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FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN PERILAKU

PENGGUNAAN ALAT PELINDUNG DIRI (APD) PEKERJA FILLING


LITHOS

FACTORS RELATED TO BEHAVIOR OF USING PERSONAL


PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT ON FILLING LITHOS WORKERS

ABSTRACT
Every workplace has risks and risks to the safety and health of workers. Controlling risk in the
workplace is carried out by applying a hierarchy of controls, namely elimination, substitution,
engineering, administrative and personal protective equipment (PPE). One effort to control risk is by
using personal protective equipment. Using personal protective equipment is influenced by a person's
behavior which consists of three factors namely predisposing factors, enabling factors and driving
factors. The purpose of this study was to analyze factors related to the behavior of using PPE on
workers in the lithos filling process PT. Pertamina Lubricants Production Unit Gresik. This study was
an observational analytic study, using a cross sectional research design. The research sample was 41
people, taken randomly using simple random sampling. Data collection includes age, education, years
of service, knowledge, motivational attitudes of PPE availability, supervision and regulations
regarding PPE. The data analysis used in this study is Spearman's correlation. The results showed
that there was a relationship between age factors (p = 0.004) and the behavior of PPE use while other
factors were knowledge (p = 0.338), motivation (p = 0.137), availability of PPE, regulations on PPE
(p = 0.624) with no association behavior of using PPE. Most samples behave disobediently using
PPE. The conclusion in this study is that only age has a relationship with my personal use of personal
protective equipment and most of the workers behave disobedient using personal protective
equipment.

Keywords: behavior, control, obedient, ppe, risk

ABSTRAK
Setiap tempat kerja memiliki bahaya dan risiko terhadap keselamatan dan kesehatan pekerja.
Mengendalikan risiko di tempat kerja dilakukan dengan menerapkan hirarki pengendalian yaitu
eliminasi, substitusi, rekayasa teknik, administratif dan alat pelindung diri (APD). Salah satu upaya
mengendalikan risiko yaitu dengan menggunakan alat pelindung diri. Menggunakan alat pelindung
diri dipengaruhi oleh perilaku seseorang yang terdiri dari tiga faktor yaitu faktor predisposisi, faktor
pemungkin dan faktor pendorong. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis faktor yang
berhubungan dengan perilaku penggunaan APD pada pekerja di proses filling lithos PT. Pertamina
Lubricants Production Unit Gresik. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional analitik,
menggunakan desain penelitian cross sectional. Sampel penelitian sebesar 41 orang, diambil secara
acak menggunakan simple random sampling. Pengumpulan data meliputi umur, pendidikan, masa
kerja, pengetahuan, sikap motivasi ketersediaan APD, pengawasan dan peraturan tentang APD.
Analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah korelasi Spearman. Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan terdapat hubungan antara faktor umur (p=0,004) dengan perilaku penggunaan APD
sedangkan faktor yang lainnya pengetahuan (p=0,338), motivasi (p=0,137), ketersediaan APD,
peraturan tentang APD (p=0,624) tidak ada hubungan dengan perilaku penggunaan APD. Sebagian
besar sampel berperilaku tidak patuh menggunaan APD. Kesimpulan dalam penelitian ini bahwa
hanya umur yang memiliki hubungan dengan perialaku penggunaan alat pelindung diri dan sebagaian
besar pekerja berperilaku tidak patuh menggunakan alat pelindung diri.

