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1. Properties of Steam:

V V 1

Specific volume: v (m3/kg) m V where

m v v

where V is the absolute volume in m3 and m is the mass in kg

u u f x u fg (kJ/kg) (where x is the quality of the steam and ufg = ug – uf)

h h f x h fg (kJ/kg) (where x is the quality of the steam and hfg = hg – hf)

s s f x s fg (kJ/kg.K) (where x is the quality of the steam and sfg = sg – sf)

PV = nRoT = mRT

T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin.

n is the no.of moles, Ro is the universal gas constant = 8.3143 kJ/kmol.K

m is the mass in kg, R is the specific gas constant in kJ/kg.K

Note: m = nM and R=Ro/M where M is the molar mass in kg/kmol

(i) Applicable for dry Air, Ar, He, Ne, H2, N2, O2, CO2, etc

(ii) Applicable for Water Vapour in low pressure & high temperature applications (e.g.

air-conditioning)

(iii) Not applicable for Refrigerants & Water Vapour in high pressure applications (e.g.

steam power plant, compressor). Use property tables instead.

2

V V

W12 PdV P1V1 ln 2 mRT1 ln 2 for ideal gas

1 V1 V1

For an isobaric process, P = constant, dP = 0, hence V/T = constant

2

W12 PdV P1 V2 V1 mRT2 T1 for ideal gas

1

1

For an isochoric process, V = constant, dV = 0, hence P/T = constant

2

W12 PdV 0

1

P

PV n constant, TV n 1 consatnt, n

constant

n 1

T

2

P1V1 P2V2

W12 PdV

mR

T1 T2 for ideal gas

1

n 1 n 1

For isentropic process (reversible + adiabatic), n and s = constant, ds = 0

Cp R R

Note: ; C p Cv R; C v ; Cp

Cv 1 1

1

A Velocity (kg/s), where

m (kg/m3) and v is the specific volume (m3/kg)

v

principle. It is commonly expressed as

Net energy transfer Changein internal, kinetic,

by heat, work and mass potentialetc. energies

For a closed-system (no mass transfer) and neglecting changes in KE and PE,

in out

For ideal gas, change in internal energy during a process: U12 mu mCv T2 T1

Rate of net energy transfer Rate of changein internal,kinetic,

by heat, work and mass potentialetc. energies

2

For an open-system (with mass transfer across system boundaries) and neglecting

changes in KE and PE,

V2 V2 dU cv

Q net W net m i h gz m e h gz

in out in 2 i exit 2 e dt

V2 V2

Q net W net m i h gz m e h gz 0

in out in 2 i exit 2 e

For an open-system with transient-flow over a finite time interval (finite mass transfer,

e.g. charging of tank), and neglecting changes in KE and PE,

in out in exit

For ideal gas, change in enthalpy during a process: H12 mh mC p T2 T1

W net,out QL

th 1

QH QH

coefficient of performance (COP), which is defined as

QL 1

COPR

Wnet,in Q H / Q L 1

QH 1

COPHP

Wnet,in 1 Q L / Q H

TL

For a Carnot heat engine: th,rev 1

TH

1

For a Carnot refrigerator: COPR ,rev

TH / TL 1

1

For a Carnot heat pump: COPHP,rev

1 TL / TH

3

Entropy

T C@ T1 C@ T2

S 2 S1 ms 2 s1 mCavg ln 2 (kJ/K) where C avg

T1 2

T v

S 2 S1 ms 2 s1 m C v ,avg ln 2 R ln 2 (kJ/K)

T1 v1

T P

S 2 S1 ms 2 s1 mC p ,avg ln 2 R ln 2 (kJ/K)

T1 P1

3. Isentropic Efficiency:

T a 1

Isentropic turbine work w s h1 h 2s

C

Actual compressor work w a h 2a h 1

Qin

S in S out S gen S system m2 s 2 m1 s1 cv

To

Net entropy Entropy Changein entropy

transfer by Net entropy generation

mass transfer by

heat

Qk ,in

S gen m2 s 2 m1 s1 cv me se mi si (kJ/K)

exit in k Tk

In rate form:

Q in

Sin S out S gen dS system / dt

To

Rate of net entropy Rate of entropy Rate of changein entropy

transfer by Net entropy generation

heat and mass transfer by

heat

Q k ,in

S gen me se mi si

(kJ/s.K) or (kW/K)

exit in k Tk

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