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wows Physical World and Measurement Scope and Excitement of Physics Scope of physics lies in its various sub-disciplines, Basically there are two domains of interest: macrosopicand microscopic. The microscopicdomain includes phenomena at the laboratory terrestrial and astronomical scales. The microscopic domain of physics deals with the constituent and structure of matter at the minute scales of atoms and nucle and ther interaction with other elementary particles like electrons, photons etc: Physics is exciting in many ways. To some people the excitement comes from the elegance and universality of basic theories, from the fact that a few basic concepts ah laws can explain about physical quantities. To some d the challenge is carying out imaginative new experiments tounlock the secrets of nature is thrilling, Nature of Physicallaws Physicistsexplorethenatureand aburalphehomenon.They investigate on the bases of scientific processes. In addition to finding the facs, by observatioe atl experimentation, physicists try to discover the fawsqthat summarize there facts, Physicists have fou@dd@eQirnl conservation laws which indude consgavationy pf momentum, energy, angular moment Bind mass. Conservation laws are dicen in MR fom Newton’ a of ton and gravity, but they are just as fundamental, useful and important. Conservation laws can provide useful Information about a system, Not all. quantities in physics are conserved. For instance, there isno conservation of force or conservation of velocity. But the quantities that are conserved, such as momentum, energy etc. are important properties to know about an jobject. Current research in physics aims at determining these properties for everything ranging {rom subatomic particles to astronomical objets. Physics, Technology and Society Physics and society are connected with each other, as matted the Enyanitme Sn. plyeien hays nonin imposk on society. When the principles of physics are applied for practical purposes itis known as technology. Physics Moped wo, Physical quantity is represented completely by its try to discover the rules or pineiples that govern natural processes or phenomeng@ahd Ven technologists apply them for beterment ofeveryiay lie. % Units of Measurement Measurement Jpbasislly a process of comparison A quanti GagAh be measured and by which various physicalhoppenings can be explained and expressed inthe Formos scaled a physical quantity: Measurement of al quantity involves comparison with a certain internationally occupied reference agailude and Physical quantity = Magnitude x unit Fundamental and Derived units Any unit schich cannot be expressed in terms of other tits is called a fundamental unit. For example, unit of mass, length and time are fundamental units, Other units which can be expressed in terms of fundamental units are called derived units, For example, unit of velocity, energy ete. are derived units, ‘System of Units + Acomplete set of both fundamental and derived units forall kind of physical quantities is called a system of tunits. Such system of units inelude, CGS System, MKS, System, FPS System and SI System ‘+ The base units for length, mass and time in their systems areas fallaws = ‘+ In CGS system, they are centimeter, gram and second respectively ‘+ In FPS System, they are foot, pound and second respectively: ‘7 In MKS System, they are meter, kilogram and second respectively ‘+ SI system is also known as intemational system of wn extended MKS system of units. The given table shows the units forall the base quantities, in SI system. sumits and i hitps:ittmelEstore33_com 2 Physical quantity | Unite (SN) _| Notations Mass Kkg(kilogram) | _M. Length (metre) c Time (second) T Temperature Kikelvin) ° lectrie current Ajampere) | Tor Taminone intensity | el eandatay | _ed ‘Amount of substance [moles mol There are also two supplementary quantities in addition to the seven fundamental quantities. They are ‘© Plane angle : Unit of plane angle is radian and its symbol ie rad, ‘© Solid angle : Unit of solid angle is steradian and its symbol is st Measurement of Length + Length of an object is the distance of separation between any two points at the extreme ends oft. Most common unit of length is metre, ‘+ Onemetreis the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum 1s 1/2, /92, 458 ofa second, Range of Length + Lermi=10-° m ‘angstrom = 10-” m {astronomical un light year= 9.46 x 10! m Tparsce=32 ight year= 308 i Measurement of Mass.» © Massis the basic proper quantity of matter of mass is kilogr vane ‘and is equal to the he boty The SI Unit jealing with atoms and it of mass is unified atomic + One kilogram is défined as the mass of international prototype standard block of platinum, iridium alloy procorved in the international Bureau of weights and ‘= _One amu is (1/12)'* of the mass of an atom of