Kata kunci: apd, kepatuhan, pengendalian, perilaku, risiko


INTRODUCTION workplace accidents by using personal
protective equipment (PPE).
Work accidents that occur in Indonesia The use of personal protective
tend to increase along with the more equipment (PPE) in the implementation
advanced and developing industries. there are still many workers who behave not
According to data from Social Insurance using personal protective equipment (PPE).
Administration Organization for Many factors influence workers not to use
Employment (BPJS Ketenagakerjaan) that personal protective equipment (PPE), it is
work accident cases nationwide in 2017 related to behavior. According to Green in
increased compared to 2016. Data on the Notoatmodjo (2014) states that human
number of occupational accident cases in behavior is formed or influenced by three
Indonesia was ordered by BPJS factors, namely predisposing factors
Employment in 2016, there were 101,364 manifested in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs,
cases of workplace accidents and in 2017 beliefs, values, motivations and elements
recorded 123,000 cases of workplace contained in the individual include age,
accidents occur. Work accident cases in experience, education. Enabling factors are
2016 to 2017 in Indonesia increased to manifested in the physical environment,
123,000. This indicates that every day 337 available or unavailability of facilities or
cases of workplace accidents occur in facilities, and reinforcing factors are
Indonesia. manifested in the influence of people or
According to the International Labor reference groups from the adopted behavior.
Organization (ILO) in 2017 that as many as These three factors determine, support and
860,000 workers experience workplace strengthen the formation of human behavior,
accidents and diseases worldwide every especially the behavior of workers using
year, and as many as 6,400 workers die personal protective equipment (PPE).
every day due to work-related accidents and The results of Saputro's study (2015)
diseases. The high number of occupational showed that from 40 study samples there
accidents and work-related diseases is were 23 respondents (57.5%) who did not
caused by several causes, namely not use PPE in full. The results of the Fransiska
optimal supervision and application of study (2014) show that from 110
occupational safety and health (K3), the low respondents, 57 respondents (51.8%)
awareness and behavior of occupational behaved poorly on the use of personal
safety and health (K3) in the workplace and protective equipment (PPE) at PT.
the ineffective control of potential hazards Pertamina Lubricants Production Unit
that cause the amount of risk of work- Jakarta. According to Fransiska (2014) that
related illnesses and workplace accidents in poor behavior towards the use of personal
the company. protective equipment (PPE) is influenced by
According to Ramli (2009) related to several factors, namely predisposing factors
the magnitude of the risk of workplace include knowledge of low personal
accidents that may occur, a company must protective equipment, negative attitudes to
seek risk control by implementing a the use of personal protective equipment,
hierarchy of controls namely elimination, low motivation to use personal protective
substitution, engineering, administrative and equipment, reinforcing factors include poor
personal protective equipment (PPE). The supervision of the use of personal protective
potential hazards and risks that have not equipment (PPE) and enabling factors
been fully or not yet effectively can be including the availability of personal
controlled, so that the last risk control protective equipment.
efforts are carried out to minimize or reduce GIVE EXPLANATION ABOUT RISK
