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given by an = arn-1

The sum, Sn of the first ‘n’ terms of the G.P. is given by Sn = a (rn – 1)/ (r-1), when r ≠1; = na , if r =1

If -1 < x < 1, then limxn = 0, as n →∞. Hence, the sum of an infinite G.P. is 1+x+x2+ ….. = 1/(1-x)

If -1 < r< 1, then the sum of the infinite G.P. is a +ar+ ar2+ ….. = a/(1-r)

If each term of the G.P is multiplied or divided by a non-zero fixed constant, the resulting sequence

is again a G.P.

If a1, a2, a3, …. andb1, b2, b3, … are two geometric progressions, then a1b1, a2b2, a3b3, …… is also a

geometric progression and a1/b1, a2/b2, ... ... ..., an/bn will also be in G.P.

Suppose a1, a2, a3, ……,an are in G.P. then an, an–1, an–2, ……, a3, a2, a1 will also be in G.P.

Taking the inverse of a G.P. also results a G.P. Suppose a1, a2, a3, ……,an are in G.P then 1/a1,

1/a2, 1/a3 ……, 1/an will also be in G.P

If we need to assume three numbers in G.P. then they should be assumed as a/b, a, ab (here

common ratio is b)

Four numbers in G.P. should be assumed as a/b3, a/b, ab, ab3 (here common ratio is b2)

Five numbers in G.P. a/b2, a/b, a, ab, ab2 (here common ratio is b)

If a1, a2, a3,… ,an is a G.P (ai> 0 ∀i), then log a1, log a2, log a3, ……, log an is an A.P. In this case, the

converse of the statement also holds good.

If three terms are in G.P., then the middle term is called the geometric mean (G.M.) between the

two. So if a, b, c are in G.P., then b = √ac is the geometric mean of a and c.

Likewise, if a1, a2, ……,an are non-zero positive numbers, then their G.M.(G) is given by G =

(a1a2a3 …… an)1/n.

If G1, G2, ……Gn are n geometric means between and a and b then a, G1, G2, ……,Gn b will be a

G.P.

Here b = arn+1, ⇒ r = n+1√b/a, Hence, G1 = a. n+1√b/a, G2 = a(n+1√b/a)2,…, Gn = a(n+1√b/a)n.

A vector may be divided by its own length to convert it into a unit vector, i.e. ? = u / |u|. (The vectors

have been denoted by bold letters.)

If the coordinates of point A are xA, yA, zA and those of point B are xB, yB, zB then the vector connecting

point A to point B is given by the vector r, where r = (xB - xA)i + (yB – yA) j + (zB – zA)k , here i, j and k

denote the unit vectors along x, y and z axis respectively.

Some key points of vectors:

1) The magnitude of a vector is a scalar quantity

3) Suppose c is a scalar and v = (a, b) is a vector, then the scalar

multiplication is defined by cv = c (a, b) = (ca, cb). Hence each component

of vector is multiplied by the scalar.

4) If two vectors are of the same dimension then they can be added or

subtracted from each other. The result is gain a vector.

If u, v and w are three vectors and c, d are scalars then the following

results of vector addition hold true:

1) u + v = v + u (the commutative law of addition)

2) u + 0 = u

3) u + (-u) = 0 (existence of additive inverses)

4) c (du) = (cd)u

5) (c + d)u = cu + d u

6) c(u + v) = cu + cv

7) 1u = u

8) u + (v + w) = (u + v) + w (the associative law of addition)

Given two vectors u and v, their sum or resultant written as (u+v) is also a vector obtained by first

bringing the initial point of v to the terminal point of u and then joining the initial point of u to the

terminal point of v giving a consistent direction by completing the triangle OAP. This is termed as

the Triangle Law of Addition.

Let a and b be any two vectors. From the initial point of a, vector b is drawn and the parallelogram

AOCB is completed with OA and OB as adjacent sides. The vector OC is defined as the sum

of a and b. This is called the parallelogram law of vectors.

For adding more than two vectors, Polygon Law of Addition is used.

1) If A and B are two points with position vectors a and b respectively and

C is a point which divides AB internally in the ratio m : n, then the

position vector of C is given by OC = (mb + na)/ (m + n). This is termed as

internal division.

