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# FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM LABORATORY MANUAL SEMESTER

## COURSE CODE : CEW 431

COURSE : FLUID MECHANICS AND HYDRAULICS LABORATORY
LEVEL OF OPENNESS : 2
CATEGORY : PARTIALLY OPEN
DEGREE OF OPEN ENDED (%) : 66%
PERIOD ACTIVITY : 3 WEEKS
EXPERIMENT NAME : 2.4 : MEASUREMENT OF FLOW OVER SHARP CRESTED WEIR

INTRODUCTION
In open channel flows, weirs are commonly used to either regulate or to measure the
volumetric flow rate. They are of particular use in large scale situations such as irrigation
schemes, canals and rivers. For small scale applications, weirs are often referred to as notches
and are sharp edged and manufactured from thin plate material. The basic principle is that
discharge is directly related to the water depth above the crotch (bottom) of the notch. This
distance is called head over the notch. Due to the minimal installation costs flow rate
measurement with a notch is inexpensive.
PREAMBLE OBJECTIVES
i. To determine the discharge coefficient for a rectangular and triangular notch.
ii. To compare the actual and theoretical discharge for both notches.
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the experiment, students should be able to:
i. Measure the discharge, passing through the rectangular and V notch in an open channel
and know how to differentiate actual and theoretical discharge.
ii. Determine the discharge coefficients for both rectangular and vee notch.
The depth of flow above the base of a notch is related to the volume flow rate through it;
PROBLEM hence the notch forms a useful flow measurement device. The classical results for the flow
STATEMENT over notches are obtained by an application of the Bernoulli equation, from a point well
upstream to a point just above the notch.
DATA ACQUISTION
WAYS & MEAN
Data required for this experiment are volume and time with respect to different water levels.
DATA INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS
REPORT The report must include:
1. Detailed descriptions of the procedures/methods and photo of conducting the laboratory
works are also needed.
2. All readings and data from the experiment should be converted to appropriate units and
tabulated accordingly.
3. Sample calculation/interpretation of data/plot of graph.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
1. Compare the experimental results to the theory.
2. What are the limitations of the theory?
3. Why would you expect wider variations of Cd values at lower flow rates?
4. Discussion on the laboratory results and analysis
5. Conclusion of the findings in your experiment.
REFERENCE Include list of references at the end of your report.