the severity of occupational illnesses or OF THE SUBJECT AND PLACE OF
RESEARCH
age, knowledge, availability of PPE and
Based on the description that has regulations about PPE.
been explained that any worker who The way to collect primary data in
behaves does not use or does not use study was interviews using questionnaires
personal protective equipment (PPE), even and observations using the observation sheet
though personal protective equipment (PPE) checklist. Secondary data in this study
is the last risk control effort to minimize or obtained from the company is a profile and
reduce severity in the event of work-related data about PT. Pertamina Lubricants
illnesses or workplace accidents. This Production Unit Gresik and regarding
unsafe behavior can be caused by many personal protective equipment (PPE).
factors that influence it. Therefore, it is Analysis data in this study was
necessary to do research on factors that descriptive in narrative form and with
influence behavior by using Green theory, statistical analysis use spearman's rho.
namely predisposing factors, enabling
factors and reinforcing factors on the RESULT
behavior of PPE use in PT Pertamina Characteristics of Respondents
Lubricants Production Unit Gresik "
The characteristics of the respondents
METHODS in this study were age. The youngest age in
This study was an observational type this study was 18 years old and the oldest
because only observes and does not carry was 54 years old. Most of the respondents
out any treatment or intervention. This study have ages 18-40 years as many as 29
was analytical research that analyzes the respondents (70.7%) and ages 41-60 years
relationship between independent variables as many as 12 respondents (29.3%).
and dependent variables. The design of this Table 1. Cross Tabulation Age with
study uses a cross sectional design that Behavior of Use PPE in 2018
observes the independent variables and
dependent variables at a certain time. Behavior of Using
The location of this study was carried Age PPE
out in the lithos filling process of PT. Total
(year) Less Not
Pertamina Lubricants Production Unit Obedient Obedient
Gresik, Harun Tohir 77 street, Pulopancikan n % n % N %
Village, Gresik, East Java. The time of this 18-40 0 0 29 70,7 29 100
study was conducted from March 2018 to 41-60 3 7,3 9 22 12 100
September 2018. Data collection was Sig (p
conducted in September 2018 at PT. 0,004
value)
Pertamina Lubricants Production Unit Correlation
Gresik. Coefficient -0,437
The population in this study were 68 (r value)
workers. The sample size used in this study Type of
was 41 respondents. The method of Moderate
correlation
sampling in this study was a probability
Keterangan: α=0,05
sampling technique that simple random
sampling. The simple random sampling
This result shows respondents in the
technique in this study was carried out by
age group 18-40 years in the lithos filling
lottery.
process PT. Pertamina Lubricants
The dependent variable in this study
Production Unit Gresik needs to be given
was the behavior of use PPE and the
training in the use of PPE, socialization of
independent variables in this study include
obedient PPE regulations, assistance with
claims and ratios, and more optimal Motivation
supervision. It can increase knowledge and
extension of PPE and can also be used to Motivation of respondents in this
build networks. study was mostly 24 respondents (58.5%)
Based on Table 1 that the results of and respondents with moderate motivation
spearmans rho show the value of sig = as many as 17 respondents (41.5%).
0.004 <(α = 0.05), the age variable is related
to the behavior of use PPE. Table 3. Cross Tabulation of Motivation
with the Behavior of Use PPE in
Knowledge 2018

