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Basic Reciprocating Engine &

Compressor Analysis
Techniques

Azonix-Dynalco
Kathy Boutin, B.Sc.
Ben Boutin, P.Eng.

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 1

Focus of this course

„ In this course, we illustrate engine and


compressor behavior using data taken from
running machinery
„ The data were recorded by analysts running
their own predictive maintenance programs
„ We show faults that are seen in recip
equipment and present techniques to detect
them

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 2

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Short Course Outline

„ Analysis Programs
„ Characterizing engines and compressors
„ Data types
„ Testpoint Locations

„ Sequence of events
„ 2-stroke engines
„ 4-stroke engines
„ Compressors

„ Analyzing engine faults


„ Analyzing compressor faults
„ Analyzing auxiliary equipment faults
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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 3

Analysis Programs

„ Objectives
„ Types of analysis
„ Analysis process

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Analysis Programs
Objectives of analysis programs

„ Eliminate expensive, unnecessary maintenance


„ Decrease maintenance costs
„ Increase machine availability
„ Decrease down time
„ Improve performance
„ Reduce emissions

“You can’t improve what you don’t measure”

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 5

Analysis Programs
Types of machinery analysis

„ Maintenance Analysis
„ Identifies incipient failure so that you can turn unscheduled
maintenance into scheduled maintenance
„ Helps avoid in-service failures
„ Goal is to reduce maintenance cost

„ Performance Analysis
„ Characterizes the engine/compressor operating potential
„ Efficiency
„ Fuel consumption
„ Horsepower
„ Throughput

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Analysis Programs
The analysis process

„ Gather data from the machine


„ Reduce the data to measures of performance
and condition
„ Organize and present the reduced data
„ Infer performance and condition
„ Report findings
„ Take action
„ Follow up

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 7

Characterizing Engines and


Compressors

„ Data Types
„ Testpoint Locations

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Characterizing Engines and Compressors
Special data types

„ Process data
„ Tell about the process
„ Examples: suction temperature and pressure
„ Phase-marked data
„ Data is referenced to the flywheel
„ Example: pressure versus time data
„ Non-phased data
„ Sampling is a function of time only
„ Example: acceleration data from a
turbocharger bearing

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Characterizing Engines and Compressors


Measuring flywheel position

„ Once-per-degree
„ Shaft encoder
„ 360 pulses per
revolution
„ Better accuracy

„ Once-per-turn
„ Magnetic, active or
optical pickups are
common
„ 1 pulse per revolution
„ Usually permanently
mounted
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Characterizing Engines and Compressors
Example of phase-marked pressure (PT)

C402 - C cylinder 2 09/09/1998 12:02:53 PM HE Period 5, CE Period 5

1700
1600
1500
1400
Head and
1300
crank end
pressure
Pressure (psig)

1200
traces on a
1100
compressor
1000
cylinder
900
800
700
600
500

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)

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Characterizing Engines and Compressors


Free-running, non-phased data

„ Data is recorded independent of crankshaft position


„ Returns
„ Overall vibration level
„ Spectrum showing frequency components

„ Common applications:
„ Structural vibration
„ Supports, foundations
„ Turbochargers
„ Oil and water pumps
„ Pressure pulsation

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Characterizing Engines and Compressors
Example of free-running, non-phased, spectrum data
UNIT #4-E Testpoint OPEH 7/17/2002 10:51:55 AM
1.0

1 times Testpoint : OPEH VIB


0.9 No. Of Lines : 400
run speed No. Of Averages : 5
Calc Overall : N/A
Trap Overall : 1.325
0.8 Spectrum from
Peak At Frequency
2 times 1.020 at 322.5 engine frame
0.7 0.507 at 1305.0
run speed near anchor
mil (pseudo-pk-pk)

0.122 at 652.5
0.110 at 487.5
0.6 0.098 at 1627.5
0.079 at 2932.5
bolts. Mils peak-
0.073 at 1357.5
0.061 at 1140.0
peak, oil pump
0.5
0.061 at 1020.0
0.061 at 975.0
end, horizontal
0.4 direction.
4 times
0.3 run speed Engine speed
323 RPM
0.2

0.1

0.0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
cpm
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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 13

Engine Data

Cylinder exhaust temperatures


• Infrared temperature wand
• pyrometer

Cylinder, valve, wrist pin


Turbocharger/blower and bearing vibration
• Standard accelerometer • Ultrasonic microphone
mounted on bearings and near • Standard accelerometer
turbine and compressor wheels • Time domain data phased to
• Frequency domain vibration crankshaft position

Ignition secondary
• Inductive connection to unshielded
Cylinder pressure
spark plug cable
• Pressure transducer
• Multi-period sampling statistics
• Time domain data phased to
• Ignition secondary patterns
crankshaft position
• Peak pressure statistics
Ignition primary (not shown)
• Connection to primary box
• Ignition primary firing patterns

TDC Reference
• Shaft encoder Frame vibration (displacement)
• Magnetic pickup • Tri-axial accelerometer (H, V, A)
• Phased data taken at opposite corners of
• RPM engine frame
• Frequency domain data
© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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Characterizing Engines and Compressors
Typical 2-stroke engine PT/VT

20905-E Cylinder P5 3/27/2002 8:57:46 AM Period 0


137 223 Intake
600 118 242 Exhaust --------------
Fuel 213 273
550 PT
-
500 VT -
450
- P5 VT4
400
Pressure (psig)

350 -

300 - Scale 2.4


250 -
200
-
150
-
100
50 -

0 --------------

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Angle (deg)
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Characterizing Engines and Compressors


Typical 4-stroke engine PT/VT
5302-E Cylinder 2L 12/3/2001 9:15:58 AM Period 1
Intake 281 620
1100 140 391 Exhaust --------------
Fuel 315 583
1000 -

900 VT -
800
- 2L VT4
Pressure (psig)

700
-
600
- Scale 5.0
500
-
400
-
300

200 -
PT
100 -

0 --------------

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
Angle (deg)

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Crosshead Vibration
• Standard accelerometer
Compressor Data
• Time domain data phased to
crankshaft position
• Relate to rod load
Valve cap temperatures
TDC Reference • Infrared temperature wand
• Shaft encoder • thermocouples, RTDs
• Magnetic pickup
Suction/discharge temperatures
• Phased data
• Infrared temperature wand
• RPM
• thermocouples, RTDs

Suction/discharge valve vibration


Compressor ring leak vibration
Liner scoring
• Ultrasonic microphone
• Standard accelerometer
• Time domain data phased to
crankshaft position

Head/crank end pressure


• Pressure transducer
• Time domain data phased to
Rod Motion crankshaft position
• Proximity probes • Multi-period sampling statistics
• Time-domain data phased to
crankshaft position
• Rod displacement trends
Suction/discharge nozzle pressure
Frame vibration (displacement) • Pressure transducer
• Tri-axial accelerometer (H, V, A) • Time domain data phased to crankshaft
taken at opposite corners of position (valve/passage loss calculations)
engine frame • Frequency domain (pulsation spectrum)
• Frequency domain data • Multi-period sampling statistics
© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

Characterizing Engines and Compressors


Typical HE compressor pattern
K200 - C cylinder 4 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 5, CE Period 7

CE PT --------------
600 -
-
- 4HD1 VT1
-
- Scale 3.0
550 - 145 DGF
-
-
-
HE PT ---------------
-
--
Pressure (psig)

500 4HD2 VT1


-
- Scale 3.0
- 146 DGF
-
450 -
HE VT -
---------------
-
-
- 4HS1 VT1
400 -
- Scale 3.0
- 84 DGF
-
-
350 -
---------------
-
-
- 4HS2 VT1
-
300 - Scale 3.0
- 84 DGF
-
-
---------------
250
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)
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Sequence of events

„ 2-stroke, spark-ignited engine


„ 4-stroke, spark-ignited engine
„ Double-acting, reciprocating compressor

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Understanding Machine Faults

„ To recognize faults in compressors and


engines, we must understand how they
behave in normal operation
„ Do the mechanical events you expect to see
actually happen?
„ Do the events appear to be normal?
„ when do they occur?
„ what is the relative magnitude?
„ do they look the same as they did last time?
„ do they look the same as the next machine?
„ What is the performance of the machine?

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Sequence of events
for a 2 stroke engine

„ Pressure versus crank angle (PT)


„ Pressure-Volume (PV)
„ Vibration versus crank angle (VT)

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Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PT: start of cycle

• Ignition has occurred


• Flame front travel has begun
• Mixture is superheated air and fuel
Pressure

0
90 180 270 360
Crank Angle (Deg)

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Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PT: combustion

• Flame travels through chamber


• Heat is released, pressure rises
• Temperature at flame front is
about 3500°F
• Peak occurs 10-15 deg ATDC

Pressure
• Speed of propagation is critical
•Too fast, detonation
•Too slow, soft fire

0
0 90 180 270 360

Crank Angle (deg)

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Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PT: power

• Combustion is complete
• Pressure drives piston down
• As volume increases, pressure decreases
Pressure

0
0 90 180 270 360

Crank Angle (deg)

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Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PT: exhaust blowdown

• Piston uncovers exhaust port


• Pressure drops more rapidly (blowdown)
• Temperature is now about 800°F

Pressure

0
0 90 180 270 360

Crank Angle (deg)

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 25

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PT: air intake

• Intake port is uncovered


• Cylinder pressure ≤ intake pressure
• Fresh air under pressure sweeps and cools
Pressure

0
90 180 270 360
Crank Angle (Deg)

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Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PT: scavenging

• Scavenging continues until intake closes


• Cylinder cooling continues

Pressure

0
0 90 180 270 360

Crank Angle (deg)

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 27

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PT: fuel intake

• Scavenging continues until intake closes


• This is the lowest pressure in the cylinder
• Fuel is injected just prior to exhaust closure
• Open exhaust port drags fuel down
Pressure

• Port closes before any fuel escapes

0
0 90 180 270 360

Crank Angle (deg)

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Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PT: compression

• Fuel injection ceases, ports are closed


• Pressure begins to rise
• Air-fuel charge is turbulent
• Turbulence mixes the air-fuel charge

Pressure
• Temperature rises

0
0 90 180 270 360

Crank Angle (deg)

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Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PT: ignition

• Ignition occurs 5-10 degrees BTDC


• Advance gives time to initiate combustion
and for flame front travel
• Air-fuel charge is superheated
Pressure

0
0 90 180 270 360

Crank Angle (deg)

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Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PT: end of cycle

• Flame front begins propagating


through chamber

Pressure

0
0 90 180 270 360

Crank Angle (deg)

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 31

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PV: start of cycle (TDC)

• Ignition has occurred


• Flame front travel has begun
• Mixture is superheated air and fuel
Pressure

0
0 25 50 75 100

Swept Volume (%)

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 32

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Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PV: combustion

• Flame travels through chamber


• Heat is released, pressure rises
• Temperature at flame front is
about 3500°F
• Peak occurs 10-15 deg ATDC

Pressure
• Speed of propagation is critical
•Too fast, detonation
•Too slow, soft fire

0
0 25 50 75 100

Swept Volume (%)

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 33

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PV: power

• Combustion is complete
• Pressure drives piston down
• As volume increases, pressure decreases
Pressure

0
0 25 50 75 100

Swept Volume (%)

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Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PV: exhaust blowdown

• Piston uncovers exhaust port


• Pressure drops more rapidly (blowdown)
• Temperature is now about 800°F

Pressure

0
0 25 50 75 100

Swept Volume (%)

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 35

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PV: air intake

• Intake port is uncovered


• Cylinder pressure ≤ intake pressure
• Fresh air under pressure sweeps and cools
Pressure

0
0 25 50 75 100

Swept Volume (%)

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18
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PV: scavenging

• Scavenging continues until intake closes


• Cylinder cooling continues

Pressure

0
0 25 50 75 100

Swept Volume (%)

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 37

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PV: fuel intake

• Scavenging continues until intake closes


• This is the lowest pressure in the cylinder
• Fuel is injected just prior to exhaust closure
• Open exhaust port drags fuel down
Pressure

0
0 25 50 75 100

Swept Volume (%)

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Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PV: compression

• Fuel injection ceases, ports are closed


• Pressure begins to rise
• Air-fuel charge is turbulent
• Turbulence mixes the air-fuel charge

Pressure
• Temperature rises

0
0 25 50 75 100

Swept Volume (%)

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 39

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PV: ignition

• Ignition occurs 5-10 degrees BTDC


• Advance gives time to initiate combustion
and for flame front travel
• Air-fuel charge is superheated
Pressure

0
0 25 50 75 100

Swept Volume (%)

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Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PV: end of cycle

• Flame front begins propagating


through chamber

Pressure

0
0 25 50 75 100

Swept Volume (%)

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 41

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


Cylinder vibration: start of cycle
137 223 Intake
118 242 Exhaust
Fuel 213 273
Pressure

0 45 90 135 180 2 25 270 315 360


Angle (deg)

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Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
Cylinder vibration: combustion
137 223 Intake
118 242 Exhaust
Fuel 213 273

• Rings become fully loaded by gas


pressure
• May see some vibration resulting
from combustion

Pressure

0 45 90 135 180 2 25 270 315 360


Angle (deg)

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 43

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


Cylinder vibration: power
137 223 Intake
118 242 Exhaust
Fuel 213 273

Ring noise
Pressure

0 45 90 135 180 2 25 270 315 360


Angle (deg)

