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BERNOULLI EQUATION

The motion of a fluid is usually extremely complex.

was simplified by the absence of shear stress, but

when a fluid flows over a solid surface or other

boundary, whether stationary or moving, the velocity

of the fluid in contact with the boundary must be the

same that the boundary, and a velocity gradient is

created at right angle to the boundary.

of fluid flowing parallel to the boundary gives rise to

shear stresses in the fluid.

action of forces set up by differences of pressure of

elevation.

effect of the shear stresses exerted by the surrounding

fluid.

mathematically, and it is often necessary to

supplement theory by experiment.

1

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – The Bernoulli Equation

which, at a given instant, there is no flow.

Figure 1

and cross-section of the stream may vary from

point to point but do not change with time.

the flow is described as unsteady flow.

instant is the same in magnitude and direction at

every point in the fluid.

point to point, the flow is described as non-uniform

flow.

2

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – The Bernoulli Equation

Figure 2

3

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – The Bernoulli Equation

boundary, the fluid immediately in contact with the

boundary will have the same velocity as the

boundary.

viscosity and in which there are no shear stresses.

Figure 3

4

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – The Bernoulli Equation

change with pressure.

flow, occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers,

with no disruption between the layers.

chaotic, stochastic property changes.

1883, in straight pipes of constant diameter, flow can

be assumed to be turbulent if the Reynolds number,

Re, exceeds 4000.

ρvD

Re =

µ

Figure 4

5

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – The Bernoulli Equation

Bernoulli Equation

Figure 5

= ρAv

= ρAv[(v + δv) − v]

= ρAvδv

= pA

6

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – The Bernoulli Equation

= ( p + δp)( A + δA)

= psideδA (can be neglected)

= mg cosθ

= ρgV

δz

= ρg ( A + 12 A)δs ⋅

δs

= − Aδp − ρgAδz

ρAvδv = − Aδp − ρgAδz

Dividing by ρAδs

1 δp δv δz

0= +v + g

ρ δs δs δs

7

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – The Bernoulli Equation

In the limit as δs → 0

1 dp dv dz

0= +v +g (eq.1)

ρ ds ds ds

differential form, the relationship between pressure,

velocity, density and elevation along a streamline for

steady flow.

density and pressure is known.

constant, integration of Euler’s equation (eq.1) along

the streamline, with respect to s, gives;

v2 p

constant = + + gz

ρ 2

p v2

constant = + +z (eq.2)

ρg 2 g

8

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – The Bernoulli Equation

basic assumptions used in its derivation:

2. The flow is assumed to be steady

3. The flow is assumed to be incompressible

4. The equation is applicable along a streamline

streamline between any two points indicated by

suffixes 1 and 2;

2

p1 v p2 v22

+ + z1 = 1

+ + z2

ρg 2 g ρg 2 g (eq.3)

9

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – The Bernoulli Equation

Physical Interpretation

actually corresponds to the work-energy principle

often used in the study of dynamics.The work done

on a particle by all forces acting on the particle is

equal to the change of the kinetic energy of the

particle.

energy per weight (LF/F = L) or length (feet, meters)

and represents a certain type of head.

energy of the particle and is called the elevation head.

and represents the height of a column of the fluid that

is needed to produce the pressure p.

represents the vertical distance needed for the fluid to

fall freely (neglecting friction) if it is to reach

velocity V from rest.

pressure head, the velocity head, and the elevation

head is constant along a streamline.

10

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – The Bernoulli Equation

Figure 6

termed the dynamic pressure.

considering the pressure at the end of a small tube

inserted into the flow and pointing upstream.

liquid will fill the tube to a height of H as shown. The

fluid in the tube, including that at its tip, (2), will be

stationary. That is, V2 = 0, or point (2) is a stagnation

point.

11

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – The Bernoulli Equation

and (2), using V2 = 0 and assuming that z1 = z2, we

find that

p2 = p1 + 12 ρv12

than the static pressure, p1, by an amount 12 ρv1 , the

2

dynamic pressure.

12

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – The Bernoulli Equation

Figure 7

stationary body that is placed into a flowing fluid.

object. The dividing line (or surface for

two-dimensional flows) is termed the stagnation

streamline and terminates at the stagnation point on

the body.

stagnation point is clearly at the tip or front of the

object as shown in Figure 7(a).

shown in Figure 7(b), the location of the stagnation

point is not always obvious.

13

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – The Bernoulli Equation

pressures in a fluid implies that the fluid speed can be

calculated.

based H. de Pitot (1695–1771), as shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8

14

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – The Continuity Equation

CONTINUITY EQUATION

Figure 1

has one inlet and one outlet as shown in Figure 1.

accumulation of fluid within the volume, the rate at

which the fluid flows into the volume must equal the

rate at which it flows out of the volume.