2) If A and B are two points with position vectors a and b respectively and

C is a point which divides AB externally in the ratio m : n, then the

position vector of C is given by OC = (mb - na)/ (m-n)

(a + b)/2.

4) The position vector of any point C on AB can always be assumed as c =

la + mb, where l + m = 1.

If circumcentre is origin and vertices of a triangle have position vectors a, b and c, then the position

vector of orthocentre will be -(a+b+c).

a.b is the product of length of one vector and length of the projection of the other vector in the

direction of former.

a.b = |a| Projection of |b| in direction of a = |b|. Projection of |a| in direction of b.

Some Basic Rules of Algebra of Vectors:

1) a.a = |a|2 = a2

2) a.b = b.a

3) a.0 = 0

4) a.b = (a cos q)b = (projection of a on b)b = (projection of b on a) a

5) a.(b + c) = a.b + a.c (This is also termed as the distributive law)

6) (la).(mb) = lm (a.b)

7) (a ± b)2 = (a ± b) . (a ± b) = a2 + b2 ± 2a.b

8) If a and b are non-zero, then the angle between them is given by cos θ

= a.b/|a||b|

9) a x a = 0

10) a x b = - (b x a)

11) a x (b + c) = a x b + a x c

Any vector perpendicular to the plane of a and b is l(a x b) where l is a real number.

Unit vector perpendicular to a and b is ± (a x b)/ |a x b|

The position of dot and cross can be interchanged without altering the product. Hence it is also

represented by [a b c]

1) [a b c] = [b c a] = [c a b]

2) [a b c] = - [b a c]

3) [ka b c] = k[a b c]

4) [a+b c d] = [a c d] + [b c d]

5) a x (b x c) = (a x b) x c, if some or all of a, b and c are zero vectors

or a and c are collinear.

Methods to prove collinearity of vectors:

1) Two vectors a and b are said to be collinear if there exists k ? R such

that a = kb.

2) If p x q = 0, then p and q are collinear.

3) Three points A(a), B(b) and C(c) are collinear if there exists k ? R such

that AB = kBC i.e. b-a = k (c-b).

4) If (b-a) x (c-b) = 0, then A, B and C are collinear.

5) A(a), B(b) and C(c) are collinear if there exists scalars l, m and n (not

all zero) such that la + mb+ nc = 0, where l + m + n = o

Three vectors p, q and r are coplanar if there exists l, m ? R such that r = lp + mq i.e., one can be

expressed as a linear combination of the other two.

If [p q r] = 0, then p, q and r are coplanar.

Four points A(a), B(b), C(c) and D(d) lie in the same plane if there exist l, m ? R such that b-a =

l(c-b) + m(d-c).

If [b-a c-b d-c] = 0 then A, B, C, D are coplanar.

Two lines in space can be parallel, intersecting or neither (called skew lines). Let r = a1 + μb1 and

r = a2 + μb2 be two lines.

They intersect if (b1 x b2)(a2 - a1) = 0

The two lines are parallel if b1 and b2 are collinear.

The angle between two planes is the angle between their normal unit vectors i.e. cos q = n1 . n2

If a, b and c are three coplanar vectors, then the system of vectors a', b' and c' is said to be the

reciprocal system of vectors if aa' = bb' = cc' = 1 where a' = (b xc) /[a b c] , b' = (c xa)/ [a b c] and

c' = (a x b)/[a b c] Also, [a' b' c'] = 1/ [a b c]

Dot Product of two vectors a and b defined by a = [a1, a2, ..., an] and b = [b1, b2, ..., bn] is given

by a1b1 + a2b2 + ..., + anbn .

Some Basic Results of Vector Calculus:

1) Vectors in the same direction can be added by simply adding their

magnitudes. But if the vectors to be added are in opposite directions, then

their magnitudes are subtracted and not added.

2) Column vectors can be added by simply adding the values in each row.

3) You can find the magnitude of a vector in three dimensions by using the

formula a2 = b2 + c2 + d2, where a is the magnitude of the vector, and b,

c, and d are the components in each direction.

4) If l1a + m1b = l2a + m2b then l1 = l2 and m1 = m2

5) Collinear Vectors are also parallel vectors except that they lie on the

same line.

6) When two vectors are parallel, the dot product of the vectors is 1 and

their cross product is zero.

12) Three vectors are linearly dependent if they are coplanar that means

any one of them can be represented as a linear combination of other two.

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