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Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT
Cylinder vibration: exhaust blowdown
137 223 Intake
118 242 Exhaust
Fuel 213 273

Exhaust
Blowdown

Pressure

0 45 90 135 180 2 25 270 315 360


Angle (deg)

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 45

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT


Cylinder vibration: air intake and scavenging
137 223 Intake
118 242 Exhaust
Fuel 213 273
Pressure

0 45 90 135 180 2 25 270 315 360


Angle (deg)

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Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT
Cylinder vibration: fuel intake
137 223 Intake
118 242 Exhaust
Fuel 213 273

Pressure

0 45 90 135 180 2 25 270 315 360


Angle (deg)

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 47

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT


Cylinder vibration: compression
137 223 Intake
118 242 Exhaust
Fuel 213 273

Fuel Valve
Closure
Pressure

0 45 90 135 180 2 25 270 315 360


Angle (deg)

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Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT
Cylinder vibration: ignition
137 223 Intake
118 242 Exhaust
Fuel 213 273

Ignition 5-10
degrees BTDC

Pressure

0 45 90 135 180 2 25 270 315 360


Angle (deg)

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 49

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT


Cylinder vibration: end of cycle
137 223 Intake
118 242 Exhaust
Fuel 213 273
Pressure

0 45 90 135 180 2 25 270 315 360


Angle (deg)

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Sequence of events
for a 4 stroke engine

„ Pressure and vibration (PT/VT)


„ Pressure-Volume (PV)

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Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PT/VT: top dead center
137 417 Exhaust
Intake 300 565
Fuel 502 611

• Ignition has occurred


• Flame front propagation has begun
• Mixture is superheated air and fuel
Pressure

2 1
0
0 180 360 540 720
Crank Angle (deg)
1 Combustion 2 Exhaust 3 Intake 4 Compression

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Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PT/VT: peak firing pressure
137 417 Exhaust
Intake 300 565
Fuel 502 611

• Flame front propagation through cylinder


• Pressure and temperature rise
•Too fast, detonation

Pressure •Too slow, soft fire


su
re
P

2 1
0
0 180 360 540 720
Crank Angle (deg)
1 Combustion 2 Exhaust 3 Intake 4 Compression

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 53

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PT/VT: power stroke
137 417 Exhaust
Intake 300 565
Fuel 502 611
Pressure

su
re
P

2 1
0
0 180 360 540 720
Crank Angle (deg)
1 Combustion 2 Exhaust 3 Intake 4 Compression

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 54

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Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PT/VT: exhaust blowdown
137 417 Exhaust
Intake 300 565
Fuel 502 611

• Exhaust gases leave through exhaust


Blowdown valve port to exhaust header and
then to the turbocharger

Pressure

2 1
0
0 180 360 540 720
Crank Angle (deg)
1 Combustion 2 Exhaust 3 Intake 4 Compression

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 55

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PT/VT: air intake
137 417 Exhaust
Intake 300 565
Fuel 502 611

Exhaust valve
closure
Pressure

4 3
0
0 180 360 540 720
Crank Angle (deg)
1 Combustion 2 Exhaust 3 Intake 4 Compression

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 56

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Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PT/VT: fuel intake
137 417 Exhaust
Intake 300 565
Fuel 502 611

Intake valve
closure

Pressure

4 3
0
0 180 360 540 720
Crank Angle (deg)
1 Combustion 2 Exhaust 3 Intake 4 Compression

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© 2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 57

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PT/VT: compression and ignition
137 417 Exhaust
Intake 300 565
Fuel 502 611

Fuel valve
closure
Pressure

4 3
0
0 180 360 540 720
Crank Angle (deg)
1 Combustion 2 Exhaust 3 Intake 4 Compression

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Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PT/VT: end of cycle
137 417 Exhaust
Intake 300 565
Fuel 502 611

What’s
this?

Pressure

su
re
P

2 1
0
0 180 360 540 720
Crank Angle (deg)
1 Combustion 2 Exhaust 3 Intake 4 Compression

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Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


VT: crosstalk (KVS 412)
K200 - E 9/10/1995 6:51:46 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
2

P1 0

-2 672
2

P2 0

-2 192
2

P3 0

-2 432
2

0
P4
-2 72
2

P5 0

-2 552
2

P6 0

This engine -2has solid lifters 312


0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720

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30
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PV: top dead center

2 1
0
0 25 50 75 100
3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PV: air intake

• Fresh air enters cylinder

2 1
0

3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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31
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PV: fuel intake & compression

• Fuel intake starts BBDC


• Turbulence stirs mixture

2 1
0
0 25 50 75 100
3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PV: ignition

• Mixture is compressed and


superheated
• Ignition occurs 10-20 deg BTDC

2 1
0

3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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32
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PV: top dead center

• Ignition has occurred


• Flame front travel has begun

4 3
0

3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PV: peak firing pressure

• Flame travels through chamber


• Heat is released, pressure rises
• Peak occurs 15-20 deg ATDC
• If pressure increase is …
•Too fast, detonation
•Too slow, soft fire

4 3
0

3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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33
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PV: power stroke

• Combustion is complete
• Pressure drives piston down
• As volume increases, pressure decreases

4 3
0

3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PV: bottom dead center

• Exhaust valve opens just before BDC

4 3
0

3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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34
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PV: exhaust

• Pressure drops rapidly


(blowdown)

4 3
0

3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PV: end of cycle

4 3
0
0 25 50 75 100
3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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35
Sequence of events
for a double acting
reciprocating compressor

„ Head End (HE) compression cycle (PV)


„ Crank End (CE) compression cycle (PV)
„ HE valve events
„ HE and CE pressure-time (PT)
„ HE and CE vibration-time (VT)

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Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


HE compression cycle
HE
Compression
1-2
Discharge 2
3
Pd

HE
Discharge
Pressure

2-3
Clearance Volume

Compression

Expansion

u
s
re
P
HE
Expansion
m
u
o
V
c
rn
a
le
C

3-4
1
Ps
4 Suction

Swept Volume HE
Suction
Volume
4-1
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36
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
CE compression cycle
CE
Compression
Discharge 1-2
2
Pd 3
CE

Clearance Volume
Discharge
Pressure

2-3
Compression
Expansion

CE
Expansion
3-4
1
Ps
Suction 4
Swept Volume
CE
Volume Suction
4-1
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Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


PV: HE compression event

Suction Line Pressure (Ps)


2
Pd
Suction AS
closed AP
Pressure

Clearance Volume

Compression
Cylinder Pressure (Pcyl)
is above Ps and increasing to Pd.
Discharge valve opens when Pcyl
is greater than Pd (2).

Ps
1 Discharge AP
closed
AD

Volume Discharge Line Pressure (Pd)

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37
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
PV: HE discharge event

Suction Line Pressure (Ps)


3 Discharge 2
Pd
Suction AS
closed AP
Pressure

Clearance Volume

Compression
Cylinder Pressure (Pcyl)
is above Pd and decreasing to Pd.
Discharge valves closes when Pcyl
equals Pd (3) at TDC.

Ps
1 Discharge
open AP

Piston Stroke Volume

Volume Discharge Line Pressure (Pd)

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Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


PV: HE expansion event

Suction Line Pressure (Ps)


3 Discharge 2
Pd
Suction AS
closed AP
Pressure

Clearance Volume

Compression
Cylinder Pressure (Pcyl)
is below Pd and decreasing to Ps.
Expansion
Suction valve opens when Pcyl is
less than Ps (4).

Ps
1 Discharge AP
4 closed
AD

Piston Stroke Volume

Volume Discharge Line Pressure (Pd)

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38
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
PV: HE suction event

Suction Line Pressure (Ps)


3 Discharge 2
Pd
Suction
AS
open
Pressure

Clearance Volume

Compression
Cylinder Pressure (Pcyl)
is below Ps and increasing to Ps.
Expansion
Suction valve closes when Pcyl is
equal to Ps (1) at BDC.

Ps
1 Discharge AP
4 Suction closed
AD

Piston Stroke Volume

Volume Discharge Line Pressure (Pd)

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Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


Example: HE and CE PV
K200 - C cylinder 4 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 5, CE Period 7

600

550

500
Pressure (psig)

450

400

350

300

250
0 25 50 75 100
Percent swept volume
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39
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
PT: HE and CE
2 D
Discharge A 3 A
Pressure
CE PT

HE PT

Suction
Pressure 1 B
C 4 1
0 180 360
Crank Angle (Deg)

Head End: Expansion (A-B) Suction (B-C) Compression (C-D) Discharge (D-A)
Crank End: Compression (1-2) Discharge (2-3) Expansion (3-4) Suction (4-1)
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Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


HE valve vibration

HE Discharge 4 5 6

1 Suction valve opens 4 Discharge valve opens


(depends on clearance volume) (typically the loudest)

2 Suction gas fills the cylinder. 5 High pressure gas is


discharged into discharge
3 Suction valve is lowered gently
line.
onto the seat at BDC – closing
event is not always visible. 6 Discharge valve is gently
lowered onto the seat at
HE Suction TDC – not always visible.
1 2 3

0 180 360
Gas blowing noise is loudest at valve
opening and gradually diminishes as
gas velocity through the valve decreases.

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40
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
CE valve vibration

CE Discharge

CE Suction

0 180 360

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Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


HE and CE valve crosstalk

HE Discharge

CE Discharge

CE Suction

HE Suction

0 180 360

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41
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
Typical HE PT/VT signature
K200 - C cylinder 4 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 5, CE Period 7
--------------
600 -
-
- 4HD1 VT1
-
- Scale 3.0
550 - 145 DGF
-
-
-
---------------
-
-- 4HD2 VT1
Pressure (psig)

500
-
- Scale 3.0
-
- 146 DGF
450 -
-
---------------
-
-
- 4HS1 VT1
400 -
- Scale 3.0
- 84 DGF
-
-
350 -
---------------
-
-
- 4HS2 VT1
-
300 - Scale 3.0
- 84 DGF
-
-
---------------
250
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)
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Quick Recap

„ So far, we’ve talked about the normal


behavior of:
„ 2-stroke, spark-ignited recip engine
„ 4-stroke, spark-ignited recip engine
„ double-acting, reciprocating compressor
„ Now we know what they are supposed to look
like, we can look at faults

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42
Analyzing Engine Faults

„ Combustion
„ Mechanical

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Engine faults we can monitor


Combustion Quality Mechanical Condition
•Unbalance •Leaking valves
•Detonation •Leaking rings
•Misfire •Valve train (cam, guides, lifters, linkage)
•Pre-ignition •Worn, scored liner and piston
•Excessive Emissions •Port/bridge wear
Operating Performance •Carbon in ports
•Indicated horsepower •Wrist pin
•Torque •Main bearings, crank pins
•Efficiency •Ignition problems
Economic Performance •Turbocharger faults
•Fuel cost •Oil Pump, water pump problems
•Fuel consumption •Frame, foundation vibration

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43
Combustion

„ Many of the problems we face with engines


are due to variable combustion
„ Engines do not fire the same way each cycle

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Combustion
Chemical equation of combustion

„ Engines convert chemical energy to heat


„ Take a simple gas such as Methane (CH4)
„ Combine it with oxygen and start the reaction

CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O


„ Produces carbon dioxide plus water vapor
and releases heat of about 1000 BTU/ft3 of
methane consumed

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44
Combustion
If only it was that simple…

„ Air is primarily O2 (23%) and N2 (77%)


„ Both are involved in the chemical reaction
„ The combustion process is neither complete
nor instantaneous
„ Many intermediate steps and reactions occur
„ This leads to other exhaust products such as
NOx, HC, CO and particulates (smoke)

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Combustion
Why is combustion so variable?

„ incomplete mixing in the cylinder


„ difficulty burning lean air/fuel mixtures
„ inconsistent air/fuel charge in each cycle
„ poor fuel quality
„ ignition faults
„ incorrect valve timing
„ varying ambient conditions

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Combustion
Results of poor combustion

„ Firing in each becomes inconsistent, high


fires followed by low fires
„ Stress the engine thermally and mechanically
„ Reduce the life of engine components
„ Waste fuel
„ Increase emissions
„ This costs a great deal of money

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Combustion
Typical faults

„ Unbalance
„ Dead cylinders
„ Early firing
„ Soft firing
„ Detonation
„ Pre-ignition

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Engine balance

„ The manufacturer designed the engine to


handle specific cylinder pressures and
temperatures
„ Cylinders with high peak pressures develop
much greater mechanical and thermal stress
„ Engine balancing distributes this mechanical
and thermal stress across the engine to
maximize component life

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Engine Balance
Cylinder pressures (balanced HBA)
Unit2 4/15/2002 9:21:55 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order

800

700
P2 P8
600 P1 P4 P5 +10%
P3 P6
P7
Pressure (psig)

+2%
500 -2%
-10%

400

300

200

100

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)
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47
Engine Balance
Pressure rise rate (balanced HBA)
Unit2 4/15/2002 9:21:55 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order
35 P2
P4 P8
P5
30
Pressure Rise Rate (dp/dθ)

P3 P6
25
P1
20 P7
15

10

-5

-10

-15

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)
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Engine Balance
Cylinder pressures (unbalanced HLA)
C2B-E 6/6/2001 7:22:02 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order

700

600 2 7

3 8
500 +10%
4 5
Pressure (psig)

+2%
1 -2%
-10%
400 6

300

200

100

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)
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48
Engine Balance
Pressure rise rate (unbalanced HLA)
C2B-E 6/6/2001 7:22:02 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order

20 2 7
Highly variable
Pressure Rise Rate (dp/dθ)

3
15
8

10 1 4 5
6
5

-5

-10

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)

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Detonation

Detonation is rapid and uncontrolled combustion.


