor bolts in tension.

Page 8

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

In the following the dimensioning of a symmetric base plate joint is presented. A “long

projection type of base is used, as shown in Figure 4.1, with anchor bolts

with a single row on the extended part of the base plate

17

or in two rows, one each side of the flange.

/2 0

/0 5

Each row has two anchor bolts symmetrically placed about the column minor axis.

19

hc

on

1

m

mx e x

w bp 3

.co

ail

tfc

gm

1

n@

e m2

m 3

da

bp

m

2

.va

e m m e

an

m2 mx ex 3

gd

Key:

bo

1. Column flange

2. Column web

to

ed

ns

ice

.L

It is necessary to choose the concrete class, the base plate steel and the anchor bolt class. For

ial

typical buildings, in some countries it has been usual practice to recommend class 4.6 anchor

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bolts while elsewhere class 8.8 plate ended anchors have become common. The base plate is

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not necessarily of the same steel grade as that of the column section.

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ed

ht

rig

Considering all the various combinations of axial load and moment (NEd, MEd) at the column

base, the following expressions provide estimates of the maximum compressive force and

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M Ed N

- max(FC,Ed ) compression: maximum value for FC,Ed = − Ed

hc − tfc 2

M Ed N

- max(FT,Ed ) tension: maximum value FT,Ed = + Ed

hc − tfc 2

Page 9

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

Note: while the expressions above give the absolute values for the two forces, the sign of the

axial load NEd (positive if tensile, negative if compressive) is to be used in them. In order to

simplify the notation NEd , MEd , NRd , and MRd are written for N j,Ed , Mj,Ed , Nj,Rd and Mj,Rd

17

respectively.

/2 0

4.4 Dimension the base plate for the estimated maximum

/0 5

joint compression force

19

To dimension the base plate, apply the procedure in Section 4 of SN037, assuming that the

on

axial compressive load is.

m

Nj,Ed = 2 max(FC, Ed.)

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A “long” projection base plate is chosen from the outset of the procedure. The values for the

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plate base plan dimensions (bp, hp) and plate thickness (tp) are obtained.

gm

4.5 Dimension the base plate thickness and the anchor

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bolts for the estimated maximum joint tensile force da

4.5.1 Axial tensile resistance of an anchor bolt

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an

When considering the failure modes of a T stub in tension the design tensile resistance of an

gd

anchor bolt in tension is to be taken as the least of the following two values:

bo

Design bond anchorage resistance (assuming that good bond conditions pertain):

to

1

o Bolt diameter φ ≤ 32 mm: Ft,bond,Rd = (πφlb f bd ) ,

ed

2,25

ns

(132 − φ ) / 100

o Bolt diameter φ > 32 mm: Ft,bond,Rd = (πφ lb f bd ) .

ice

2,25

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Where lb is the basic anchorage length of the anchor bolt (starting from the bottom

surface of the grout down into the foundation) and fbd is the design bond strength of the

ial

er

- Note: EN 1992-1-1 provides design bond strengths for “ribbed” bars only. It is

at

assumed in the present NCCI that the design value for a plain bar is the value given

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in §8.4 of EN 1992-1-1 (i.e. the design value for a ribbed bar of the same diameter in

ed

similar concrete and conditions) divided by 2,25. The relevant National Annex may

ht

provide guidance.

rig

0,9 f ub As

- design tensile resistance of the anchor bolt section, Ft,Rd =

γ Mb,traction

py

Co

Annex A of this NCCI gives the design bond anchorage resistance of often used diameters of

class 4.6 anchor bolts as a function of the basic anchorage length for typical foundation

concrete.

A reduced anchorage depth into the foundation is required if bent or hooked anchor bolts are

used. However the equivalent bond anchorage length for bends and hooks of plain bars is not

Page 10

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

provided by EN 1993-1-1 so that it is necessary to adopt other rules such as those in existing

national standards or international recognised recommendations to provide them.

17

The final choice of the anchor bolt details, in particular those concerning anchoring, usually

requires knowledge of the foundation depth.

