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# USEFUL Equations for ME2121 Revision (Part 1)

## Review of Basic Concepts and Properties of Pure Substances

1. Properties of Steam:
V V 1
Specific volume: v  (m3/kg)  m   V where  
m v v
where V is the absolute volume in m3 and m is the mass in kg

## v  v f  x  v fg (m3/kg) (where x is the quality of the steam and vfg = vg – vf)

u  u f  x  u fg (kJ/kg) (where x is the quality of the steam and ufg = ug – uf)
h  h f  x  h fg (kJ/kg) (where x is the quality of the steam and hfg = hg – hf)
s  s f  x  s fg (kJ/kg.K) (where x is the quality of the steam and sfg = sg – sf)

PV = nRoT = mRT

## where P is the pressure in N/m2, V is the volume in m3,

T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin.
n is the no.of moles, Ro is the universal gas constant = 8.3143 kJ/kmol.K
m is the mass in kg, R is the specific gas constant in kJ/kg.K
Note: m = nM and R=Ro/M where M is the molar mass in kg/kmol
(i) Applicable for dry Air, Ar, He, Ne, H2, N2, O2, CO2, etc
(ii) Applicable for Water Vapour in low pressure & high temperature applications (e.g.
air-conditioning)
(iii) Not applicable for Refrigerants & Water Vapour in high pressure applications (e.g.
steam power plant, compressor). Use property tables instead.

## For an isothermal process, T = constant, dT = 0, hence PV = constant

2
V  V 
W12   PdV  P1V1 ln  2   mRT1 ln  2  for ideal gas
1  V1   V1 
For an isobaric process, P = constant, dP = 0, hence V/T = constant
2
W12   PdV  P1 V2  V1   mRT2  T1  for ideal gas
1

1
For an isochoric process, V = constant, dV = 0, hence P/T = constant
2
W12   PdV  0
1

## For a polytropic process, we have

P
PV n  constant, TV n 1  consatnt, n
 constant
n 1
T
2
P1V1  P2V2
W12   PdV  
mR
T1  T2  for ideal gas
1
n 1 n 1
For isentropic process (reversible + adiabatic), n   and s = constant, ds = 0
Cp R R
Note:   ; C p  Cv  R; C v  ; Cp 
Cv  1  1

## 3. Mass flow rate of fluid

1
    A  Velocity (kg/s), where  
m (kg/m3) and v is the specific volume (m3/kg)
v

## The first law of thermodynamics is essentially an expression of conservation of energy

principle. It is commonly expressed as

## Ein  Eout  E system (kJ) where Esystem  U  KE  PE

   
Net energy transfer Changein internal, kinetic,
by heat, work and mass potentialetc. energies

For a closed-system (no mass transfer) and neglecting changes in KE and PE,

## Qnet  Wnet  U cv  mu 2  u1 cv

in out

For ideal gas, change in internal energy during a process: U12  mu  mCv T2  T1 

## E in  E out  dE system / dt (kW)

 
Rate of net energy transfer Rate of changein internal,kinetic,
by heat, work and mass potentialetc. energies

2
For an open-system (with mass transfer across system boundaries) and neglecting
changes in KE and PE,
 V2   V2  dU cv
Q net  W net   m i  h   gz    m e  h   gz  
in out in  2  i exit  2 e dt

## For an open-system with steady-flow process (SFEE -Steady-Flow Energy Equation):

 V2   V2 
Q net  W net   m i  h   gz    m e  h   gz   0
in out in  2  i exit  2 e

For an open-system with transient-flow over a finite time interval (finite mass transfer,
e.g. charging of tank), and neglecting changes in KE and PE,

## Qnet  Wnet   mi hi   me he  U cv  m2 u 2  m1u1 cv

in out in exit

For ideal gas, change in enthalpy during a process: H12  mh  mC p T2  T1 

W net,out QL
 th   1
QH QH

## 2. The performance of a refrigerator or a heat pump is expressed in terms of

coefficient of performance (COP), which is defined as

QL 1
COPR  
Wnet,in Q H / Q L  1

QH 1
COPHP  
Wnet,in 1  Q L / Q H

## 3. For Carnot cycles: QH/QL ratio can be replaced by TH/TL

TL
For a Carnot heat engine:  th,rev  1 
TH
1
For a Carnot refrigerator: COPR ,rev 
TH / TL  1
1
For a Carnot heat pump: COPHP,rev 
1  TL / TH

3
Entropy

## 1. Entropy change for incompressible liquid and solid:

T  C@ T1  C@ T2
S 2  S1  ms 2  s1   mCavg ln  2  (kJ/K) where C avg 
 T1  2

## 2. Entropy change for ideal gases:

 T   v 
S 2  S1  ms 2  s1   m C v ,avg ln  2   R ln  2  (kJ/K)
  T1   v1 
 T  P 
S 2  S1  ms 2  s1   mC p ,avg ln  2   R ln  2  (kJ/K)
  T1   P1 

3. Isentropic Efficiency:

## Actual turbine work w h  h 2a

T   a  1
Isentropic turbine work w s h1  h 2s

## Isentropic compressor work ws h 2s  h1

C   
Actual compressor work w a h 2a  h 1

## 4. Entropy balance equation:

Qin
S in  S out   S gen  S system  m2 s 2  m1 s1 cv
  To  
Net entropy  Entropy Changein entropy
transfer by Net entropy generation
mass transfer by
heat

Qk ,in
 S gen  m2 s 2  m1 s1 cv   me se   mi si   (kJ/K)
exit in k Tk
In rate form:
Q in
Sin  S out   S gen  dS system / dt
  To  
Rate of net entropy  Rate of entropy Rate of changein entropy
transfer by Net entropy generation
heat and mass transfer by
heat

## For a steady-flow process, the above equation simplifies to

Q k ,in
S gen   me se   mi si  
   (kJ/s.K) or (kW/K)
exit in k Tk