Detonation can lead to rapid failure due to high thermal and
mechanical stress.
Causes of detonation:
„ Mixture too rich
„ Clogged/dirty air intake (air inlet filters, aftercoolers or
blowers)
„ Incomplete scavenging
„ inconsistent fuel composition
„ Overloaded engine
„ Ignition timing too advanced
„ Highly loaded cylinders in an unbalanced engine are more
susceptible to detonation.

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49
Detonation
Engine PT parade (Ajax DPC-720-LE-H-2)
K203 - E 11/21/1996 2:13:03 PM
All cylinders - In Bank Order

600
550
500 P3 – Detonating
450 Cylinder
Pressure (psig)

400 P1
350
300 P2 P4
+10%
250 +2%
-2%
200 -10%

150
100
50
0

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)
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Detonation
Multiple PT cycles for a power cylinder (P3)
K203 - E - P3 PT3 11/21/1996 2:13:03 PM
550
500 Detonation Detonation Detonation
450
400
350
300 Misfire Misfire

250
200
150
100
50
0
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Samples

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50
Soft Firing

Soft Firing occurs when the pressure in the cylinder


rises too late (also called late firing).
The PFP is usually low and late.
Causes of soft fires:
„ incomplete scavenging
„ air/fuel ratio too lean causing slow flame front
„ air/fuel ratio too rich for proper combustion
„ late ignition timing
„ poor fuel composition

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Soft Firing
Engine pressure signature comparisons
1A - E 5/22/1997 10:34:26 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order

800

700 P1R

600
P3R P5R
P4R
Pressure (psig)

P1L P3L
500 P4L
P2R P5L
400 P2L

300

200

100

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)
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51
Soft Firing
PT: comparison to normal (HBA)
20905-E Cylinder P8 7/14/1999 6:46:53 AM Period 3
550
137 223 Intake
500 118 242 Exhaust
Fuel 213 273
450
400

350 Normal
Pressure (psig)

300

250

200
Soft (Late)
150 Fire

100

50

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)
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Soft Firing
PV: comparison to normal (HBA)
20905-E cylinder P8 7/14/1999 6:46:53 AM Period 3
550

500

450

400

350
Pressure (psig)

300
Normal
250

200

150

100

50
Soft (Late)
0 Fire

0 25 50 75 100
% swept volume
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52
Soft Firing
Another example comparing engine PTs (CB QUAD)
C402 - E 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM
All cylinders - In Bank Order - CRC is corrected

1000

900
P4L P4R
P3L P1R P3R
800 P2R
Pressure (psig)

P5R P6R +10%


P6L
700 P5L +2%
-2%
600 -10%

500
P2L
400
300
200

100

0
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)

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Early Firing

Early firing occurs when the pressure in the cylinder


rises too early.
The PFP is usually high and close to TDC.
Causes of early firing:
„ air/fuel ratio too rich
„ early ignition timing
„ warm air temperature

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53
Early Firing
engine pressure comparison
1A - E 5/22/1997 10:34:26 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order

800

700 P1R

600 P3R
P4R P5R P1L P3L
Pressure (psig)

P4L
500
P2R
P5L
400 P2L

300

200

100

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)

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Dead Cylinders

Dead cylinders have no discernable


combustion.
Causes of dead cylinders:
„ ignition problem
„ improper air/fuel charge

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Dead Cylinders
Cylinder comparisons of peak pressures (QUAD)
C402 - E 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM
All cylinders - In Bank Order - CRC is corrected

1000

900
P4L P4R
P3L P1R P3R
800 P2R
Pressure (psig)

P5R P6R +10%


P6L
700 P5L +2%
-2%
600 -10%

500 P2L
400
P1L
300
200

100

0
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)

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Dead Cylinders
Cylinder comparisons of pressure shape & timing
C402 - E 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM
All cylinders - To Center of Plot - CRC is corrected

1000

900

800

700
Pressure (psig)

600

500
P2L soft fire
400

300 P1L
Dead Cylinder
200

100

-180 -135 -90 -45 0 45 90 135 180


Crank Angle (deg)
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55
Dead Cylinders
Cylinder comparisons of pressure rise rate
C402 - E 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM
All cylinders - To Center of Plot - CRC is corrected
35
30
Normal
25
20
Other cylinders
Pressure Rise Rate (dP/dθ)

15
10
P2L Soft Fire
5

-5
-10
P1L – Dead Cylinder
-15

-20

-180 -135 -90 -45 0 45 90 135 180


Crank Angle (deg)
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Dead Cylinders
Pressure and pressure rise rate relationship
C402 - E Cylinder P1L 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM Period 4
CRC is corrected
-103 EXHAUST PORT 100
1000
-123 INTAKE PORT 119
900 -125 -65 FUEL VALVE

800

700 Normal PT
Pressure (psig)

600

500 ∂P
∂θ PT
400

300

200

100

-180 -135 -90 -45 0 45 90 135 180


Crank Angle (deg)
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56
Dead Cylinders
PV comparison to normal
C402 - E cylinder P1L 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM Period 4
CRC is corrected

1000

900

800

700

600
Normal
500

400

300

200 Dead Cylinder

100

0 25 50 75 100
% swept volume
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Pre-ignition

Pre-ignition is the premature combustion of the air/fuel


mixture before the normal ignition event (auto-
combustion).
PFP may occur before TDC causing excessive force on
the piston, wrist pin, connecting rod and bearings.
The mechanical and thermal stress resulting from pre-
ignition can cause cracked heads, torched or seized
pistons.
Causes of pre-ignition
„ hot spots in the cylinder caused by ash or carbon
build up
„ hot spots created by detonation
„ early ignition timing is not normally considered pre-
ignition.
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57
Pre-ignition
PT comparison to normal
5E Cylinder P4 8/15/2002 4:39:48 PM Period 5
-130 Intake 130
1000 -110 Exhaust 110
-145 -77 Fuel
900

800

700
Pressure (psig)

600

500

400

300

200

100
Normal
0

-180 -135 -90 -45 0 45 90 135 180


Angle (deg)
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Pre-ignition
PV showing 2 crank revolutions

Negative work

Positive work
Positive work

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58
Combustion
Analysis summary
Observation Characteristics
Normal ƒ All cylinder average PFPs fall within 10-15% of the engine
average PFP
ƒ Low cycle-to-cycle deviation in cylinder PFP
ƒ PFP angle consistent and at expected location
ƒ Similar exhaust temperatures among power cylinders

Unbalanced ƒ Uneven average peak firing pressures


ƒ High deviation in PFP for cylinder
ƒ Uneven exhaust temperatures
ƒ Usually accompanied by higher NOx and HC

Detonation ƒ Often audible


ƒ High PFP with early PFP angle
ƒ Very high pressure rise rate compared to other cylinders
ƒ Often develops a shock wave that is seen in the PT
ƒ Combustion may make more noise than normal

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Combustion
Analysis summary (cont.)
Observation Characteristics
Soft Firing ƒ Type of misfire
ƒ Average PFP lower than normal
ƒ PFP angle later than normal
ƒ Low pressure rise rate when compared to other cylinders (or
history)
ƒ May be followed by detonation
ƒ Increased exhaust temperature

Early Firing ƒ PFP angle earlier than normal


ƒ Average PFP higher than normal
ƒ Higher pressure rise rate when compared to other cylinders (or
history)
ƒ Lower exhaust temperature

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59
Combustion
Analysis summary (cont.)
Observation Characteristics
Dead Cylinder ƒ Average PFP at running compression – exhibits no cycle
variation, low PFP deviation
ƒ Maximum pressure = running compression pressure
ƒ Low pressure rise rate when compared to other cylinders (or
history)
ƒ Consumes horsepower
ƒ Wastes fuel ($100-$200/day/cyl)
ƒ Fuel in exhaust manifold is a backfire risk
ƒ Low exhaust temperature

Pre-ignition ƒ Auto-combustion occurring before normal ignition


ƒ PFP angle may occur before TDC
ƒ Causes mechanical and thermal stress on piston, wrist pin,
connecting rod and bearings

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Combustion
PT for a dead cylinder, soft fire, and detonation
K203 - E Cylinder P3 11/21/1996 2:13:03 PM Period 1
109 251 EXHAUST VALVE
600 126 234 INTAKE VALVE
FUEL VALVE 206 307
550
500
450
400
Pressure (psig)

Detonation
350
300
250
200
150
Soft (Late) Fire
100
50 Dead
0 Cylinder

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)
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60
Combustion
PV for a dead cylinder, soft fire, and detonation
K203 - E cylinder P3 11/21/1996 2:13:03 PM Period 1
550
500
450
400
350
Pressure (psig)

300
Detonation
250
200
150 Soft (Late) Fire

100
Dead Cylinder
50

0 25 50 75 100
% swept volume
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Analyzing the mechanical


condition of engines

„ Valves
„ Liners
„ Rods and wrist pins
„ Rings
„ Ignition systems

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61
Valve Train

Rocker Arm
Valve Lifter
Push Rod
Valve Springs

Valve Stem

Exhaust Port

Valve Seat

Cam Follower

Cam Lobe

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Valve Train
Common problems

Mechanical Leakage
„ Loose/worn rocker arm „ Burnt valves
„ Improper lifter clearance „ Deposits on valve seat
„ Broken springs „ Damaged seat
„ Incorrect spring tension „ Bent valve stem
„ Worn valve guide
„ Worn or mis-timed cam
„ Excessive cam gear lash

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62
Valve Train
Incorrect clearance

„ May cause the valve to Excessive


Normal
Lift
open and close at the Lash

wrong time

Lift
„ Valve opening event
can be noisy – the
clearance is taken up Crank Angle
on the leading edge of
the cam lobe

Vibration
„ Can cause noisy valve
closure if the valve is
dropped onto the seat
Valve opens Valve closes
late & sharp early & drops
on seat
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Valve Train
Hydraulic lifters

„ Hydraulic lifters maintain correct valve timing


and minimize valve train wear over a wide
range of operating conditions
„ Oil pressure within the lifter maintains correct
clearances in the valve train
If the lifter collapses…
„ The valve may open late and close early
„ The vibration pattern shows impacts at
opening and closure

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63
Valve Train
Excessive EV clearance (KVGR with solid lifters)
K1F - E 12/13/1994 11:19:43 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:

2.5 2.5
P

P1 0.0 0.0 P7
-2.5 -2.5

2.5 2.5

P2 0.0 0.0 P8
P

-2.5 -2.5

2.5 2.5

P3 0.0 0.0 P9
P

-2.5 -2.5

2.5 2.5

P4 0.0 0.0 P10


4

-2.5 -2.5
P

2.5 2.5

P5 0.0 0.0 P11


-2.5 -2.5
P

2.5 2.5

P6 0.0 0.0 P12


-2.5 -2.5
P

0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720

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Valve Train
Vibration comparison for a leaking EV (KVGR)
2.5 2.5

P1 0.0 0.0 P7
-2.5 -2.5

2.5 2.5

P2 0.0 0.0 P8
-2.5 -2.5

2.5 2.5

P3 0.0 0.0 P9
-2.5 -2.5

2.5 2.5

P4 0.0 0.0 P10


-2.5 -2.5

2.5 2.5

P5 0.0 0.0 P11


-2.5 -2.5

2.5 2.5

P6 0.0 0.0 P12


-2.5 -2.5

0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720 0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720

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64
Valve Train
PT and PV: leaking exhaust valves (KVGR)

Intake 294 580


500 150 390 Exhaust 500
1 low compression
450 450
2 low PFP
400 400
Normal Normal 3 low expansion
350 350
High exhaust temp
Pressure (psig)

300 300
2 2
250 250

200 200

150 1 150

100 100

50 50
1
3 3
0 0

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
Angle (deg) 0 25 50 75 100
% swept volume

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Valve Train
Worn rocker arms (KVGR)
K1D - E 2/3/1997 10:52:37 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:

2.5 2.5

0.0 0.0
P1 P7
-2.5 -2.5

2.5 2.5

0.0 0.0
P2 P8
-2.5 -2.5

2.5 2.5

0.0 0.0
P3 P9
-2.5 -2.5

2.5 2.5

0.0 0.0
P4 P10
-2.5 -2.5

2.5 2.5

0.0 0.0
P5 -2.5 -2.5
P11

2.5 2.5

0.0 0.0
P6 -2.5 -2.5
P12

0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720 0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720

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65
Valve Train
Worn cam gear (KVS)
NO-4 - E 2/28/1995 1:38:59 PM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
2 2

P1 0 0 P7
-2 -2
2 2

P2 0 0 P8
-2 -2
2 2

P3 0 0 P9
-2 -2
2 2

P4 0 0 P10
-2 -2
2 2

P5 0 0 P11
-2 -2
2 2

P6 0 0 P12
-2 -2
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720 0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720

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Valve Train
Worn cam gear (KVS)

NO-4 - E Cylinder P12 2/28/1995 1:38:59 PM NO-4 - E Cylinder P6 2/28/1995 1:38:59 PM