/2 0

/0 5

The design resistance of a single anchor bolt Ft, anchor, Rd is taken as:

19

on

Anchor bolt size

m

.co

Assume that one anchor bolt row on the base plate projection will be adequate. To avoid

anchor bolt failure (mode 3) the resistance of the anchor bolts of the chosen class must satisfy

ail

the following condition:

gm

2Ft,anchor,Rd ≥ max(FT,Ed)

n@

As a first estimate, it is assumed that the full tensile resistance of the anchor bolt section can

da

0,9 f ub As

be attained: Ft,anchor,Rd = . The required bolt section is given as follows:

.va

γ M2

an

γ

As ≥ FT,Ed ( M2 ) from which the bolt diameter can be obtained.

gd

1,8 f ub

bo

to

If one row of the anchor bolt size available is not adequate, decide to use two rows of anchor

ed

bolts (i.e. four anchor bolts of section As). The dimensioning of the bolt size becomes:

ns

γ M2

ice

As ≥ FT,Ed ( )

3,6 f ub

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The latter assumption about the anchor bolt tensile resistance needs to be checked when the

final details of the bond anchorage lengths are established. Experience with standard

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foundation design and construction practice in a particular region will guide the designer in

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the choice of a suitable anchor bolt. If full anchorage for any given diameter and class of

m

anchor bolt cannot be assured, it is necessary to adopt a lower resistance than the design

ed

ht

rig

row

py

Co

The base plate thickness tp obtained for the compression design of the base plate may not be

adequate.

Based on the mode 1 resistance (full plastic mechanism) the following estimate of the plate

thickness is obtained (see Figure 4.1 for the parameters):

Page 11

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

FT, Edγ M0

One anchor bolt row: tp ≥

f yp 2π

17

FT, Edγ M0

/2 0

Two anchor bolt rows: tp ≥

f yp 4π

/0 5

19

4.6 Check of the fixed base plate joint

on

Design resistance checks given in Section 5 below should be carried out, modifications being

made if necessary to the base plate and/or anchor bolt dimensions.

m

.co

5. Design situation 2: Determine the design

ail

gm

resistances of a given base plate

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5.1 Joint type da

It is assumed below that the joint is symmetric with one row or two rows of anchor bolts (two

per row) on each side of the joint (see Figure 5.1).

.va

an

Note: For a symmetric joint the distances z T,l = z T,r = z T and z C,l = z C,r = zC.

gd

c tfc c

c tfc c

bo

to

c c

ed

beff,c beff,c

ns

ice

zT,l

.L

zC,r

zT,l zC,r

ial

z

z

er

at

Figure 5.1 Compression and anchor bolt tension induced by the applied normal force and

m

moment

ed

ht

rig

The design tensile resistance of an anchor bolt, Ft,anchor,Rd, is obtained from 4.5.1 above:

py

Co

Refer to Section 5 of SN037 to provide the axial compressive resistance of the joint. This

value is valid when the concomitant applied moment is zero.

Page 12

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

It provides a first indication of the possible (NEd, MEd) combinations that can be applied to the

joint.

17

It should be noted that if a part of the axial compression is transferred through a column web

T-stub, the resistance obtained will exceed the sum of the resistances for the two column

/2 0

flange T-Stubs in compression. In the EN 1993-1-8 simplified model, the axial resistance in

/0 5

compression reduces to the latter value when the applied moment is zero.

19

The resistance of each flange T-stub in compression is written here as FC,Rd .The axial

compressive resistance is then given as:

on

NC,Rd = -(2 FC,Rd) , the negative sign indicating that the load is compressive.

m

.co

5.4 Determine the tensile axial load resistance

ail

The resistance in tension of the anchor bolt rows on both sides of the joint are obtained.

gm

T stub effective lengths

n@

The possible modes of failure of a T-stub in tension are shown schematically in Figure 5.2.

da

The effective T stub length is as follows (see Figure 4.1 for the definition of the geometric

.va

parameters):

an

gd

bo

leff,nc = min[ 0,5bp ; ( 4m + 1,25ex ); (e + 2mx + 0,625ex ); (0,5w + 2mx + 0,625ex )]

to

ed

ns

ice

.L

ial

er

at

m

ed

ht

rig

For the special mode indicated in Figure 5.2 e), the T stub length is that given above for

py

mode 1.

