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wows @UjOurnal.in
Physical World and
Measurement
Scope and Excitement of Physics
Scope of physics lies in its various sub-disciplines,
Basically there are two domains of interest: macrosopicand
microscopic. The microscopicdomain includes phenomena
at the laboratory terrestrial and astronomical scales. The
microscopic domain of physics deals with the constituent
and structure of matter at the minute scales of atoms and
nucle and ther interaction with other elementary particles
like electrons, photons etc:
Physics is exciting in many ways. To some people the
excitement comes from the elegance and universality of
basic theories, from the fact that a few basic concepts ah
laws can explain about physical quantities. To some d
the challenge is carying out imaginative new experiments
tounlock the secrets of nature is thrilling,
Nature of Physicallaws
Physicistsexplorethenatureand aburalphehomenon.They
investigate on the bases of scientific processes. In addition
to finding the facs, by observatioe atl experimentation,
physicists try to discover the fawsqthat summarize there
facts, Physicists have fou@dd@eQirnl conservation laws
which indude consgavationy pf momentum, energy,
angular moment Bind mass. Conservation laws
are dicen in MR fom Newton’ a of ton
and gravity, but they are just as fundamental, useful
and important. Conservation laws can provide useful
Information about a system,
Not all. quantities in physics are conserved. For instance,
there isno conservation of force or conservation of velocity.
But the quantities that are conserved, such as momentum,
energy etc. are important properties to know about an
jobject. Current research in physics aims at determining
these properties for everything ranging {rom subatomic
particles to astronomical objets.
Physics, Technology and Society
Physics and society are connected with each other, as
matted the Enyanitme Sn. plyeien hays nonin imposk
on society. When the principles of physics are applied
for practical purposes itis known as technology. Physics
Moped
wo, Physical quantity is represented completely by its
try to discover the rules or pineiples that govern natural
processes or phenomeng@ahd Ven technologists apply
them for beterment ofeveryiay lie.
%
Units of Measurement
Measurement Jpbasislly a process of comparison
A quanti GagAh be measured and by which various
physicalhoppenings can be explained and expressed inthe
Formos scaled a physical quantity: Measurement of
al quantity involves comparison with a certain
internationally occupied reference
agailude and
Physical quantity = Magnitude x unit
Fundamental and Derived units
Any unit schich cannot be expressed in terms of other
tits is called a fundamental unit. For example, unit of
mass, length and time are fundamental units, Other units
which can be expressed in terms of fundamental units are
called derived units, For example, unit of velocity, energy
ete. are derived units,
‘System of Units
+ Acomplete set of both fundamental and derived units
forall kind of physical quantities is called a system of
tunits. Such system of units inelude, CGS System, MKS,
System, FPS System and SI System
‘+ The base units for length, mass and time in their
systems areas fallaws =
‘+ In CGS system, they are centimeter, gram and second
respectively
‘+ In FPS System, they are foot, pound and second
respectively:
‘7 In MKS System, they are meter, kilogram and second
respectively
‘+ SI system is also known as intemational system of
wn extended MKS system of units. The
given table shows the units forall the base quantities,
in SI system.
sumits and i
hitps:ittmelEstore33_com2
Physical quantity | Unite (SN) _| Notations
Mass Kkg(kilogram) | _M.
Length (metre) c
Time (second) T
Temperature Kikelvin) °
lectrie current Ajampere) | Tor
Taminone intensity | el eandatay | _ed
‘Amount of substance [moles mol
There are also two supplementary quantities in addition
to the seven fundamental quantities. They are
‘© Plane angle : Unit of plane angle is radian and its
symbol ie rad,
‘© Solid angle : Unit of solid angle is steradian and its
symbol is st
Measurement of Length
+ Length of an object is the distance of separation
between any two points at the extreme ends oft. Most
common unit of length is metre,
‘+ Onemetreis the length of the path travelled by light in
vacuum 1s 1/2, /92, 458 ofa second,
Range of Length
+ Lermi=10-° m
‘angstrom = 10-” m
{astronomical un
light year= 9.46 x 10! m
Tparsce=32 ight year= 308 i
Measurement of Mass.»
© Massis the basic proper
quantity of matter
of mass is kilogr
vane
‘and is equal to the
he boty The SI Unit
jealing with atoms and
it of mass is unified atomic
+ One kilogram is défined as the mass of international
prototype standard block of platinum, iridium alloy
procorved in the international Bureau of weights and
‘= _One amu is (1/12)'* of the mass of an atom of carbon
12 ootope.