161 410 EXHAUST VALVE 161 410 EXHAUST VALVE
1000 INTAKE VALVE 325 575 1000 INTAKE VALVE 325 575
FUEL VALVE 536 621 FUEL VALVE 536 621
900 900 -

800 800 -

700 700 - P6 VT4


Pressure (psig)
Pressure (psig)

600 600 -

500 500 - Scale 2.0

400 400 -

300 300 -

200 200 -

100 100 -

0 0

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
Angle (deg) Angle (deg)

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66
Valve Train
Leaking fuel valve (HLA)

C2A-E 10/10/2001 6:28:53 AM


Engine Cylinders: Phased Ultrasonic ULT:

5 5

1F 0 0 5F
-5 -5

5 5
Hard closures
2F 0 0 6F
-5 -5

5 5

3F 0 Leakage 0 7F
-5 -5

5 5

4F 0 0 8F
-5 -5

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 3600 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360

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Valve Train
Leaking fuel valve (HLA)
C2A-E Cylinder 8 10/10/2001 6:28:53 AM Period 9
130 230 Intake
700 110 250 Exhaust --------------
Fuel 213 283 -
-
- 8FV ULT
600 -
-- Scale 4.0
-
-
500 -
- Leak as
---------------
-
P rises
-
400
Pressure (psig)

- 8 ULT
-
-- Scale 4.0
-
300 -
-
-
---------------
200 -
-
- 8 VT4
-
-- Scale 2.0
100
-
-
-
-
0 --------------

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Angle (deg)
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67
Valve Train
Analysis summary

Fault Characteristics
Normal „ Valve opening events are quiet or absent
„ Valve events are similar across the entire engine
„ Closing events are at expected crank angle, single
impact of short duration
„ No leakage occurs after valve closure

Worn rocker „ Multiple impact following normal valve closure


„ Excessive noise on opening or closure
bushing
Excessive „ Valve opens late and closes early
„ Impact noises on valve closure
lifter
„ Sometimes see impact on opening
clearance
„ Early closing exhaust valves may raise the PV toe

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Valve Train
Analysis summary (cont.)

Fault Characteristics
Broken „ Impact noises on opening and closure
„ Valve may close late
valve spring
Worn valve „ Roughness seen in vibration pattern as valve opens
and closes
guide
„ Valve may hang up in the guide and not close at the
correct time
„ May see gas leakage if valve does not seat properly

Cam gear „ Impacts in the vibration as gear teeth pass each other
„ May cause excessive wear on the cam lobe leading to
faults
rough vibration pattern
„ When troubleshooting, be prepared to move the
vibration transducer around

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68
Valve Train
Analysis summary (cont.)

Fault Characteristics
Leaking „ Blowby pattern appears when pressure rises in the
cylinder
valves
Improper „ Multiple impacts on valve closure as valve finds the
seat
valve
„ Look for differences in valve closure across the engine
seating „ Can be caused by beat-out seat, worn/broken/incorrect
spring, worn guide, loose rocker arm, bent valve stem
„ May see blowby pattern when pressure is high in the
cylinder

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Pistons, Rods, Rings and Liners

SOURCE: navsci.berkeley.edu/ ns10/piston.htm


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69
Piston slap

„ Piston slap occurs when the piston skirt


impacts the liner
„ Tends to occur after peak pressure when the
pressure is high and there are side forces on
the piston
„ Becomes more pronounced when the
clearance in the upper cylinder increases due
to ring wear

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Piston Slap
Low frequency vibration showing piston slap (HLA)
C2A-E 6/5/2001 8:23:09 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Acceleration VTL:

5 5
1 0 0 5
-5 -5

5 5
2 0 0 6
-5 -5

5 5
3 0 0 7
-5 -5

5 5
4 8
0 0
-5 -5

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360

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70
Piston Slap
Low frequency vibration showing piston slap (HLA)
C2A-E Cylinder 3 6/5/2001 8:23:09 AM Period 6
130 230 Intake
700 110 250 Exhaust --------------
Fuel 213 283 -
Not always visible -
- 3FV ULT
in ultrasonic -
600 -- Scale 20.0
--
-
--
Pressure (psig)

--------------
500 --
- 3 ULT
-- Scale 4.0
400 --
-
-
--------------
-
-
300 -
- 3 VTL
-- Scale 6.0
-
-
200 -
-
-
--------------
--
- 3 VT4
100 -- Scale 2.0
--
-
0 -
--------------

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Angle (deg)
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Piston Rods

„ Excessive wrist pin and connecting rod


bearing clearances produce “impacts” at load
reversal in the piston pin bushing
„ in 4-stroke engines, vibration spikes occur
near TDC
„ in 2-stroke engines, vibration spikes occur
near BDC
„ There is usually cycle-to-cycle variability in
the location of the vibration

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71
Piston Rods
Wrist pin load for a 2-stroke engine
Wrist pin load in a 2 stroke engine

250000
Gas force
Vibration occurs
200000 around BDC
where load is minimal Total force
150000
Force (lbs)

Inertia
100000

50000

-50000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
Degrees

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Piston Rods
Wrist pin load for a 4-stroke engine
Wrist pin load in a 4 stroke engine

250000

Gas force
200000 Vibration occurs
around TDC
Total force where load reverses
150000
Force (lbs)

Inertia
100000

50000

-50000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
Degrees

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72
Piston Rods
Excessive wrist pin clearance (KVS)
K200 - E Cylinder P6 1/16/1996 9:39:11 AM Period 6
137 417 EXHAUST VALVE
INTAKE VALVE 300 565 --------------
FUEL VALVE 502 611
700
-

600 -

- P6 VT4
500
Pressure (psig)

-
400
- - Scale 2.0

300 -

-
200

-
100
-

0 --------------

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
Angle (deg)
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Piston Rings
Worn or improperly loaded rings

„ The presence of gas passing noise when


cylinder pressures are high indicates blowby
„ Be careful though, it could be leakage around
rings or valves
„ A damaged liner will prevent rings from
sealing properly
„ Even moderate blowby may be sufficient to
cause a significant rise in the engine
crankcase pressure
„ Ring fouling prevents pressure from getting
behind the rings to load them properly
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73
Liners
Scuffing and scoring

„ Liner scuffing or scoring is often seen as symmetric


vibration spikes around TDC
„ For a 2-stroke engine, piston rings pass the same point
twice in one cycle
„ For a 4-stroke engine, piston rings pass the same point
4 times in one cycle
„ Ring loading affects the degree that each event is seen
„ Wear is usually faster in the upper liner due to high
PFP
„ Crankcase pressure may increase due to blowby
resulting from the liner wear

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Liners
Liner groove (KVS, P2, 10 rotations)
NO-6 - E 12/21/1995 8:14:16 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:

2 2

P2 (MMM) 0 0 P2 (6)

-2 -2
2 2

P2 (1) 0 0 P2 (7)

-2 -2
2 2

P2 (Med 2) 0 0 P2 (8)

-2 -2
2 2

P2 (3) 0 0 P2 (9)

-2 -2
2 2

P2 (4) 0 0 P2 (10)

-2 -2
2 2

P2 (5) 0 0

-2 -2
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720 0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720

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74
Liners
Liner groove (KVS)

NO-6 - E Cylinder P2 12/21/1995 8:14:16 AM Period 2


151 403 EXHAUST VALVE
1000 INTAKE VALVE 345 560 --------------
FUEL VALVE 504 610
900 -
Symmetric angle cursors
800
reveal liner groove
-

700 - P2 VT4

600 -
Pressure (psig)

500 - - Scale 2.0

400 -

300 -

200 -

100 -

0 --------------
20 340 380 700

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
Angle (deg)

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Liners
Liner groove (KVS)
NO-6 - E 12/21/1995 8:14:16 AM
Crosstalk from P1
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
exhaust blowdown

Crosstalk from P3 exhaust blowdown


2 2

P2 (MMM) 0 0 P2 (6)

-2 -2
2 2

P2 (1) 0 0 P2 (7)

-2 -2
2 2

P2 (Med 2) 0 0 P2 (8)

-2 -2
2 2

P2 (3) 0 0 P2 (9)

-2 -2
2 2

P2 (4) 0 0 P2 (10)

-2 -2
2 2

P2 (5) 0 0

-2 -2
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720 0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720

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75
Liners
Crosstalk from exhaust event on P3 (KVS)
NO-6 - E 12/21/1995 8:14:16 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
2 2
P1 0
0 P7
422
-2 17
-2
2 2
P2 0
0 P8
662
-2 257
-2
2 2
P3 0
0 P9
182
-2 497
-2
2 2
P4 0 0P10
542 137
-2 -2
2 2
P5 0 0P11
-2
302 Unphased cursor indicates 617
-2
2 crosstalk from other cylinders 2
P6 0 0P12
62 377
-2 -2
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720 0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720

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Liners
Liner wear (KVS)
NO-6 - E 3/19/1996 1:28:36 PM NO-6 - E 3/19/1996 1:28:36 PM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4: Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
2 2

P1 0 0 P7
-2 -2
2 2

P2 0 0 P8

-2 -2
2 2

P3 0
Chatter as loaded 0 P9
rings pass over wear -2
-2
2 2

P4 0 0 P10

-2 -2
2 2

P5 0 0 P11

-2 -2
2 2

P6 0 P12
0

-2 -2

0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720 0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720

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76
Liners
Liner wear (KVS)
NO-6 - E Cylinder P7 3/19/1996 1:28:36 PM Period 2
151 403 EXHAUST VALVE
1000 INTAKE VALVE 345 560 --------------
FUEL VALVE 504 610

900 -

800 -

700 - P7 VT4
Pressure (psig)

600 -

500 - - Scale 2.0

400 -

300 -

200 -

100 -

0 --------------

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
Angle (deg)
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Liners
Liner wear confirmed by symmetric cursor (KVS)
NO-3 - E Cylinder P5 5/1/1995 8:06:19 AM Period 2
161 410 EXHAUST VALVE
1000 INTAKE VALVE 325 575 --------------
FUEL VALVE 536 621

900 -

800 -

700 - P5 VT4
Pressure (psig)

600 -

500 - - Scale 2.0

400 -

300 -

Symmetric cursor indicates


200 -
the liner is worn.

100 -

0 128 232 488 592


--------------

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
Angle (deg)
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77
Liners
Liner wear (KVS)
NO-3 - E 5/1/1995 8:06:19 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
1 1
P1 0 0 P7
-1 -1

1 1
P2 0 0 P8
-1 -1

1 1
P3 0 0 P9
-1 -1

1 1
P4 0 0 P10
-1 -1

1 1
P5 0 0 P11
-1 -1

1 1
P6 0 0 P12

-1 -1

0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720 0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720

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Liners
Port bridge wear (HLA)
C2A-E 10/10/2001 6:28:53 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Ultrasonic ULT:
10 10

1 5
0 0

-10 -10
10 10

2 0 0 6

-10 -10
10 10

3 0 0 7

-10 -10
10 10

4 0 0 8

-10 -10

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360

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78
Liners
Port bridge (HLA)
C2A-E Cylinder 4 10/10/2001 6:28:53 AM Period 6
130 230 Intake
700 110 250 Exhaust --------------
Fuel 213 283 -
Excessive -
- 4FV ULT
ring noise
600 -
- - Scale 10.0
-
-
-
500
-
---------------
-
Pressure (psig)

-
400 - 4 ULT
-
- - Scale 10.0
-
300 -
-
-
---------------
200 -
-
- 4 VT4
-
100 - - Scale 2.0
-
-
-
-
0 --------------

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Angle (deg)
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Ignition Systems

„ Provide the energy to begin the chain


reaction in the air/fuel mixture and consists
of…
„ Power supply
„ Timing circuit
„ Distribution mechanism
„ Transformer
„ Spark plug

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79
Ignition Systems
Ignition Primaries
Zener C402 - E Cylinder P1L 07/03/1997 8:07:43 AM
Gates
5.5
P4L P5L P2L P3L P6L P1L
5.0 P1R P4R P5R P2R P3R P6R
4.5
4.0

TDC Voltage (V)


3.5
3.0
Voltages should 2.5
be similar
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)

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Ignition Systems
Ignition secondaries

Capacitor Coil ring down


Discharges
Secondary Voltage

Plug Stops Firing

Arc Duration

Indication of
ionization voltage

0 1 2 3 4 5
Time (ms)

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80
Ignition Systems
Typical ignition secondary patterns
C402 - E 09/09/1998 12:02:53 PM

0 0

P4LL P5LR
(Med 1) (Med 1)
Ignition timing angle = 5.7 Ignition timing angle = 5.9

0 0

P4LR P6LL
(Med 1) (Med 1)
Ignition timing angle = 5.9 Ignition timing angle = 5.9

0 0

P5LL P6LR
(Med 1) (Med 1)
Ignition timing angle = 6.3 Ignition timing angle = 6.1

0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5

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Ignition Faults
Timing

„ Advanced timing can cause…


„ early combustion
„ early and increased PFP
„ detonation
„ lower exhaust temps
„ Retarded timing can cause…
„ delayed combustion
„ late and low PFP
„ misfires/soft fires
„ higher exhaust temperatures

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81
Ignition Faults
Typical spark plug problems

„ Excessive gap – ionization voltage increases,


strong spark
„ Insufficient gap – ionization voltage
decreases, weak spark
„ Fouling – build up of contaminants decreases
gap and causes ionization voltage to
decrease
„ Plug wear or metal flaking – increases gap
therefore increases ionization voltage

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Ignition Faults
Cables

„ Corrosion build up reduces ionization voltage


„ Damaged or loose cables can cause ground
faults and arcing to cylinder head

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82
Ignition Faults
Coils

„ Check for correct polarity


„ Look at coil ring down to assess coil winding
condition

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Ignition Faults
Two bad coils – plug did not fire
C402 - E 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM Secondary Ignition (Y Axis: mV -- X Axis: ms)
0 0

P1LL -250 Ignition timing angle = 5.5 P1RL Ignition timing angle = 5.7
-250

0 0
P1LR -250 P1RR
Ignition timing angle = 6.4 -250 Ignition timing angle = 5.9

0 0

P2LL -250 Ignition timing angle = 5.4 P2RL Ignition timing angle = 5.6
-250

0 0
P2LR P2RR
-250 Ignition timing angle = 5.1 -250 Ignition timing angle = 5.5

0 0

P3LL -250 Ignition timing angle = 5.7 P3RL Ignition timing angle = 5.9
-250

0 0
P3LR P3RR
-250 Ignition timing angle = 5.9 -250 Ignition timing angle = 5.4

0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
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83
Ignition Faults
Reversed coil
10JVGE-E 4/24/2001 7:34:26 AM 10JVGW-E 4/24/2001 10:55:35 AM
Secondary Ignition (Y Axis: mV -- X Axis: ms) Secondary Ignition (Y Axis: mV -- X Axis: ms)
200
200
100

P1C 0 P1C -0
-100

-200
200
200
100

P2C 0 P2C -0
-100

-200
200
200
100

P3C 0 P3C -0
-100

-200
200
200
100

P4C 0 P4C -0
-100

-200

0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5

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Analyzing Compressor Faults

„ What faults can we detect?