Co

Page 13

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

Ft

Ft

m e m e

δ

17

Ft

/2 0

δ

/0 5

n n

19

a) b)

Ft Ft

on

e)

m

.co

δ

ail

gm

c) d)

n@

Key:

a) Full plastic mechanism (failure Mode 1),

da

b) Partial plastic mechanism with anchor bolt failure (failure Mode 2),

c) Anchor bolt failure (failure Mode 3),

.va

e) Failure by flexural yielding of the flange in conjunction with separation of the base plate from the foundation due to

an

anchor bolt elongation (the prying force becomes null). It replaces failure Modes 1 and 2

gd

bo

The special failure mode replacing mode 1 and mode 2 is possible only when the following

to

ed

ns

3

8,8 As

∗

⎡m⎤

Lb > L = ⎢ ⎥

ice

b

leff,1 ⎢⎣ t p ⎥⎦

.L

Where the distance m is as shown in Figure 5.2 and the effective T stub length leff is

ial

determined above.

er

at

m

Determine the resistance of the T stub in tension for the bolt row. The design resistance of a

ed

bolt row will be the least value for the failure modes shown in Figure 5.2. When considering

ht

the failure modes of a T stub in tension the design tensile resistance of an anchor bolt in

rig

py

t p2 f y

Co

The plastic hinge flexural resistance is given by: M pl,Rd = leff mpl,Rd = leff .

4γ M0

This value may be differ between mode 1 (with leff,1 ) and mode 2 (with leff,2 ).

The value of the resistance of a T-stub in tension Ft,Rd is taken as the least of the following

resistances as relevant:

Page 14

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

4 M pl,Rd,1

- Mode 1: Plastic mechanism: Ft,1,Rd =

m

17

2 M pl,Rd,2 + 2nFt,anchor,Rd

- Mode 2 : Mixed failure mode: Ft,2,Rd = , n = min(e;1,25m)

/2 0

m+n

- Mode 1-2: If the condition requiring adopting the special mode is met, the resistances

/0 5

for modes 1 and 2 are replaced by

19

2 M pl,Rd,1

o : Ft,1/2,Rd = .

on

m

m

- Mode 3 : Anchor bolt failure Ft,3, Rd = 2Ft, anchor,Rd

.co

f y,wc

- Mode 4: Column web in tension for inner anchor bolt rows -: Ft,wc,Rd = beff,t,wct wc

ail

γ M0

gm

The resistance of all the anchor bolt rows present are calculated. The design resistance for the

n@

side in tension is taken as:

FT,Rd = ∑Ft,Rd

da

.va

The summation sign allows considering having either one bolt row on each side of the joint or

two bolt rows on each side of the joint.

an

gd

bo

to

NT,Rd = 2 FT,Rd

ed

ns

ice

If the axial load is zero the moment resistance of the symmetric joint is given as the least of

.L

ial

er

at

m

ed

When the check is limited to verifying that the joint can resist a given (MEd, NEd) combination,

the checks can be limited to the following steps:

ht

rig

a) The distribution of stresses in the column section will provide a direct indication as to

py

which load distribution reigns in the base plate joint. This information can be used to

identify the load distribution case to be examined in table 6.7 of EN 1993-1-8.

Co

M Ed

b) The effective eccentricity of the axial load is determined as eN = for the applied

N Ed

combination is (MEd, NEd). It should be noted that the eccentricity value may be

positive or negative depending on the signs of the forces and moments.

Page 15

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

c) The resistances of the bolt row T stubs in tension, FT,Rd, are obtained in 5.3 above.

Because the joint is symmetric the design resistances on both sides in tension will be

equal. (This calculation is not required if the entire section is in compression).

17

d) The resistance of the column flange T stub in compression, FC,Rd can be obtained from

/2 0

5.2 above, the value being taken as that for one column flange T-stub only. Because

the joint is symmetric the design resistances on both sides in compression will be

/0 5

equal. (This calculation is not required if the entire section is in tension).

19

e) The geometric parameters, in particular the various lever arms, are obtained as shown

in Figure 5.1. Because of the joint symmetry z T,l = z T,r = z T and z C,l = z C,r = zC.

on

f) From the distribution of stresses in the column identify the case to be examined. The

m

Mj,Rd moment resistance, applied simultaneously with the axial load, NEd , is obtained

.co

by the direct application of the relevant formulae given in Table 5.1 (see

table 6.7 of EN 1993-1-8).

ail

g) Check that the moment, MEd and MRd , are of the same sign and that M Ed ≤ M Rd . If

gm

so, the joint is adequate to resist the load combination given.

n@

The formulae given in Table 5.1 are for symmetric joints and have been adapted from those in

da

table 6.7 of EN 1993-1-8.