carbon 12 ootope. Measurement of Time ‘= The most common unit of time is second, One second is the duration of 8,192,631, 770, Periods of radiation corresponding to unperturbed transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of C3 - 133, atom, Range of Time : Time interval ofan event varies over wide range from 1{7 s which isthe fe span of most Lunstable particle to 10” s which is the approximate age of the universe. (ELD Crash Course Physios Accuracy and precision of instrument Measurement is a part of doing experiments in science ‘The result of every measurement by any measuring, instruments contains some uncertainty. This uncertainty 1m measurement is known as error, Accuracy of 2 measurement means how close the measured value is to the true value ofa physical quantity. The limit of resolution to which a physical quantity is measured by a measuring instrument is known asits precision, measuring ‘Types of Error ‘+ Systematic enor: [is The measurement in nature, whi due to known causes. Phat are unidircetional they are either positive or negative. + Person: + These measurement errors occur due jet setting of the apparatus or an carclessnessin taking observations without we required precautionary measures, ental errors: These errors occur due to faulty rongly calibrated measuring. instruments. For do not coincide, it may cause error in measurement and such type of error is called zero error 2 Se the zero of the vernier scale and main scale ‘+ Imperfection in experimental technique or procedure : An error occurring in the measurement fof a physical quantity due to wrong experimental technique or procedure gives rise to systematic ‘© Random errors : These errors occur due to unpredictable variations in experimental conditions, suchas fluctuations in temperature, voltage supply, and mechanical vibrations of experimental setups are known as random errors. These errors occur irregularly and vary in size and sign (positive oF negative), ‘+ Least count error: It is the error associated with the resolution of the measuring instruments It is the error due to unknown Absolute Error, Rela Error Absolute Error ‘© The difference between the measured value and the tue value gives the error in measurement ‘+ Leta physical quantity be measured times. Let the measured values be 4, fy, wv @yy The arithmetic dire ese values Error and Percentage hitps:ittmelEstore33_com Physical World and Measurement © The error in the measured values of the physical quantity are Ag, =a, = 44, Ay ba, = 4-4 Absolute errr Aa is always postive and is denoted by |Aa| = Hance the final result of measurement after inchuding the absolute error may be written 9s ¢= 4, 48, where A is the mean absolute error, ‘© Mean absolute errar is the arithmetic mean of the absolute errors in all the measurements of a physical anit. |e) |+[ a5 }+=.4] 40] 2, [4] an Rel Error Relative eror of a measurement is defined asthe rato of the mean absolute error to the mean value ofthe physical quantity measured. ‘Mean absolute error ‘Mean value Relative erro a Percentage Error a Se ea 8 of itis Lnown as percentage arr Combination: © Insum:1fZ=, inZis AZ~AA+ AB + Imaisterence 11 the maximum absolute error hens the maxtinuen absolute error in Zs AZ~AA+AB ‘+ Im product : If Z = AB, then the maximum relative error in Zis given by ‘Maximum percentage ertor in Z is 2 sy roo. AB 22 1090= “4 1004 21 S x100= “100+ 2 100 ‘+ In division : If Z = 4/8, then the maximum relative error in Zs ‘Maximum percentage error in Z is AZ yyy 9p 4 FS x1m0= 410042 «100 ‘+ In power: If Z= A", then the maximum relative error in Zs given by az as ZA Maximum percentage ersor in Z is MS 100=m x10 A Zz gg roe in Zi & 3B, 1004 28.100 At 100+ 948 + AC 100+ sA2 100 SS. Figures result of a measurement of a physical quantity is number which includes reliable digits plus ehe first Ss digits, which is known as significant figures, Rules to find Significant Figures © Ruled: All non-zero digits are significant. eg, 1324 has four significant figures, + Rulez: Al zeros occuring between two non-zero digits are Significant. eg. 120024 has 6 significant digits. + Rules: If the number is less than 1, the zero(s) on the tight of decimal point, but tothe left of the first non-zere digit, are not significant. eg. 0.00064 has two significant digits = Ruled: In a number without a decimal point the terminal or trailing, zero(s) ate not significant, eg. 227800 have four significant digits. + Rules: In a number with a decimal point the trailing zero(s) are significant. «..32000r0.05400have foursignificant digits each, Note : The power (or exponent) of 10 is irrelevant to Tie Usteitnisalion oCsigaiicant guises Bai eau, 3.100 » 10 has 4 significant figures. ‘The change of units only changes the order of exponent But not the number of significant figures. eg, 140 m= 140 « 1 cm bot have three significant figures. hitps:ittmelEstore33_com