„ Characterizing the normal compressor
„ Identifying faults

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84
Compressor faults we can detect

Valve condition Cylinder and rod condition


• suction valve leaks • ring leaks
• discharge valve leaks • liner or piston wear
• slamming • rider band wear
• excessive lift • crosshead knocks
• valve flutter • cylinder stretch
• broken springs • main bearings

Performance Auxiliary equipment


• capacity • piping and vessels
• horsepower • foundation and grout
• excess rod load and lack of
reversal
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Characterizing the machine

„ Analysts use all of these:


„ Operating data
„ Pressure and vibration versus time (PT/VT)
„ Pressure versus volume (PV)
„ Log P versus Log V
„ Historical data, maintenance logs
„ Population comparison
„ Calculation results
„ Normalized parameters

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85
Characterizing the compressor
Normal PT/VT
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800 --------------
-
-
- 4HD1 VT1
750 -
- Scale 7.0
-
- 150 DGF
700 -
-
---------------
-
650 -
- 4HD2 VT1
-
Pressure (psig)

- Scale 8.3
- 152 DGF
600 -
-
-
---------------
550 -
-
- 4HS1 VT1
-
500 - Scale 7.9
- 91 DGF
-
-
-
450 ---------------
-
-
- 4HS2 VT1
400 -
- Scale 8.7
- 91 DGF
-
350 -
-
--------------

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)

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Characterizing the compressor


Leaking HE discharge valve: PT/VT
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8

800 --------------
-
-
- 4HD1 VT1
750 -
- Scale 7.0
- 150 DGF
-
700 -
-
---------------
-
650 -
- 4HD2 VT1
-
Pressure (psig)

- Scale 8.3
- 152 DGF
600 -
-
-
---------------
550 -
-
- 4HS1 VT1
-
500 - Scale 7.9
- 91 DGF
-
-
-
450 ---------------
-
-
- 4HS2 VT1
400 -
- Scale 8.7
- 91 DGF
-
350 -
-
--------------

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)

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86
Characterizing the compressor
Leaking HE suction valve: PT/VT
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800 --------------
-
-
- 4HD1 VT1
750 -
- Scale 7.0
-
- 150 DGF
700 -
-
---------------
-
650 -
- 4HD2 VT1
-
Pressure (psig)

- Scale 8.3
- 152 DGF
600 -
-
-
---------------
550 -
-
- 4HS1 VT1
-
500 - Scale 7.9
- 91 DGF
-
-
-
450 ---------------
-
-
- 4HS2 VT1
400 -
- Scale 8.7
- 91 DGF
-
350 -
-
--------------

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)

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Characterizing the compressor


Leaking Rings: PT/VT
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8

800 --------------
-
-
- 4HD1 VT1
750 -
- Scale 7.0
- 150 DGF
-
700 -
-
---------------
-
650 -
- 4HD2 VT1
-
Pressure (psig)

- Scale 8.3
- 152 DGF
600 -
-
-
---------------
550 -
-
- 4HS1 VT1
-
500 - Scale 7.9
- 91 DGF
-
-
-
450 ---------------
-
-
- 4HS2 VT1
400 -
- Scale 8.7
- 91 DGF
-
350 -
-
--------------

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)

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87
Characterizing the compressor
Normal PV
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800
Actual
750 PV

700
VEd

650
Pressure (psig)

600
Theoretical
550 PV

500

450
VEs
400

350

0 25 50 75 100
Percent swept volume

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Characterizing the compressor


Leaking HE suction valve: PV
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800

750

700
VEd

650
Pressure (psig)

600

550

500

450
VEs
400

350

0 25 50 75 100
Percent swept volume

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88
Characterizing the compressor
Leaking HE discharge valve: PV
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800

750

700
VEd

650
Pressure (psig)

600

550

500

450
VEs
400

350

0 25 50 75 100
Percent swept volume

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Characterizing the compressor


Leaking rings
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800

750

700

650
Pressure (psig)

600

550

500

450

400

350

0 25 50 75 100
Percent swept volume

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89
Characterizing the compressor
Normal LogP-LogV
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM
HE ratios calculated using geometry. CE ratios calculated using geometry.
Head End

ne = 1.26 nc = 1.26

End 4H Step 1 = 28.8%

n ratio = 1.00

n ratio = 1.00
End 4C Step 1 = 31.2%
Crank End

nc = 1.25

ne = 1.24

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Characterizing the compressor


Leaking HE suction valve: LogP-LogV
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM
HE ratios calculated using geometry. CE ratios calculated using geometry.
Head End

ne = 1.35 nc = 1.10

End 4H Step 1 = 28.8%

n ratio = 1.23

Normal n ratio = 1

n ratio = 1.00
End 4C Step 1 = 31.2%
Crank End

nc = 1.25

ne = 1.24

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90
Characterizing the compressor
Leaking HE discharge valve: LogP-LogV
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM
HE ratios calculated using geometry. CE ratios calculated using geometry.
Head End

ne = 1.35 nc = 1.23

End 4H Step 1 = 28.8%

n ratio = 0.85

Normal n ratio = 1

n ratio = 1.00
End 4C Step 1 = 31.2%
Crank End

nc = 1.25

ne = 1.24

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Characterizing the compressor


Leaking rings: LogP-LogV
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM
HE ratios calculated using geometry. CE ratios calculated using geometry.
Head End

ne = 1.26 nc = 1.26

End 4H Step 1 = 28.8%

n ratio = 1.00

n ratio = 1.00
End 4C Step 1 = 31.2%
Crank End

nc = 1.25

ne = 1.24

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91
Characterizing the compressor
Flow balance

„ Flow balance is the ratio of suction capacity to


discharge capacity.
Suction Capacity
Flow Balance =
Disch arg e Capacity
Suction Capacity ∝ VEs
Disch arg e Capacity ∝ VEd

„ Ideally, this ratio should be 1.00.


„ Valve and ring leaks can change VEs and VEd and
cause flow balance to deviate from 1.00.
„ Flow balance is a “Normalized Parameter” because it
is relatively independent of operating conditions.
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Characterizing the compressor


Discharge temperature delta (DTD)

„ DTD is the difference between the actual and theoretical


discharge temperatures.
„ The actual discharge temperature is measured in the discharge
nozzle.
„ The theoretical discharge temperature is calculated from the gas
properties, Ts, Pd and Pd.
„ A high DTD indicates that the discharge gas is hotter than
expected.
„ This is often caused by friction as the gas passes through a
restriction such as a leaking valve or ring.

DTD = Td,actual − Td,theoretical


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92
Characterizing the compressor
Normal valve cap temperatures
K200 - C Cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM

175 Discharge
Usually less
150 than Td

Usually warmer
Temperature (F)

125 than Ts

100
Suction
75

50

25

0
S2 S1 D2 D1 S2 S1 D2 D1
Head End (Stage# 1) Crank End (Stage# 1)

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Compressor Faults

„ Pressure Leaks

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93
Pressure Leaks
Sources of leaks and analysis tools

„ Examples „ Analysis tools


„ Suction valves „ PV card
„ Discharge valves „ Vibration patterns
„ Packing „ Temperatures
„ Rings „ Flow Balance
„ LogP-LogV

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Pressure Leaks
CE suction valve leak: PT/VT

1250
--------------
-
1200 -
-
- 3CD4 ULT
-
1150 - Scale 30.0
-
-
-
126 DGF
1100 -
- --------------
-
1050 -
-
3CD3 ULT
Pressure (psig)

-
-
1000 - Scale 30.0
-
-
-
148 DGF
950 -
- --------------
-
900 -
-
- 3CS2 ULT
850 -
- Scale 30.0
-
-
-
86 DGF
800
-
- --------------
750 -
-
-
- 3CS1 ULT
700 -
- Scale 30.0
-

650
-
-
78 DGF
-
--------------
600

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360

Crank Angle (deg)


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94
Pressure Leaks
HE Suction valve leak: PT/VT
Unit1-C cylinder 4 1/22/2002 8:35:12 AM HE Period 4, CE Period 7

--------------
1000 -
-
- 4HD3 VT1
-
- Scale 8.0
- 95 DGF
950 -
-
-
---------------
-
900 -
- 4HD4 VT1
-
Pressure (psig)

- Scale 8.0
- 94 DGF
-
850 -
-
---------------
-
-
- 4HS1 VT1
800 -
- Scale 8.0
- 61 DGF
-
-
750 -
---------------
-
-
- 4HS2 VT1
-
700 - Scale 8.0
- 73 DGF
-
-
-
650 --------------

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)

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Pressure Leaks
HE Suction valve leak: PV
Unit1-C cylinder 4 1/22/2002 8:35:12 AM HE Period 4, CE Period 7

1000

950

900
Pressure (psig)

850

HE PT
800 HE
theoretical
750 PT

700

650

0 25 50 75 100
Percent swept volume

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95
Pressure Leaks
HE Suction valve leak: LogP-LogV

Unit1-C cylinder 4 1/22/2002 8:35:12 AM


Head End

ne = 1.14 nc = 0.73

End 4H Step 9 = 61.1%


n ratio = 1.55

n ratio = 1.02
End 4C Step 9 = 66.3%
Crank End

nc = 1.34

ne = 1.36

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Pressure Leaks
HE Suction valve leak: Valve Cap Temps
High
temperature
Unit1-C Cylinder 4 1/22/2002 8:35:12 AM

100

90 Discharge

80

70
Temperature (F)

60

Suction
50

40

30

20

10

0
S1 S2 D3 D4 S1 S2 D3 D4
Head End (Stage# 1) Crank End (Stage# 1)
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96
Pressure Leaks
HE suction valve leak: Health Report

Compressor Health Report

Unit Name: Unit1-C Model: HBA Date: 1/22/2002 8:35:12 AM


Location: Pipeline 1 UnitMfr: CLARK Serial No.: 302
Mechanical Efficiency, % 95 Marker Correction Angle, deg 156.0 Periods Collected (PT) 11
Overall Efficiency, % 85 Stroke, (ins) 17.000
Atmospheric Pressure, psia 14.0 Speed, RPM 296 Specific Gravity 0.554
Load Step 9 SPDW, Suction Pressure, psi 722 DPDW, Discharge Pressure, psi 946
DTS, Discharge Temperature, F 86 STS, Suction Temperature, F 41 TAMB, Ambient Temperature, F 46
TORQ, Torque, % 89
Clr Rod ConRod Pressure Temp. Calc. Indicated Suction Disch. Dis T Rod
Cyl Stg Set Bore Diam Length Ps Pd Ts Td Comp. Capacity Power Loss Loss Flow Delta Load SVE DVE
End (%) (ins) (ins) (ins) (psig) Ratio (mmscfd) (ihp) (ihp) (ihp) Balance (F) (%) (%) (%)
1H 1 61 10.500 N/A 45.000 710 939 54F 81F 1.32 14.79 181.9 -0.4 12.6 0.96 -10 41C 74 61
1C 1 67 10.500 3.000 45.000 712 953 54F 81F 1.33 15.56 185.9 -1.7 2.5 0.99 -12 33T 84 67
2H 1 61 10.500 N/A 45.000 719 941 53F 81F 1.30 15.18 182.7 5.3 11.8 0.98 -7 40C 75 62
2C 1 67 10.500 3.000 45.000 715 957 53F 81F 1.33 15.62 187.3 2.5 -1.7 0.97 -11 33T 84 69
3H 1 61 10.500 N/A 45.000 723 940 53F 81F 1.29 15.57 193.6 11.6 15.7 0.97 -6 40C 76 64
3C 1 67 10.500 3.000 45.000 726 948 53F 81F 1.30 15.16 182.2 13.5 6.5 0.99 -6 32T 80 65
4H 1 61 10.500 N/A 45.000 724 929 52F 88F 1.28 13.16 185.6 13.4 15.6 1.34 9 39C 85 54
4C 1 67 10.500 3.000 45.000 727 952 52F 88F 1.30 16.13 194.6 12.6 6.3 1.01 5 33T 86 70
Total Indicated Power, (ihp) 1494 @ 296 RPM Rated Power, (bhp) 1760 @ 300 RPM
Gas Power, (ghp) 1573 @ 296 RPM Derated Power, (bhp) 1739 @ 296 RPM
Auxiliary Power, (bhp) 0 @ 300 RPM Percent Torque Load, % 90 %
Compressor Total Power, (bhp) 1573 @ 296 RPM Compressor Efficiency, % 92 %

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Pressure Leaks
Leaking rings
C-140 cylinder 4 07/26/2002 11:55:03 AM C-140 cylinder 4 07/26/2002 11:55:03 AM
End 4H Step 4 = 27.5%
1800
nc = 1.45
Head End

1700
ne = 1.48
1600 n ratio = 1.02
Pressure (psig)

1500

1400
End 4C Step 4 = 30.0%

1300
Crank End

1200
n ratio = 0.86
nc = 1.51

1100
ne = 1.30
1000
0 25 50 75 100
Percent swept volume
„The bulging beyond the expansion
„Minor ring leak in a hydrogen and compression lines indicates a
compressor. minor ring leak.
„Iron oxide was coming through the
pipeline wearing the rings down.
„Filters were installed in the suction inlet
to solve the problem.