Knowledge of respondents in this Behavior of Using


study was that most respondents had good PPE
Motivation Total
Less Not
knowledge as many as 33 respondents Obedient Obedient
(80.5%) and respondents with sufficient n % n % N %
knowledge as many as 8 respondents High 3 7,3 21 51,2 24 100
(19.5%). Moderate 0 0 17 41,5 17 100
Sig (p value) 0,137
Table 2. Cross Tabulation of Knowledge Correlation
Coefficient 0,236
with Behavior of the Use of PPE
(r value)
in 2018 Type of
Low
correlation
Behavior of Using
PPE Keterangan: α=0,05
Knowledge Total
Less Not
Obedient Obedient Based on Table 3 that the results of
n % n % N % spearmans rho show the sig value = 0.388>
Good 3 7,3 30 73,2 33 100 (α = 0.05), the motivation variable has no
Enough 0 0 8 19,5 8 100
Sig (p
relation to the behavior of using PPE.
0,388 Based on the results of the
value)
Correlation questionnaire that the motivation of
Coefficient 0,138 respondents with motivation who use
(r value) enough PPE so that they are not
Type of reprimanded or not sanctioned, using PPE is
Very low
correlation
not due to their own needs or desires and
Keterangan: α=0,05 using PPE is not to work safely and
healthily.
Based on Table 2 that the results of
spearmans rho show the sig value = 0.388> Availability of PPE
(α = 0.05), the knowledge variable has no
relation to the behavior of using PPE. Availability of PPE in this study based
Based on the results of the on filling out questionnaires according to all
questionnaire in the aspect of knowledge respondents as many as 41 respondents
that the respondents with moderate (100%) stated that the availability of PPE in
knowledge do not know the benefits of the lithos filling process is good.
using PPE and potential hazards that exist in Based on the questionnaire all
the work area lithos filling process, do not respondents stated that availability is good
know the consequences or disadvantages of so that the data is homogeneous, so
not using PPE, and know when and where correlation or relationship cannot be tested
PPE must be used by workers. and it can be stated that there is no
relationship between the availability of PPE
and the behavior of using PPE.
PPE available in the process of lithos Behavior of Use PPE
filling is additional PPE that is in
accordance with the potential danger or risk Based on observations using the
of ear protectors, masks, gloves and glasses. observation sheet on the behavior of using
Based on interviews with the HSSE and the PPE that most respondents behaved
foreman in the lithos filling process that disobediently using PPE as many as 38
PPE is available both on the HSSE and is respondents (92.7%) and respondents who
available on the foreman to be stored and if behaved less obediently using PPE as many
requested or needed by workers will be as 3 respondents (7.3%).
given to workers. None of the respondents in this study
were obedient to using PPE in accordance
Regulation on PPE with the potential hazards and risks required
by HSSE. Standard PPE that must be used
The regulation on PPE in this study in the process of lithos filling is shoes and
was based on questionnaire that most helmets, while additional PPE according to
respondents stated that the regulation on HSSE must be used are ear protectors,
PPE was good as many as 38 respondents masks and gloves according to the potential
(92.7%) and respondents stated that the danger and risk in the lithos filling process.
regulation on PPE was less than 3 This is very concern because in the lithos
respondents (7.3%). filling process there are types of physical,
chemical, mechanical and transportation
Table 4. Cross Tabulation Regulations hazards which are at risk of causing work
About PPE with Behavior Use accidents and occupational diseases.
PPE in 2018 Respondents who were less obedient were 3
Perilaku respondents based on observations who
Regulations Penggunaan APD used each of the 1 additional PPE required
Total
About PPE Less Not by the HSSE use masks, ear plugs and
Obedient Obedient gloves.
n % n % N % Based on observations and
Good 3 7,3 35 85,4 38 100
interviews on respondents using additional
Less 0 0 3 7,3 3 100
Sig (p value) 0,624 PPE stated that using ear plug because they
Correlation feel exposed to noise and feel pain in the ear
Coefficient (r 0,079 while doing work, use a mask because they
value) feel shortness of breath exposed to odors or
Type of emission and lubricating oil, and use gloves
Very low
correlation
to avoid oil lubricant when doing work on
Keterangan: α=0,05 the lithos filling process.
Based on observations and
Based on Table 4 that the results of interviews with some respondents who did
spearmans rho show sig = 0.624> (α = not use additional PPE stated that they did
0.05), the regulation variable about PPE has not use gloves, ear protectors, masks. Do
no correlation to the behavior of use PPE. not use ear protectors because they cause it
Based on the results of the is not easy to hear communication from
questionnaire there were respondents who other workers, while not using gloves
stated the rules of PPE in oral form, the because it will cause gloves to be easily
absence of socialization regarding PPE exposed to oil or lubricants so that the hands
regulations, the absence of regulations become uncomforTable, and do not use
requiring workers to replace PPE if masks because they feel disturbing
damaged. communication between workers and
workers feels hot if you use a mask to do
work because the work climate conditions are differences in standard PPE that must be