Measurement of Time
‘= The most common unit of time is second, One second
is the duration of 8,192,631, 770, Periods of radiation
corresponding to unperturbed transition between the
two hyperfine levels of the ground state of C3 - 133,
atom,
Range of Time : Time interval ofan event varies over
wide range from 1{7 s which isthe fe span of most
Lunstable particle to 10” s which is the approximate
age of the universe.
worwmoek@ujournal.in
(ELD Crash Course Physios
Accuracy and precision of
instrument
Measurement is a part of doing experiments in science
‘The result of every measurement by any measuring,
instruments contains some uncertainty. This uncertainty
1m measurement is known as error, Accuracy of 2
measurement means how close the measured value is to
the true value ofa physical quantity. The limit of resolution
to which a physical quantity is measured by a measuring
instrument is known asits precision,
measuring
‘Types of Error
‘+ Systematic enor: [is
The measurement
in nature, whi
due to known causes.
Phat are unidircetional
they are either positive or
negative.
+ Person: + These measurement errors occur
due jet setting of the apparatus or an
carclessnessin taking observations without
we required precautionary measures,
ental errors: These errors occur due to faulty
rongly calibrated measuring. instruments. For
do not coincide, it may cause error in measurement
and such type of error is called zero error
2 Se the zero of the vernier scale and main scale
‘+ Imperfection in experimental technique or
procedure : An error occurring in the measurement
fof a physical quantity due to wrong experimental
technique or procedure gives rise to systematic
‘© Random errors :
These errors occur due to unpredictable variations
in experimental conditions, suchas fluctuations
in temperature, voltage supply, and mechanical
vibrations of experimental setups are known as
random errors. These errors occur irregularly and
vary in size and sign (positive oF negative),
‘+ Least count error: It is the error associated with the
resolution of the measuring instruments
It is the error due to unknown
Absolute Error, Rela
Error
Absolute Error
‘© The difference between the measured value and the
tue value gives the error in measurement
‘+ Leta physical quantity be measured times. Let the
measured values be 4, fy, wv @yy The arithmetic
dire ese values
Error and Percentage
hitps:ittmelEstore33_comPhysical World and Measurement
© The error in the measured values of the physical
quantity are
Ag, =a, = 44,
Ay
ba, = 4-4
Absolute errr Aa is always postive and is denoted
by |Aa|
= Hance the final result of measurement after inchuding
the absolute error may be written 9s ¢= 4, 48,
where A is the mean absolute error,
‘© Mean absolute errar is the arithmetic mean of the
absolute errors in all the measurements of a physical
anit.
|e) |+[ a5 }+=.4] 40]
2, [4]
an
Rel Error
Relative eror of a measurement is defined asthe rato of
the mean absolute error to the mean value ofthe physical
quantity measured.
‘Mean absolute error
‘Mean value
Relative erro
a
Percentage Error
a Se ea 8 of itis
Lnown as percentage arr
Combination:
© Insum:1fZ=,
inZis
AZ~AA+ AB
+ Imaisterence 11
the maximum absolute error
hens the maxtinuen absolute
error in Zs
AZ~AA+AB
‘+ Im product : If Z = AB, then the maximum relative
error in Zis given by
‘Maximum percentage ertor in Z is
2 sy roo. AB
22 1090= “4 1004 21
S x100= “100+ 2 100
‘+ In division : If Z = 4/8, then the maximum relative
error in Zs
worwmoek@ujournal.in
‘Maximum percentage error in Z is
AZ yyy 9p 4
FS x1m0= 410042 «100
‘+ In power: If Z= A", then the maximum relative error
in Zs given by
az as
ZA
Maximum percentage ersor in Z is
MS 100=m x10
A
Zz
gg roe in Zi
& 3B,
1004 28.100
At 100+ 948
+ AC 100+ sA2 100
SS. Figures
result of a measurement of a physical quantity is
number which includes reliable digits plus ehe first
Ss digits, which is known as significant figures,
Rules to find Significant Figures
© Ruled:
All non-zero digits are significant. eg, 1324 has four
significant figures,
+ Rulez:
Al zeros occuring between two non-zero digits are
Significant. eg. 120024 has 6 significant digits.
+ Rules:
If the number is less than 1, the zero(s) on the tight of
decimal point, but tothe left of the first non-zere digit,
are not significant. eg. 0.00064 has two significant
digits
= Ruled:
In a number without a decimal point the terminal or
trailing, zero(s) ate not significant, eg. 227800 have
four significant digits.
+ Rules:
In a number with a decimal point the trailing zero(s)
are significant. «..32000r0.05400have foursignificant
digits each,
Note : The power (or exponent) of 10 is irrelevant to
Tie Usteitnisalion oCsigaiicant guises Bai eau,
3.100 » 10 has 4 significant figures.
‘The change of units only changes the order of
exponent But not the number of significant figures.
eg, 140 m= 140 « 1 cm bot have three significant
figures.
hitps:ittmelEstore33_com

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