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97
Pressure Leaks
Severely leaking rings
PV curve for a severe ring leak Log P - Log V plot for a severe ring leak

1000
End 2H Step 1 = 115.9%
n ratio = 2.57

nc = 1.62

Head End
950 ne = 4.17

900
Pressure (psig)

850 End 2C Step 1 = 116.5%


n ratio = 1.95

Crank End
nc = 1.73
800

ne = 3.37

750

0 25 50 75 100
Percent swept volume

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Pressure Leaks
Analysis summary
Observation Typical characteristics
Suction valve leak „ Gas passing vibration pattern when the differential pressure across the valve
is high. Vibration leak pattern is highest in the leaking valve.
„ Flow balance > 1.05
„ n ratio for LogP-LogV > 1.03
„ Elevated discharge temperature delta. Elevated valve cap temperature.
„ Rounded discharge toe on the PV. Discharge toe pressure drops.
„ Cylinder end capacity drops
„ Expansion and compression lines on PT and PV below theoretical
Discharge valve „ Gas passing vibration pattern when the differential pressure across the valve
leak is high. Vibration leak pattern is highest in the leaking valve.
„ Flow balance < 0.97
„ n ratio for LogP-LogV < 0.98
„ Rounded suction toe on the PV
„ Suction toe pressure rises
„ Abnormal discharge temperature delta and valve cap temperature.
Expansion through the discharge valve may actually lower the valve cap and
discharge temperature.
„ Cylinder end capacity drops
„ Expansion and compression lines on PT and PV above theoretical
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98
Pressure Leaks
Analysis summary (cont.)
Observation Typical characteristics
Packing leak „ All packing leaks a small amount. Excessive leakage looks similar to a
leaking suction valve.
„ Leakage pattern in crank end valves. Move the vibration sensor closer to the
packing to confirm.
„ Packing temperature increases. Check packing vent flow rate if so equipped.
„ Expansion and compression lines on PT and PV below theoretical
„ Gas passing vibration pattern near crank end when the pressure in the crank
end is higher than atmospheric.
„ Flow balance > 1.05
„ n ratio for LogP-LogV > 1.03
Ring leak „ Gas passing vibration pattern in all valves when the differential pressure
across the rings is high.
„ Flow balance generally increases.
„ Rounded suction and discharge toes on the PV
„ Suction toe pressure rises and discharge toe pressure falls.
„ Increase in discharge temperature delta.
„ Expansion and compression lines on PT and PV do not follow the ideal gas
law: PVn=constant.

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Compressor Faults

„ Valve Dynamics

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99
Valve Dynamics
Some causes of valve failures

„ Mechanical wear and fatigue


„ Foreign material in the gas stream
„ Abnormal action of the valve elements
„ Excessive valve lift for the application
„ Multiple opening and closing, valve flutter
„ Slamming
„ Resonance and pressure pulsations
„ Corrosive gases
„ Liquids in the gas
„ Deposits on the sealing elements and springs
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Valve Dynamics
Approach to analysis

„ Compare vibration patterns and look for differences


„ check history
„ check similar valves

„ Valve opening event is usually larger than closing


event
„ Valve closure is usually quiet. The sealing element is
lowered onto seat by the springs as the gas velocity
drops near TDC and BDC
„ Monitor valve loss since it represents wasted energy

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100
Compressor Analysis: valve slamming (poppet)
Unit2-C cylinder 1 6/5/2001 10:02:42 AM HE Period 1, CE Period 7
Channel Resonance is corrected

--------------

950 1CD3 VT1


- Scale 5.0
106 DGF
900
--------------
Unit2-C cylinder 1 1/3/2001 7:55:21 AM HE Period 5, CE Period 2
1CD4 VT1
850Channel Resonance is corrected
Pressure (psig) - Scale 5.0
105 DGF
--------------
800 1CD3 VT1 --------------
950
- Scale 5.0 1CS1 VT1
84 DGF - Scale 5.0
750
900 73 DGF
--------------
1CD4 VT1 --------------
700
850 - Scale 5.0 1CS2 VT1
Pressure (psig)

86 DGF - Scale 5.0


650 73 DGF
800 --------------
--------------
1CS1 VT1
750 - Scale 5.0
0 45 90 135 180 22552 DGF270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)
--------------
700
1CS2 VT1
- Scale 5.0
650 52 DGF

--------------
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© 2003 45 CONTROLS
90 135 180
SHORT COURSE: 225 ENGINE
BASIC
Crank Angle (deg)
270 315
& COMPRESSOR 360
ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 201

Valve Dynamics
Multiple opening events
RTC10002 - C cylinder 2 8/6/1992 11:27:32 AM HE Period 1, CE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
200 --------------
-
-
- 2HD3 VT1
-
175 - Scale 2.0
-
- 172 DGF
-
-
---------------
150 -
-
- 2HD4 VT1
Pressure (psig)

-
- Scale 2.0
- 177 DGF
125 -
-
-
---------------
-
-
- 2HS1 VT1
100 -
- Scale 2.0
- 86 DGF
-
-
-
75 ---------------
-
-
- 2HS2 VT1
-
- Scale 2.0
50 - 85 DGF
-
-
-
--------------

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)

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101
Valve Dynamics
Flutter
JC1A cylinder 5 1/29/2001 10:18:56 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 6
2250
--------------
-
-
2000 - 5CD2 ULT
-
- Scale 10.0
-
1750 - 183 DGF
Pressure (psig)

-
-
1500 ---------------
-
-
- 5CS1 ULT
1250 -
- Scale 10.0
-
- 85 DGF
1000 -
-
--------------

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Crank Angle (deg)
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Valve Dynamics
Analysis summary

Observation Typical characteristics


Hard opening „ May be caused by stiction on the seal or backguard. Stiction occurs when
Hard closure the force required to start motion is greater than the force required to
Late closure sustain it.
„ If slamming occurs at both opening and closing, it is likely that the springs
Broken springs
are too light or that they have been weakened or broken due to excessive
cycling.
„ High lift valves such as poppet valves may take some time to close. If
closure is too late the drag of the gas in the wrong direction may slam the
valve closed.
„ Pulsation may cause the pressure differential to increase suddenly
causing hard closure.
Early closure „ Excessive spring tension.
„ Pulsation may cause the pressure differential to decrease suddenly
causing early closure.

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102
Valve Dynamics
Analysis summary (cont.)

Observation Typical characteristics


Flutter „ Occurs when the valve plate oscillates between the seat and the guard. It
occurs because the flow of gas through the valve is insufficient to lift the
plate fully off the guard. On the vibration pattern, you will see multiple
opening and closing impacts.
„ Very heavy oscillation usually indicates that the springs are too stiff. Light
oscillation usually indicates that the lift is too high. Valve flutter may also
be present if there is excessive pulsation in the suction or discharge lines.
„ To correct the problem, reduce the valve lift and/or spring tension;
minimize pressure pulsation.
Multiple opening „ If valve lift is too great, the gas velocity will not be sufficient to keep the
valve open. The valve will then open and close multiple times. To correct
the problem, reduce valve lift to increase the pressure drop across the
valve.
„ Pulsations may cause the pressure differential across the ring to decrease
and increase to the point that the valves close and reopen.
„ Heavy springs may cause the valve to close early. The cylinder pressure
may cause the valve to reopen late in the stroke.

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Valve Dynamics
Analysis summary (cont.)

Observation Typical characteristics


Excessive loss „ Valve and passage loss calculated from the PV > 10% (rule of thumb)
„ Gas passing vibration patterns when the valve is open caused by high
velocity.
„ Valve lift or flow area insufficient.
„ Some of the sealing elements in the valve may be stuck reducing the
effective flow area.
„ PT and PV curve appears rounded during the suction or discharge phase.
Mechanical vibration „ Mechanical vibration during the suction or discharge phase can be caused
when plates or poppets hang up due to stiction or worn guides.

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103
Compressor Faults

„ Losses

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Compressor Losses
Calculating HP

„ It takes work to transport gas through a pipe


„ That work is the area inside the PV curve
„ The rate of doing work is horsepower
„ If we plot the PV card as pressure (psi) versus
volume (% stroke), we can use:
where:
PLAN
IHP =
P : Area inside the PV card
L : Stroke length
33,000 A : Area of the piston
N : cycles per minute (RPM)

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104
Compressor Losses
Pressure drop

„ The actual indicated power consumed compressing


gas is always somewhat larger than the theoretical
IHP
„ The main power difference is due to pressure drops
as the gas flows through the suction piping, suction
valves, discharge valves, and discharge piping.
„ To overcome these losses, the cylinder pressure
must drop below the suction pressure pressure
during the effective suction stroke and rise above the
discharge pressure during the effective discharge
stroke.

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Compressor Losses
No-loss IHP
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800
Actual
750 PV

700
Theoretical
650 PV
Pressure (psig)

600
No-loss indicated
power (IHP).
550
Minimum IHP
500 required to move
the gas
450

400

350

0 25 50 75 100
Percent swept volume

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105
Compressor Losses
Total IHP
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800
Total discharge
750 loss, IHP

700

650
Pressure (psig)

600 Total indicated


power (IHP),
550 including losses. Total suction
loss, IHP
500 Actually required
to move the gas.
450

400

350

0 25 50 75 100
Percent swept volume

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Compressor Losses
Magnitude of losses

„ Factors affecting the magnitude of losses are:


„ valve design
„ suction and discharge pressure
„ suction and discharge temperature
„ compressor speed
„ gas composition
„ suction and discharge piping design
„ compressor passage design

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106
Pulsation

„ Pressure waves caused by the suction and discharge


events in the compressor ends
„ Can cause vibration in piping
„ Vibration may be extreme if the pulsation coincides
with:
„ the acoustic resonance frequency of the piping
„ the mechanical natural frequency of the piping
„ Affects compressor performance
„ when valves open and close
„ volumetric efficiency (capacity)
„ HP consumed moving gas

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Pulsation
Nozzle Pressure Trace
RTC21000 - C cylinder 1 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM
Channel Resonance is corrected

Pressure in --------------
--- 1HD1 VT1
850 discharge -- Scale 2.0
-- 91 DGF
nozzle --
---------------
800 --- 1HD2 VT1
-- Scale 2.0
--- 92 DGF
----------------
750
--- 1HD3 VT1
Pressure (psig)

-- Scale 2.0
--- 91 DGF
700 ----------------
Pressure in --- 1HS1 VT1
-- Scale 2.0
650 suction -- 76 DGF
--
nozzle ---------------
--
-- 1HS2 VT1
600 -- Scale 2.0
-- 50 DGF
----------------
--
550 -- 1HS3 VT1
-- Scale 2.0
74 DGF
---
--------------
500
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)

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107
Pulsation
Total HE Power
RTC21000 - C cylinder 1 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM HE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
850

800

750
Pressure (psig)

700

Total HE Indicated Power = 514 IHP


650

600

550

0 25 50 75 100
Percent swept volume

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Pulsation
No-loss HE Power
RTC21000 - C cylinder 1 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM HE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
850

800

750
Pressure (psig)

700

No-loss IHP
650

600

550

0 25 50 75 100
Percent swept volume

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108
Pulsation
Total losses
RTC21000 - C cylinder 1 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM HE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
850

800

750
Total Discharge loss = 104 IHP, or 20%
Pressure (psig)

700

650

600
Total Suction loss = -11 IHP, or -3%

550

0 25 50 75 100
Percent swept volume

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Pulsation
Valve and Passage loss
RTC21000 - C cylinder 1 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM HE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
850

800

750
Discharge valve and passage loss = 24 IHP
Pressure (psig)

700

650

600 Suction valve and passage loss = 31 IHP

550

0 25 50 75 100
Percent swept volume

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109
Pulsation
Effect on HP
Compressor Horsepower And Capacity Report
Unit Name: RTC21000 - C Model: TCV10 Date: 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM
Location: FLL Unit Mfr: DRESSER RAND Serial No.:

Load Step: 3

Clearance Indicated Brake Total; Loss Valve & Pass; Loss Total Loss Calculated Capacity bhp/mmscfd
Cyl % of Swept Power Power (ihp) (ihp) (%) (mmscfd) Flow
End Volume (ihp) (bhp) Suction Disch. Suction Disch. Suction Disch. SVE* DVE** Balance Calc. Theor.