are processed hot lithos filling. used by workers in the lithos filling process
between standards according to production
DISCUSSION and HSSE irregular training in PPE, lack of
socialization regarding PPE, absence of
Relationship between Age and Behavior sanctions and rewards, and based on
of Using PPE interviews with worker representatives that
According to Suryabudhi (2003) that a workers do not use additional PPE because
person who lives a normal life can be they feel uncomforTable and feel disturbed
assumed that the longer the life, the more while doing work.
experience, the more knowledge, the more Relationship between Knowledge and
profound expertise and wisdom the better in Behavior Using PPE
making decisions on actions or behavior.
According to Notoatmodjo (2014), the more Knowledge is one aspect or factor in
the age, the level of maturity and strength of predisposing factors that affect a person's
a person will be more mature in thinking behavior. According to Notoatmodjo (2014)
and working. that knowledge is the fundamental domain
This study shows that age has a of each person to act (overt behavior).
relationship with the behavior of using PPE. According to Green in Rengganis (2012)
The relationship between age and the that the higher the knowledge, the higher a
behavior of the use of PPE is moderate and person will take actions related to that
the direction of the relationship is negative knowledge. According to Green in
or opposite, meaning that the older the age, Notoatmodjo (2007) that a person's behavior
the more obedient behavior he behaves is based on knowledge he knows, the more
using PPE. This is evident in the knowledge a person has, the better his
respondents aged 41-60 years, the older the behavior than someone with little
respondents, the more they behave obedient knowledge.
use PPE. This study shows that knowledge was
The results of this study are in not correlated to the behavior of using PPE.
accordance with the results of a study by Factors that cause knowledge have nothing
Faniah (2016) which states that there is a to do with the obedient behavior of the use
relationship between age and adherence to of PPE is for workers with high and
wearing or using PPE. The results of the moderate knowledge, there are still workers
study were also in accordance with the who do not understand or understand the
results of Kartika's (2014) study which benefits of PPE, when and where PPE is
stated that the older the age, the more people used, danger or risk in the workplace, and
behaved obediently using PPE. This also respondents with high knowledge has
research is supported by opinions. This is the first level of knowledge that is know that
supported by the opinion of Suryabudhi is knowledge by knowing or recalcating
(2003) that a person who lives a normal life existing memories after observing
can be assumed that the longer life, the something.
more experience, knowledge becomes The results of this study are in line
wider, expertise becomes deeper and with the results of the research of Fransisca
wisdom becomes better in making decisions (2014) which states that there is no
on actions or behavior. relationship between knowledge and the use
The older the age should be more of personal protective equipment (PPE) at
obedient behavior using PPE, the reality in PT. Pertamina Lubricants Production Unit
the field there are several things that affect Jakarta.
the obedient behavior of using PPE can be High knowledge is not always in line
caused by conditions in the field that there or does not guarantee that workers will
behave obediently using PPE, besides that caused optimal socialization of additional
also respondents in all categories of PPE that must be used by workers,
knowledge no one obediently uses PPE on socialization of the Individual Work
respondents or workers in the lithos filling Procedure for PPE, HIRA socialization,
process PT. Pertamina Lubricants training has not been routinely conducted on
Production Unit Gresik can be attributed to PPE, and there has been no firm sanctions
the level of knowledge of respondents who and awards.
have a level of knowledge at the first level,
because every individual has the ability to The relationship between availability of
capture information about K3 especially PPE and the behavior of using PPE
regarding different PPE, no additional PPE Availability of PPE is a factor that
socialization must be used by workers, allows or facilitates the formation of a
socialization of Tata Individual PPE work, person's behavior. A person's behavior is not
HIRA socialization, and training on APD is only influenced by the availability of
not routine. facilities and infrastructures, namely the
The Relationship between Motivation and availability of PPE, but also due to
Behavior Using PPE predatory factors and driving factors. PPE
must be provided by the company to
Motivation was one aspect or factor in workers at work, free of charge, and every
predisposing factors that affect a person's worker entering the workplace must use
behavior. According to Astuti (2001) states PPE in accordance with potential hazards
that one of the most important things to and risks.
consider in individuals to behave is Based on the results of questionnaire
motivation. Motivation that exists in a filling that all respondents stated that the
person will affect someone whether to do availability of PPE in the lithos filling
each task properly or vice versa, whether he process is good, the data is homogeneous so