The mass flowrate from an outlet is given as below;

m& = ρQ = ρAV

m& : Mass flowrate

Q : Volume flowrate

A : Outlet area

V : Average velocity

1

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – The Continuity Equation

outflow rate. If the inlet is designated as (1) and the

outlet as (2), it follows that;

m& 1 = m& 2

ρ1 A1V1 = ρ 2 A2V2

And the above equation becomes the continuity

equation for incompressible flow, and shown as;

A1V1 = A2V2

or

Q1 = Q2

2

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – Examples of use of the Bernoulli equation.

BERNOULLI EQUATION

Free jets

Figure 1

z1 = h and z2 = 0

p1 = p2 = 0 and v1 = 0

v2 = 2 gh

1

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – Examples of use of the Bernoulli equation.

Nozzle

(a) (b)

Figure 2

as a reasonable “average velocity”, as shown in

Figure 2(a).

rather a flat plate as shown in Figure 2(b), the

diameter of the jet, dj will be less that the diameter of

the hole, dh.

a result of the inability of the fluid to turn the sharp

90-degree corner indicated by the dotted line in the

figure.

2

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – Examples of use of the Bernoulli equation.

Figure 3

geometry of the outlet. It can be obtained by

experimental, and called as contraction coefficient,

Cc.

Aj

Cc =

Ah

with Aj is area of the jet

Ah is area of the hole

3

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – Examples of use of the Bernoulli equation.

Figure 4

Figure 4 is 1.07. Determine the volume flowrate, Q,

if the flow is inviscid and incompressible and the

flowing fluid is water.

4

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – Examples of use of the Bernoulli equation.

Figure 5

shown in Figure 5 if the contraction coefficient is

Cc = 0.63

5

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – Examples of use of the Bernoulli equation.

Figure 6

shown in Figure 6. Determine the elevation, h, of the

fuel in the open tube connected to the throat of the

Venturi meter.

6

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – Examples of use of the Bernoulli equation.

A rectangular weir

Figure 7

Q = C1 Hb 2 gH = C1b(H )

3

2 ( 2g )

7

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – Examples of use of the Bernoulli equation.

A triangular weir

Figure 8

Q=C (

1

2 2 tan θ )(H )

5

2 ( 2g )

8

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – Examples of use of the Bernoulli equation.

actually an energy equation representing the

partitioning of energy for an inviscid, incompressible,

steady flow.

constant as the fluid flows from one section to

another.

be obtained through the use of the concepts of the

hydraulic grade line (HGL) and the energy line (EL).

flow and can often be effectively used to better grasp

the fundamental processes involved.

9

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – Examples of use of the Bernoulli equation.

available to the fluid. The elevation of the energy line

can be obtained by measuring the stagnation pressure

with a pitot tube.

tube measures the sum of the pressure head and

elevation head, and called piezometer head.

termed the hydraulic line.

Figure 9

10

Chapter 5 – Fluid in Motion – Examples of use of the Bernoulli equation.

Figure 10

11

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

The Velocity Field

as function of the spatial coordinates is termed a field

representation of the flow.

velocity field.

V = u ( x, y , z , t )iˆ + v ( x, y , z , t ) ˆj + w( x, y , z , t ) kˆ

velocity vector.

Figure 1

V = V = (u 2 + v 2 + w 2 )

1

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Example 1

V = (5 z − 3)iˆ + ( x + 4) ˆj + ( 4 y ) kˆ (m/s)

Determine the fluid speed at the origin (x=y=z=0)

And on the x-axis (y=z=0)

Example 2

⎛ 20 y ⎞ ⎛ 20 x ⎞

V =⎜ ⎟iˆ − ⎜ ⎟ ˆj

⎜ x2 + y2 ⎟ ⎜ x2 + y 2 ⎟ (m/s)

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

and along the y-axis.

What is the angle between the velocity vector and the

x-axis at point (x,y)=(5,0), (5,5) and (0,5)

Example 3

by u=x+y, v=xy3+16 and w=0.

Determine the location of any stagnation points (V=0)

in the flow field.

2

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

mechanics problems.

second method is called the Lagragian method.

the flow in terms of what happens at fixed points in

space as the fluid flows past those points.

particles as they move about and determining how the

fluid properties associated with these particles change

as a function of time. That is, the fluid particles are

“tagged” or identified, and their properties

determined as they move.

Figure 2

3

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

given point in space does not vary with time.

∂V

=0

∂t

sense.

analyze and to investigate experimentally than are

steady flows.

4

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Streamlines

velocity field.

the equations defining lines tangent to the velocity

field as illustrated in the Figure 3.