Stage: 1 New Stage

1H 158 514 541 -10.67 103.52 30.56 23.79 -2.08 20.13 32.00 35.05 0.913 16.9 14.0
1C 92 565 595 14.04 58.39 42.59 30.47 2.48 10.33 39.82 38.49 1.035 15.5 14.6
3H 132 546 575 29.33 28.31 36.02 32.57 5.37 5.18 37.00 35.27 1.049 16.3 15.5
3C 87 587 618 28.89 58.15 31.82 17.08 4.92 9.91 40.93 38.80 1.055 15.9 14.1
5H 127 609 641 27.22 101.62 32.76 38.29 4.47 16.70 36.86 38.90 0.948 17.4 14.1
5C 94 592 623 33.22 51.00 33.20 28.36 5.61 8.61 40.72 38.98 1.044 16.0 14.6

Stage Totals: 3413 3593 122.04 400.99 206.95 170.57 3.58 11.75 227.34 225.49 16.3 14.5

Auxiliary Power 61 bhp at 330 RPM


Compressor Total Power 3654 bhp and 225.49 mmscfd at 332 RPM
This is equivalent to 3632 bhp and 224.14 mmscfd at 330 RPM
Rated driver load to 4200 bhp at 330 RPM
Current torque level is 86.4 % of rated load at rated speed.

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Horsepower
Cost of horsepower loss
Engine And Compressor Economic Condition Report
Unit Name: RTC21000 - C Model: TCV10 Date: 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM
Location: FLL Unit Mfr: DRESSER RAND Serial No.:

Load Step: 3
Percent Load: 86.4 %

UNIT COSTS
Fuel Cost: 1673.37 $/day
Brake Power from the load: 3654.50 bhp
Cost of Each BHP: 0.46 $/bhp-day

ENGINE COSTS
Percent of Fuel Cost
Actual Fuel Consumption: 8675.17 BTU/BHP - hr
Predicted Fuel Consumption: 7434.80 BTU/BHP - hr
Deviation From Predicted: 1240.36 BTU/BHP - hr
Cost of Deviation: 239.26 $/day 14.3 %
7282.35 $/month
87388.25 $/year

COMPRESSOR COST OF LOSSES


Total Losses Adjusted Losses (Note 7) Estimated Cost of Losses Percent of Fuel Cost
Valve and Passage Losses: 397.38 bhp 377.51 bhp 172.86 $/day 10.3 %
Pulsation Losses: 153.18 bhp 145.52 bhp 66.63 $/day 4.0 %
Gas Recirculation Losses: 0.78 mmscfd 5.97 $/day 0.4 %

Total Compressor Cost: 245.46 $/day 14.7 %


7471.32 $/month
89655.86 $/year

TOTAL DEVIATION FROM PREDICTED


Percent of Fuel Cost
484.72 $/day 29.0 %
14753.67 $/month
177044.11 $/year
Unit running 365.25 days per year

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110
Compressor Rod Load

„ Why do we care about rod load?


„ What are the forces acting on the rod?

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Compressor Rods

„ Compressor piston rods bear all the force that is


applied to the gas
„ The manufacturer of the rods will specify the
maximum allowable rod load
„ Depending on the rod material and design, the rod
can bear in excess of 200,000 lbf
„ The crosshead pin must also bear these forces
„ Improper rod load can cause:
„ excessive wear in the crosshead bushing and pin
„ failure of the crosshead bushing
„ stress on the piston, piston nut, and other load bearing
components

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111
Compressor Rods
Forces

„ Gas force - exerted by pressure on both sides of the


piston
„ Inertial force - exerted by the mass and acceleration
of the reciprocating components
„ Total force = Gas force + Inertial force
„ Compressor rods should alternate from tension to
compression in each cycle. This is important for
lubrication of the crosshead pin and bushing
„ API 618 (June 1995) says:
“…the duration of this reversal shall not be less than 15 degrees of
crank angle, and the magnitude of the peak combined reversed
load shall be at least 3 percent of the actual combined load in
the opposite direction.”

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Compressor Rods
Gas force
Gas ForceCE = PCE ∗ AreaCE
PCE = CE cylinder pressure

AreaCE =
π
4
[( 2
)
piston diameter − (piston rod diameter )
2
]
Gas ForceHE = PHE ∗ AreaHE
PHE = HE cylinder pressure

AreaHE =
π
4
[( 2
)
piston diameter − ( tailrod diameter )
2
]
Compression Tension
(PHE ∗ AreaHE ) > (PCE ∗ AreaCE ) (PHE ∗ AreaHE ) < (PCE ∗ AreaCE )

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112
Compressor Rods
Gas force
K200 - C cylinder 1 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 9
60000 Maximum Rodload Tension: 60000
600
50000

40000 550
30000

20000 500
Pressure (psig)
Rod Load (lbs)

10000
450
0 Zero Rodload

-10000 400
-20000

-30000 350

-40000
300 Gas force
-50000
Maximum Rodload Compression: 60000
-60000 250
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)
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Compressor Rods
Inertial force
Displacement

„ Inertial Force = (mass of recip components)


x (instantaneous acceleration)
„ Differentiate piston displacement (top
graph) with respect to time to derive the 0 90 180 270 360

velocity (middle), then the differential of


Velocity

velocity with respect to time gives


acceleration (bottom)
„ Rod load due to inertia takes the form of the
acceleration curve 0 90 180 270 360
Acceleration

„ Inertial forces are more significant in:


„ high mass piston and rod
assemblies
0 90 180 270 360

„ high speed compressors Crankshaft Angle (degrees)

„ low compression ratio services


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113
Compressor Rods
Inertial force
K200 - C cylinder 1 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 9
60000 Maximum Rodload Tension: 60000
600
50000

40000 550
30000

20000 500
Pressure (psig)
Rod Load (lbs)

10000
450
0 Zero Rodload

-10000 400
-20000

-30000 350
Inertia
-40000
300
-50000
Maximum Rodload Compression: 60000
-60000 250
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)
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Compressor Rods
Total rod load force
K200 - C cylinder 1 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 9
60000 Maximum Rodload Tension: 60000
600
50000

40000 550
30000

20000 500
Pressure (psig)
Rod Load (lbs)

10000
450
0 Zero Rodload

-10000 400
-20000

-30000 350
Inertia
-40000
300 Gas force
-50000
Total
Maximum Rodload Compression: 60000
-60000 250
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)
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114
Compressor Rods
Tension only
301C - C cylinder 4 7/17/1997 8:23:05 AM HE Period 5, CE Period 6
75000 Maximum Rodload Tension: 75000
1000
Rod is in
900 tension
50000
throughout the
800 cycle

25000 700
Pressure (psig)
Rod Load (lbs)

600
0 Zero Rodload
500

-25000 400

300
Inertia
-50000
200 Gas force
Total
100 Maximum Rodload Compression: 75000
-75000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)

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Compressor Rods
Compression only
RTC13003 - C cylinder 2 11/9/1992 8:08:46 AM HE Period 1, CE Period 1
50000 Maximum Rodload Tension: 50000
1100
40000
Rod is in
1050 compression
30000
throughout
1000 the cycle
20000
Pressure (psig)
Rod Load (lbs)

950
10000

0 900
Zero Rodload
-10000 850
Unloaded CE
-20000 800

-30000 750 Inertia


Gas force
-40000 700
Maximum Rodload Compression: 50000 Total
-50000
650
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)

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115
Compressor Rods
Crosshead pin knock
RTC13002 - C cylinder 3 12/4/1991 7:43:52 AM HE Period 1, CE Period 1
60000 Maximum Rodload Tension: 60000
1100 --------------
50000 Knocks near rod
reversal points -
1050
40000
-
30000 1000
- 3T VT1
20000 950
Pressure (psig)
Rod Load (lbs)

10000 -
900
0 Zero Rodload - Scale 0.5
850
-10000 -
800
-20000
-
-30000 750
Inertia -
-40000 700
Gas force
-
-50000
650 Total
Maximum Rodload Compression: 60000 --------------
-60000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)

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Compressor Rods
Excess load
C-47 cylinder 1 07/26/2001 7:24:05 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected

350 Maximum Rodload Tension: 11000 --------------


-
10000 -
1XH
- VTL
300 -
- Scale
- 5.0
-
5000
-
Pressure (psig)
Rod Load (lbs)

-
250
-
Zero Rodload --------------
-
0 -
-
200 1XA
- VT1
-
-5000 - Scale
- 1.0
Inertia -
150 -
Gas force
-
Total
-
-10000 Maximum Rodload Compression: 11000 --------------
100
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)

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116
Compressor Rods
Crosshead knock
C-47 cylinder 1 07/26/2001 7:24:05 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected

350 Maximum Rodload Tension: 11000 --------------


-
10000 -
1XH
- VTL
300 -
- Scale
- 5.0
-
5000
-
Pressure (psig)
Rod Load (lbs)

-
250
-
Zero Rodload --------------
-
0 -
-
200 1XA
- VT1
-
-5000 -
- Scale 1.0
Crosshead Inertia -
150 -
Knock Gas force
-
Total
-
-10000 Maximum Rodload Compression: 11000 --------------
100
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)

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Compressor Rods
Analysis summary
Observation Typical characteristics
Rod load is above „ The crosshead pin, crosshead, piston, linkages and rod are stressed above
limit the manufacturer’s specified limit.
„ Adjust the loading on the compressor.
„ Change the line pressures.
Insufficient rod „ API 618 (June 1995) says:
load reversal “…the duration of this reversal shall not be less than 15 degrees of crank
angle, and the magnitude of the peak combined reversed load shall be at
least 3 percent of the actual combined load in the opposite direction.”
„ Unloading crank end suction valves can lead to insufficient reversal.
„ Adjust the loading on the compressor.
Knock at reversal „ Check the low frequency vibration reading types. Look for knocks when the
rod load changes from tension to compression and vice versa.

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117
Compressor Rod Motion

„ What is rod motion?


„ How is rod motion measured?
„ Analysis tools

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Rod Motion
Why is it important?

„ Ideally, rods should have translational recip motion


only
„ Motion is more complex due to:
„ imperfect alignment
„ flexibility of the rod
„ Analysis of rod motion is often used to identify:
„ cylinder alignment problems
„ rider band wear
„ cylinder liner wear
„ wear in the crosshead shoes

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118
Rod Motion
Cylinder rod runout and history (at 240 degrees)
2 ROD RODOUT cylinder 2-RR Top Probe Rod Motion 6/4/2002 9:48:02 AM
3.5
Current
3.0
2.5
Rod Motion (mil)

2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
-0.0
-0.5
-1.0 Previous
-1.5
-2.0

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360


Rod Motion History at 240 degrees for the Top Probe.
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1 6/26/2001 9/18/2001 11/27/2001 2/21/2002 6/4/2002
-2

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Rod Motion
Rod runout
2 ROD RODOUT cylinder 2-RR 6/4/2002 9:48:02 AM
Probe Overlay Runout (mil) Top Probe and Bottom

5
Bottom probe
4 sees rod
Top and bottom
3 probes see rising
similar motion
2 (rod movement) Top and bottom
1 probes indicate
opposite motion
0 (rod wear)
-1

-2

-3

-4 Top probe
sees rod
-5
dropping
-6
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360

Crank Angle (deg)

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119
Rod Motion
Analysis summary
Observation Typical characteristics
Trend of rod motion over „ Check for signs of rider band and liner wear.
time drops „ Examine the PV and LogP-LogV for signs of ring leakage.
„ It is possible that the crosshead shoes are wearing out. Check
shoes and crosshead lubrication.
The top and bottom probes „ The probes see the rod dropping most at 90 and 270 degrees
follow a W path from 0 to appearing to rise at TDC and BDC. The most common type of liner
360 degrees. wear has a barrel shape, more in the center than at the ends.
The top and bottom probes „ The liner is tapered, with most wear occurring in the crank end.
form a V shape from 0 to „ Check for excessive packing wear.
360 degrees „ Check cylinder alignment.
The top and bottom probes „ The liner is tapered, with most wear occurring in the head end.
form an inverted V shape „ Check for excessive packing wear.
from 0 to 360 degrees „ Check cylinder alignment.
Patterns for top and bottom „ The rod is worn where the separation occurs. If this is around BDC,
probes separate on the rod check the rod for wear near the packing.
runout plot. Top drops and
bottom rises.