.va

Table 5.1 Checking the design moment resistance MRd of fixed column bases

an

gd

bo

Left side in tension z = zT,l + zC,r NEd > 0 and e > zT,l NEd ≤ 0 and e ≤ -zC,r

Right side in FT, Rd z − FC, Rd z

to

compression zC / e + 1 zT / e + 1

ed

Left side in tension z = zT,l + zT,r NEd > 0 and 0 < e < zT,l NEd > 0 and -zT,r < e ≤ 0

ns

FT, Rd z FT, Rd z

ice

zT / e + 1 zT / e − 1

.L

Left side in

z = zC,l + zT,r NEd > 0 and e ≤ -zT,r NEd ≤ 0 and e > zC,l

ial

compression

− FC, Rd z

er

F z

Right side in tension z = z C + zT The smaller of and T, Rd

at

zT / e + 1 zC / e − 1

m

Left side in

z = zC,l + zC,r NEd ≤ 0 and 0 < e < zC,l NEd ≤ 0 and -zC,r < e ≤ 0

compression

ed

ht

compression zC / e + 1 zC / e − 1

rig

M Ed

py

N Ed

Co

The formulae above are those for a symmetric joint so that: z T,l = z T,r = z T and z C,l = z C,r = zC

If it is found that M Ed ≤ M Rd the joint is adequate.

Page 16

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

When the joint design resistance is attained under a combination (MEd, NEd) the following

holds:

17

MEd = MRd

/2 0

NEd = NRd

/0 5

19

M Ed M

e= = Rd

N Ed N Rd

on

All of the latter parameters can have both positive and negative values. By varying the value

m

of the equivalent eccentricity within the range indicated for each loading situation (see

.co

Figure 3.1, Table 5.1 and Table 5.2), the limiting design condition is found to be a boundary

plotted with, for instance, axial load NRd on the vertical axis and moment MRd on the

ail

horizontal axis (see Figure 5.3).

gm

It is found that the boundary for the type of base plate joint treated here is made up of linear

n@

segments which can be plotted using the expressions between MRd and NRd given in Table 5.2.

The diagram shown in Figure 5.3 is for the particular case of a symmetric joint with two bolt

da

rows on each side for which it has been assumed that the distances from the column major

.va

axis to the centroids of the compression T stub area under a flange and of anchor bolt tension

area, zC and zT respectively, are equal. When the latter distances are not equal, the enclosed

an

gd

The following type of interaction diagram is obtained. It allows rapid checking of any load

bo

combination applied to the base plate joint. All allowable load combinations fall on or within

to

the surface defined by the boundaries corresponding to the relevant limiting design condition.

ed

NEd

(1) : +NT.Rd

ns

ice

(3) : +M0,Rd

.L

(4) : -M0,Rd

ial

MEd

er

at

m

ed

(5)

ht

rig

(2) : -NC,Rd

py

Co

2) Negative moment resistance 5) Allowable M and N combination

3) Positive moment resistance

Figure 5.3 Fixed column base plate joint: Typical M-N interaction diagram

Page 17

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

Table 5.2 Interaction of design resistances NRd and MRd for fixed column bases

Lever arm

Loading Design moment resistance MRd corresponding to NRd

17

z

/2 0

Left side in tension 0≤ NRd and e > zT NRd ≤ 0 and e ≤ -zC

/0 5

Right side in

Compression side critical : Compression side critical :

19

compression

z z

on

Dominant positive M Rd = − N C, Rd + N Rd zT M Rd = − N C, Rd + N Rd zT

z = z T + zC 2 2

moment with a

m

Tension side critical : Tension side critical :

tensile or

.co

compressive load (see M Rd = N T, Rd

z

− N Rd zC M Rd = N T, Rd

z

+ N Rd zC

ail

figure 5.1) 2 2

gm

Both sides in tension NRd > 0 and 0 < e < zT NRd > 0 and -zT < e ≤ 0

Dominant axial

tensile load with a

z = 2 zT

n@

M Rd = ( N T, Rd − N Rd )

z

M Rd = −( N T, Rd − N Rd )

z

da

2 2

positive or negative

.va

moment

an

gd

compression

bo

Right side in tension

z z

to

M Rd = N C,Rd − N Rd zT M Rd = N C, Rd − N Rd zT

Dominant negative z = z C + zT 2 2

ed

ns

compressive or

z z

tensile axial load M Rd = − N T, Rd + N Rd zC M Rd = − N T,Rd + N Rd zC

ice

2 2

.L

Both sides in NRd ≤ 0 and 0 < e < zC NRd ≤ 0 and -zC < e ≤ 0

compression.

ial

z = 2 zC z z

er

Axial compression M Rd = ( N C, Rd − N Rd ) M Rd = −( N C, Rd − N Rd )

2 2

at

(negative) dominant,

m

with a positive or

negative moment

ed

ht

M Ed

MEd > 0 is clockwise, NEd > 0 is tension, e = .

rig

N Ed

py

The values of NC,Rd and NT,Rd are obtained from 5.3 and 5.4 respectively.