behaves safely or not. that it can be stated that there is no
This study shows that was not relationship between the availability of PPE
correlated to the behavior of using PPE. and the behavior of using PPE. This result
Factors that cause motivation are not related could be caused by other factors, namely
to the behavior of obedient use of PPE is to respondents who thought using PPE spent
workers with high motivation and time and hampered work, not optimal
motivation while there are still respondents socialization of additional PPE that must be
who claim to use PPE so that they are not used by workers, socialization of Individual
reprimanded or not sanctioned. has almost PPE Work Procedure, HIRA socialization,
the same number or frequency. This may be training on PPE was not routine.
due to regulations or the supervision of PPE. The results of this study are in line
The results of this study are in line with the with the results of the Apriliana study, et al
results of the research by Noviandry (2013) (2016) which states that there is no
which states that there is no relationship relationship between the availability of PPE
between motivation and worker behavior in and the behavior of using PPE
the use of personal protective equipment Personal protective equipment (PPE)
(PPE). in the lithos filling process has been
The high motivation is not always in provided by the company. This is in
line or does not guarantee that workers will accordance with Regulation of the Minister
behave obediently using PPE, besides that of Manpower and Transmigration No. 08 of
there are no respondents in all categories of 2010 concerning Personal Protective
motivation who behave obediently using Equipment in article 2 paragraph 1 states
PPE can be caused by individual factors in that:
the respondent's motivation, and can also be “Pengusaha waib menyediakan
APDbagi pekerja atau buruh using PPE, as well as responses stating good
di tempat kerja.” regulations and lacking regulations who
behave obediently using PPE in the lithos
PPE in the lithos filling process is filling process PT. Pertamina Lubricants
provided by the company free of charge to Production Unit Gresik can be caused other
workers. This is in accordance with than due to individual factors of respondents
Regulation of the Minister of Manpower or workers also due to the lack of optimal
and Transmigration No. 08 of 2010 socialization of PPE that must be used by
concerning Personal Protective Equipment workers, socialization of Individual PPE
in article 2 paragraph 3 states that: Work Procedures, HIRA socialization,
“APD sebagaimana dimaksud training on PPE is not yet routine,
pada ayat (1) wajib diberikan regulations that are not firm and not yet
oleh pengusaha secara cuma there are strict sanctions and awards.
-cuma.”
Relationship between Regulation about CONCLUSION
APD and Behavior of Using PPE The behavior of using PPE workers in
Supervision is a factor that drives the the lithos filling process PT. Pertamina
formation of a person's behavior. In addition Lubricants The Production Unit of Gresik,
to the driving factors, that a person's which is mostly 38 respondents in the
behavior is influenced by predisposing process of lithos filling behaves in a non-
factors and enabling factors. Regulations compliant manner using PPE and only 3
that have a large role in determining safe respondents who behave less adhere to
behavior that is accepTable and using PPE.
unaccepTable (Sialagan, 2008). According Age factor has a relationship with the
to Geller (2001), regulations are written behavior of using PPE workers in the lithos
documents that document standards, norms filling process PT. Pertamina Lubricants
and policies for expected behavior. Production Unit Gresik. The strong
This study, it shows that the rules relationship between age and the behavior
regarding PPE have no relation to the of using PPE is a strong moderate
behavior of using PPE. Factors that cause relationship and the direction of a negative
the rule there is no relationship with the or opposite relationship. While the
obedient behavior of the use of PPE because knowledge, motivation, availability of PPE
of individual factors of respondents, who and regulations about PPE have no relation
argue that using PPE takes up time and with behavior of using PPE in workers in
hinders work and makes respondents or the lithos filling process PT. Pertamina
workers uncomforTable in working. Lubricants Production Unit Gresik.
The results of this study are in line ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
with the results of Fransisca's (2014) study
which states that there is no relationship I express my deepest gratitude and
between PPE regulations and the use of appreciation to Dr. Ir. Y. Denny Ardyanto W,
personal protective equipment (PPE) at PT. M.Sc. as a supervisor who has given
Pertamina Lubricants Production Unit instructions, corrections and suggestions to
Jakarta. the realization of this study. Thank you to
Regulations regarding good PPE are the Airlangga University Faculty of Public
not always in line or do not guarantee that Health for helping the journal's
workers will behave obediently using PPE, sustainability. Thank you to Mr / Ms, for
also that regulations on good PPE are not their willingness to review the journal
always in line or do not guarantee that manuscript and all parties for contributing in
workers will behave in an obedient manner this study.
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Kartika's (2014) ????