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Frame Faults

„ Main bearings and crank pins

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120
Main and crank bearings
Behavior

„ Journals should ride on an oil film in the


bearing
„ There should be no metal-to-metal contact
„ We can often hear impact-type vibration if
„ the journal hits the bearing
„ the bearing shell is loose

„ Sometimes you can even feel it on the frame


„ This vibration can be detected with an
analyzer

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Main and crank bearings


Some causes of abnormal bearing wear

„ Insufficient oil „ Poor alignment


„on startup „main bearings
„ while running „ bent conrod

„ Fatigue „ Improper installation


„ excessive or insufficient
„ detonation
clearance
„ overload
„ damaged bearing or journal
„ non-uniform dynamic loading „ Cavitation in the oil
„ Contaminated oil „ Improper oil viscosity
„ particles „ Fretting while stationary
„ water

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121
Main and crank bearings
Measurements

„ It is difficult to get good data from main and crank


bearings:
„ The transmission path is long
„ There is a great deal of noise from other sources
„ Difficult to distinguish main and crank bearing vibration
„ Measurement location
„ Shortest transmission path is near frame cross
members
„ Measurement types
„ Low frequency phased acceleration
„ Unphased (free running) velocity

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Main and crank bearings


Phased, low frequency vibration
UNIT #4-E 7/17/2002 10:51:55 AM UNIT #4-E 7/17/2002 10:51:55 AM
Engine Vibration: Phased Vibration VT4: Engine Vibration: Phased Vibration VT4:
1.0 1.0
UNIT #4-EBRG1 (Med 3)

UNIT #4-EBRG4 (Med 4)

0.5 0.5

0.0 0.0

-0.5 -0.5

-1.0 -1.0
1.0 1.0
UNIT #4-EBRG2 (Med 1)

UNIT #4-EBRG5 (Med 7)

0.5 0.5

0.0 0.0

-0.5 -0.5

Look for vibration like these that


-1.0 -1.0
1.0
are not caused by crosstalk 1.0
UNIT #4-EBRG6 (Med 10)
UNIT #4-EBRG3 (Med 1)

0.5 0.5

0.0 0.0

-0.5 -0.5

-1.0 -1.0
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720 0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720

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122
Main and crank bearings
Analysis summary
Observation Typical characteristics
Low frequency vibration „ Vibration is strongest near the source – move the transducer around
shows mechanical knock- to find it. This will also help eliminate crosstalk from some other
type vibration component.
„ Always check oil analysis data. Look for babbitt material and dirt
that might contribute to wear.

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Conventional vibration

„ Some concepts
„ Applications

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123
Conventional Vibration
Some concepts

„ Vibration is the response of a machine, structure,


piping, fluid or gas to an excitation
„ Excitation is the disturbance (dynamic force) that
causes motion in the machine
„ Imbalance of a rotor
„ Response is the motion of the system caused by the
application of all combined excitations
„ Vibration that you feel
„ To really understand vibration, you must understand:
„ What the dynamic forcing functions are
„ What is responding to the force
„ How to measure the response

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Conventional Vibration
Free-running, non-phased data

„ Vibration is recorded independent of crankshaft


position
„ Returns
„ Overall vibration level
„ Spectrum showing frequency components
„ Common applications:
„ Structural vibration
„ Supports, foundations
„ Turbochargers
„ Oil and water pumps
„ Pressure pulsation

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124
Conventional Vibration
Overall level

„ We can use a single number to indicate how


much vibration is present
„ We call this the “overall” vibration level
„ Our industry typically uses the following units:
„ Displacement: mil (peak-peak)
„ Velocity: ips (peak) UPPER
SINUSOIDAL MOTION

„ Acceleration: g (peak)
PEAK PEAK
„ We use guidelines to RMS
TO
evaluate overall NEUTRAL PEAK

vibration severity

LOWER

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Conventional Vibration
Spectrum

„ We can get a sense of the level of vibration


by looking at the overall level
„ But - to understand vibration, we need to
know what frequencies are in it
„ “All periodic time domain signals can be
represented as the sum of a set of sine
waves”
„ The frequency domain plot, or spectrum, tells
us about these components

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125
Conventional Vibration
Acceleration, velocity and displacement

Type Useful frequency Applications


range

Displacement up to 30Hz „ Mechanical looseness


(1800 CPM) „ Imbalance
„ Misalignment
„ Oil film bearing faults

Velocity 30Hz (1800 CPM) „ Imbalance


to 2 kHz (120 kCPM) „ Misalignment
„ Vane/blade passing
„ Oil film bearing faults
„ Rolling element bearing faults
„ Pulsation, acoustics

Acceleration 1 kHz (60 kCPM) „ Vane/blade passing


and higher „ Early rolling element bearing wear detection
„ Gear faults

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Frame Faults

„ Frame vibration

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126
Frame vibration
Behavior

„ In relative terms, reciprocating machinery has high


mass and runs at slow speed
„ Forcing functions:
„ Mass imbalance
„ Misaligned bearings
„ Dynamic loading from the engine and compressor
„ Mechanical looseness (bolts, clearance)
„ Response is increased when stiffness is low
„ Foundation or supports are weak

„ These responses occur at low frequencies therefore


we are normally interested in displacement

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Frame and piping vibration


Trend of frame vibration: broken anchor bolts

9 Horizontal displacement,
oil pump end, mil-p-p
8 High

5 Broken anchor
bolts discovered
4 High Vertical displacement,
oil pump end, mil-p-p
3

2 High

1
Low Axial displacement, oil After repair
0 Low
pump end, mil-p-p
-1

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

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127
Frame vibration
Overall levels Low Speed Nomograph

100,000
Shaft Speed (RPM)

10,000
1,000
100
100

„ The overall level


can be easily
10

compared with
VE

norms to determine SL
IG
RO
RY

UG
RO
UG
H

Displacement (mils pk-pk)


HT H
vibration severity 1

FA
I
LY
RO
UG
GO R H
OD .62

„ For frame vibration


VE 8I
RY N/
GO .31 SE
SM OD 4I C
VE OO N/
RY TH SE

Vibration Velocity (inches/sec - peak)


0.1

this is usually EX
TR
EM
EL
SM
OOT
.15

.07
7I
N/
SE
C

C
YS H 85

enough MO
OT
H
.03
92
IN

IN
/S

/S
EC

.01 EC
0.01 96
IN
.00 / SE
98 C
IN
.00 /S
49 EC
IN
/S
EC
0.001

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Frame and piping vibration


Spectrum: Typical frame vibration (IR 412 KVGB)
K102P-V Testpoint OPEV 7/27/2001 6:54:52 AM

2.00 Testpoint : OPEV VIB


No. Of Lines : 400
No. Of Averages : 4
1C 2C 3C 4C 5C 6C Calc
7C Overall 8C : 2.200
1.75 Trap Overall : 2.200 9C
Peak At Frequency
2.185 at 322.5
1.50 0.293 at 645.0
Watch for 0.119 at 487.5
mil (pseudo-pk-pk)

0.081 at 2595.2
increases in the 0.044 at 975.1
1.25 0.044 at 2272.6
overall level and in 0.044 at 1297.6
low orders of run 0.032 at 1132.6
0.032 at 1942.6
1.00 speed 0.032 at 810.1

0.75
Engine speed is
324 RPM. This is
0.50 the first order of
run speed.
324.091
0.25

0.00
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
cpm
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128
Frame Vibration
Analysis summary

Observation Troubleshooting
Vibration (displacement) readings „ Check the cylinder supports for loose bolts or cracked base. Depending
indicate vertical motion on the outer on the mass of the cylinder and speed of crankshaft, the displacement
end of the cylinder should be below 5 mils.
Vibration (displacement) indicate axial „ Some cylinder motion is normal (< 5mils).
motion on the outer end of the „ If axial cylinder motion is excessive or increases, check that distance piece
cylinder and cylinder bolts are tight.
Excessive vibration (displacement) on „ Check anchor bolt torque. Look for cracks in the concrete base.
the base of the frame „ Check condition of grout that supports the frame.
„ Eliminate standing oil since it acts as a hydraulic wedge in cracks and
reduces friction on the chocks
„ Check cylinder alignment and piston runout to ensure that components are
all running true.
„ Fundamental spectrum component is at one-times run speed.
Excessive piping vibration detected „ Check piping supports.
visually or using displacement „ Review vibration spectra to identify frequency components. Perform a
readings bump test to measure the mechanical natural frequency of the piping.
Determine if the vibration is a result of exciting the MNF.
„ Measure pressure spectra in the piping to determine if the forcing function
is pulsation or mechanical imbalance.

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Auxiliary Equipment

„ Turbocharger/Blower

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129
Turbocharger/blower vibration
Behavior

„ There may be many forcing functions present


„ Structural faults
„ Mechanical looseness (1x-5x engine speed)
„ Shaft faults
„ Mass imbalance (1x-5x RPM)
„ Misaligned rotor (1x-5x RPM)
„ Bearing faults
„ Oil film bearing (1x-5x RPM)
„ Rolling element bearing (10x RPM)
„ Gear faults
„ Gear mesh frequency (1x-3x GMF) We are likely to use a
„ GMF = #teeth x RPM combination of displacement,
„ Vane faults velocity and acceleration
readings to measure the
„ Vane passing frequency (1x-3x VP) response to each of these
„ VP = # vanes x RPM forcing functions

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Turbocharger
Normal velocity spectrum (Elliot on KVR 512)
206-T Testpoint PWRH 3/10/2003 11:10:17 AM

0.35
15277.696 Turbo speed
Testpoint : PWRH IPP
No. Of Lines : 800
No. Of Averages : 4
Calc3X
Overall : N/A
1X 2X Trap Overall : 0.140
0.30
Peak At Frequency
0.050 at 1050.0
0.040 at 900.0
0.25 0.033 at 2475.0
0.029 at 1950.0
ips (pseudo-pk)

Small 0.026 at 3525.0


0.025 at 1425.0
component at 0.020 at 375.0
0.20 1X. Slight at 0.015 at 1575.0
0.013 at 2100.0
2X and 3X run 0.012 at 3150.0
speed
0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 55000
cpm

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130
Turbocharger
Normal acceleration spectrum (Elliot on KVR 512)
206-T Testpoint PWRH 3/10/2003 11:10:17 AM
2.5
15.278 Turbo speed
Testpoint : PWRH GP
No. Of Lines : 800
No. Of Averages : 4
Calc Overall : N/A
1X 2X 3X 4X 5X 6X 7X 8X 9X 10X Trap Overall : 1.500
2.0
Peak At Frequency
0.566 at 109875.0
0.306 at 94875.0
0.260 at 102750.0
0.250 at 97875.0
0.247 at 96750.0
g (pseudo-pk)

1.5 0.208 at 108000.0


0.208 at 118500.0
0.191 at 105750.0
0.188 at 106500.0
0.146 at 85500.0

1.0

Components at This is probably exhaust


1X, 2X and 3X turbulence exciting resonance
are very small frequencies in the structure and
0.5
transducer

0.0
0 50 100 150 200 250
kcpm
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Turbocharger
Rotor Rub (Elliot turbo on KVR 512)
206-T Testpoint PWRH 7/2/2003 3:09:23 PM
6.0
Turbo speed Testpoint : PWRH GP
5.5 16.083
No. Of Lines : 800
No. Of Averages : 4
5.0 1X 2X 3X 4X 5X 6X 7X 8X 9X 10X Calc Overall : N/A
Trap Overall : 11.900

4.5 Peak At Frequency


4.612 at 31875.0
4.418 at 8250.0
4.0 4.362 at 40125.0
1.917 at 56250.0
1.806 at 16125.0
g (pseudo-pk)

3.5 1.167 at 49125.0


0.889 at 24000.0
0.861 at 38625.0
3.0 0.834 at 48000.0
0.667 at 30750.0

2.5 Increased audible noise,


high overall vibration level
2.0

1.5
Harmonic and subharmonic
1.0 components appear with
elevated spectrum floor
0.5

0.0
0 50 100 150 kcpm 200 250

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131
Turbocharger
Rotor Rub (Elliot turbo on KVR 512)

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Turbochargers and blowers


Analysis summary
Observation Troubleshooting
Displacement readings from the „ Check the turbocharger supports for weakness or loose bolts. If
turbocharger frame increase the unit is mounted high off the floor, lower stiffness may
worsen the response.
Velocity or acceleration spectra „ Oil whirl can occur in oil film (hydrodynamic) bearings. This
show increased components at phenomenon appears near ½ order of shaft speed.
around ½ shaft speed
Velocity or acceleration spectra „ Increases vibration at several low orders of shaft speed often
show increased components at indicates rotor instability, looseness or rub.
low orders of run speed
Velocity or acceleration spectra „ On blowers, vibration data is recorded near bearings where the
show elevated vibration at gear vibration energy from gears is transmitted. When gear teeth no-
mesh frequencies longer mesh properly, they generate vibration at gear mesh
frequency.
Vibration from rolling element „ Rolling element bearings usually pass through a sequence of
bearings follows the phases before failure. These can be described as:
characteristic wear phases „Early high frequency vibration
„Excitation of bearing natural frequencies
„Excitation of rolling element faults
„Elevated vibration at shaft orders

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132
Engine/Compressor Analysis
Some final thoughts

„ In this whirlwind tour of analysis we’ve:


„ characterized the normal behavior of engines and
compressors
„ listed common failure modes
„ provided examples of many of them
„ discussed the physical behavior behind them

„ This is a well developed subject:


„ many analysis techniques
„ various ways of getting the data
„ community of analysts that can provide support

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133