Co

The formulae are for a symmetric joint so that: z T,l = z T,r = z T and z C,l = z C,r = z C

Page 18

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

17

/2 0

The reinforced concrete standard EN 1992-1-1 gives design rules for anchorage bond

resistance for ribbed reinforcement bars only. No mention is made of anchor bolts or of

/0 5

‘plain’ round bars, which is what most anchor bolts in use today are made of.

19

It is assumed in the present NCCI that the design value for a plain bar is the value given in

§8.4 of EN 1992-1-1 (i.e. the design value for a ribbed bar of the same diameter in similar

on

concrete and conditions) divided by 2,25. The relevant National Annex may provide guidance

on the design for anchorage bond of plain bars.

m

.co

The graphs below plot the basic anchorage bond length for class 4.6 and class 5.6 anchor bolts

of various diameters against the design tensile resistance for typical foundation concrete

ail

classes.

gm

Tensile resistance Ft,Anchor,Rd (kN)

n@

110,0

100,0

da

90,0

.va

80,0

M16

an

70,0 M18

M20

gd

60,0 M22

M24

bo

50,0 M27

M30

40,0 M33

to

M36

30,0

ed

20,0

ns

10,0

ice

0,0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

.L

ial

Figure A.1 Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 4.6 and

er

concrete C20/25

at

m

ed

ht

rig

py

Co

Page 19

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

150,0

140,0

17

130,0

120,0

/2 0

110,0

/0 5

100,0 M16

M18

90,0 M20

19

80,0 M22

M24

70,0

on

M27

60,0 M30

M33

50,0

m

M36

40,0

.co

30,0

ail

20,0

10,0

gm

0,0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

n@

Basic anchorage bond length (mm)

da

Figure A.2 Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 4.6 and

concrete C30/37

.va

an

gd

180,0

bo

170,0

160,0

to

150,0

140,0

ed

130,0

120,0 M16

ns

M18

110,0

M20

ice

100,0 M22

90,0 M24

.L

80,0 M27

M30

70,0

M33

ial

60,0 M36

50,0

er

40,0

at

30,0

m

20,0

10,0

ed

0,0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

ht

rig

Figure A.3 Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 4.6 and

py

concrete C40/50

Co

Page 20

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

110,0

100,0

17

90,0

/2 0

80,0

/0 5

M16

70,0 M18

M20

19

60,0 M22

M24

50,0

on

M27

M30

40,0 M33

m

M36

30,0

.co

20,0

ail

10,0

gm

0,0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

n@

Basic anchorage bond length (mm)

da

Figure A.4 Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 5.6 and

concrete C20/25

.va

an

gd

bo

150,0

140,0

to

130,0

120,0

ed

110,0

ns

100,0 M16

M18

90,0

ice

M20

80,0 M22

M24

.L

70,0 M27

60,0 M30

ial

M33

50,0

M36

er

40,0

at

30,0

m

20,0

10,0

ed

0,0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

ht

rig

Figure A.5 Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 5.6 and

py

concrete C40/50

Co

Page 21

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

180,0

170,0

17

160,0

150,0

/2 0

140,0

130,0

/0 5

120,0 M16

M18

110,0

M20

19

100,0 M22

90,0 M24

on

80,0 M27

M30

70,0

M33

60,0

m

M36

50,0

.co

40,0

30,0

ail

20,0

10,0

gm

0,0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

n@

Basic anchorage bond length (mm)

da

Figure A.6 Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 5.6 and

concrete C40/50

.va

an

gd

bo

to

ed

ns

ice

.L

ial

er

at

m

ed

ht

rig

py

Co

Page 22

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

Quality Record

17

/2 0

RESOURCE TITLE NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

/0 5

Reference(s)

19

ORIGINAL DOCUMENT

on

Name Company Date

m

.co

Technical content checked by Alain Bureau CTICM 06/02/2006

ail

gm

Technical content endorsed by the

following STEEL Partners:

n@

1. UK G W Owens SCI 07/04/06

da

3. Sweden B Uppfeldt SBI 07/04/06

.va

an

gd

bo

Coordinator

to

TRANSLATED DOCUMENT

ed

ns

ice

.L

ial

er

at

m

ed

ht

rig

py

Co

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