Figure 3

dy v

=

dx u

5

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

have previously passed through a common point.

analytical tool. They can be obtained by taking

instantaneous photographs of marked particles that all

passed through a given location in the flow field at

some earlier time.

it flows from one point to another. The pathline is a

Lagrangian concept that can be produced in the

paboratory by marking a fluid particle and taking a

time exposure photograph of its motion.

Figure 4

6

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

described the fluid acceleration just as is done in

solid body dynamics, a = a (t ) for each particle.

acceleration field as a function of position and time

without actually following any particular particle.

the velocity field,

V = V ( x, y , z , t )

change of its velocity.

7

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Figure 5

shown in Figure 5.

particle A, is a function of its location and the time.

That is ;

V A = V A (rA , t ) = V A [ x A (t ), y A (t ), z A (t ), t ]

8

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

any particle obtained as ;

∂V ∂V ∂V ∂V

a= +u +v +w

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

written as ;

(x-axis)

∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u

ax = +u +v +w

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

(y-axis)

∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v

ay = +u +v +w

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

(z-axis)

∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w

az = +u +v +w

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

9

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Convective Effects

the spatial derivatives is termed the convective

derivative.

with a fluid particle may vary because of the motion

of the particle from one point in space where the

parameter has one value to another point in space

where its value is different.

convective acceleration.

changes as it flows through a water heater.

Figure 6

10

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Example 4

The x and y components of a velocity field are given

by u=x2y and v=-xy2. Determine the equation for the

streamlines of this flow.

Example 5

A velocity field is given by u=cx2 and v=cy2, where c

is a constant. Determine the x and y components of

the acceleration. At what point (points) in the flow is

the acceleration zero.

Example 6

Determine the acceleration field for a

three-dimensional flow with velocity components,

u=-x, v=4x2y2 and w=x-y.

11

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Example 7

Figure 7

of a liquid layer as it flows in an open channel as

shown in Figure 7. If V1=0.4m/s, V2=0.1m/s and

l = 0.07 m , estimate the average deceleration of the

liquid as it flows across the hydraulic jump. How

many G’s deceleration does this represent?

Example 8

Figure 8

3

V0=40m/s and V = V0 sin θ . Determine the streamwise

2

and normal components of acceleration at point A if

the radius of the sphere is a=0.20m.

12

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Streamline Coordinates

Figure 9

coordinate system defined in terms of the streamlines

of the flow.

coordinate or (r, θ) polar coordinate system.

13

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Figure 10

space (a geometric entity, independent of mass)

through which fluid may flow.

It may consist of a relatively large amount of mass, or

it may be an infinitesimal size.

various means. It may continually change size and

shape, but it always contains the same mass.

14

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Reynolds Transport Theorem

particular part of the fluid as it moves about.

fluid has on a particular object or volume in space as

fluid interact with it.

motion using both system concept (consider a given

mass of the fluid) and control volume concept

(consider a given volume).

one representation to the other.

1

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

physical parameters.

momentum are but a few of the more common

parameters.

parameters and b represent the amount of that

parameter per unit mass. That is ;

B = m⋅b

b is termed an intensive property.

V2

If B is the kinetic energy of mass, B = m 2 ,

V2

then b = 2 , the kinetic energy per mass.

2

Chapter 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Figure 1

fixed, non-deforming control volume is given as ;

DBsys ∂

Dt

= ∫

∂t cv

ρbdV + ∫ ρbV ⋅ nˆ ⋅ dA

cs

3

Chapter 7 – Continuity Equation and Linear Momentum

CONTINUITY EQUATION

Derivation of the Continuity Equation

contents, so the conservation of mass principle for a

system is simply stated as ;

Or

DM sys

=0

Dt

expressed as ;

M sys = ∫ ρ ⋅ dV

sys

the sum of all the density-volume element products

for the contents of the system.

1

Chapter 7 – Continuity Equation and Linear Momentum

D ∂

∫

Dt sys

ρ ⋅ dV = ∫

∂t cv

ρdV + ∫ ρV ⋅ nˆ ⋅ dA

cs

∂

∂t cv∫

ρdV shows the time rate of change of the

mass of the contents of the control

volume.

∫ ρV ⋅ nˆdA

cs

shows the net rate of mass flow

through the control surface.

density remain constant with time, and the time rate

of change of the mass of the contents of the control

volume is zero. That is ;

∂

∫

∂t cv

ρd V = 0

2

Chapter 7 – Continuity Equation and Linear Momentum

∫ ρV ⋅ nˆdA

cs

is mass flowrate through dA

It can be shown as ;

∫ ρV ⋅ nˆdA = ∑ m&

cs

out − ∑ m& in

through a section of control surface having area A is ;

m& = ρQ = ρAV

∫ ρV ⋅ nˆdA

V = A

=V

ρA

(one-dimensional flow) over the section A, the

V =V

3

Chapter 7 – Continuity Equation and Linear Momentum

appropriate control volume to use is fixed and

non-deforming.

mass of the contents of the control volume is equal to

zero.

∂

∫

∂t cv

ρd V = 0

4

Chapter 7 – Continuity Equation and Linear Momentum

control volume attached to a moving reference frame.

the gasoline tank of an automobile passing by.

velocity relative to the moving control volume

(relative velocity) is an important flow field variable.

an observer moving with the control volume.

the control volume as seen from a fixed coordinate

system.

a stationary observer in a fixed coordinate system.

Their relation is ;

V = W + Vcv

5

Chapter 7 – Continuity Equation and Linear Momentum

conservation of mass (the continuity equation) for a

moving, non-deforming control volume, namely ;

∂

∫

∂t cv

ρdV + ∫ ρW ⋅ nˆdA = 0

cs

6

Chapter 7 – Continuity Equation and Linear Momentum

LINEAR MOMENTUM

Derivation of the Linear Momentum Equation

Time rate of change of Sum of the external

the linear momentum of = forces acting on the

the system system

D

∫VρdV = ∑ Fsys

Dt sys

coincident control volume that is fixed and

non-deforming control volume, the Reynolds

transport theorem (with b=velocity) allows us to

conclude that ;

Time rate of Time rate of Net rate of flow

change of the = change of the + of linear

linear linear momentum

momentum of momentum of through the

the system the contents of control surface

the control

volume

1

Chapter 7 – Continuity Equation and Linear Momentum

It can be written as ;

D ∂

∫

Dt sys

VρdV = ∫

∂t cv

VρdV + ∫ VρV ⋅ nˆdA

cs

the appropriate mathematical statement of Newton’s

second law of motion is ;

∂

∫ VρdV + ∫ VρV ⋅ nˆ dA = ∑ Fcontents of the

∂t cv cs control volume

the linear momentum equation.

2

Chapter 7 – Continuity Equation and Linear Momentum

F = ma

to determine “mass” that involve in the motion.

∆V m

F = ma = m ⋅ = ⋅ ∆v

∆t ∆t

m& = ρQ

m

F = ma = ⋅ ∆v = m& ∆v = ρQ∆v

∆t

3

Chapter 7 – Continuity Equation and Linear Momentum

and vane problems.

forces act on vane can be determine as ;

Fx = ρQ∆v x

Fy = ρQ∆v y

FR = Fx2 + Fy2

4

Chapter 7 – Continuity Equation and Linear Momentum

Force on x-direction

Fx = R x = ρQ∆v x = ρQ(v2 x − v1x ) = ρQv1

Force on y-direction

Fy = R y = ρQ∆v y = ρQ(v2 y − v1 y ) = ρQv2

5

Chapter 7 – Continuity Equation and Linear Momentum

CONTINUITY EQUATION

Derivation of the Continuity Equation

DBsystem D ∂

Dt

= ∫

Dt system

ρdV = ∫

∂t cv

bρdV + ∫ bρVnˆ dA

cs

Theorem, we found that, if B is mass, the b will be

equal to one (1).

B = mass

b=1

zero, so we can say that ;

DBsystem Dmsystem

= =0

Dt Dt

1

Chapter 7 – Continuity Equation and Linear Momentum

∂

∂t cv∫

ρdV shows the time rate of change of the

mass of the contents of the control

volume.

∫ ρV ⋅ nˆdA

cs

shows the net rate of mass flow

through the control surface.

density remain constant with time, and the time rate

of change of the mass of the contents of the control

volume is zero. That is ;

∂

∫

∂t cv

ρd V = 0

2

Chapter 7 – Continuity Equation and Linear Momentum

Example:

Figure 1

shown in Figure 1 at rate of 0.3m3/s. It leaves the

tank through a 3cm diameter pipe with a density of

1.80kg/m3 and a uniform speed of 210m/s.

tank in increasing or decreasing.

b) Determine the average time rate of change of air

density within the tank.

3

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

PIPE FLOW

The Energy Equation

words

increase of the = energy addition by + energy addition by

total storage heat transfer into work transfer into

energy of the the system the system

t

equation as :

2

Pout Vout Pin Vin2

+ + z out = + +z +h

ρg 2 g ρg 2 g in loss

1

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

EXAMPLE 1

Figure 1

over a rock pile as shown in Figure 1. Determine the

direction of flow and the head loss associated with

the flow across the rock pile.

2

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

EXAMPLE 2

Figure 2

pipe shown in Figure 2. Determine the direction of

flow and the head loss over the 6m length of pipe.

3

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

EXAMPLE 3

Figure 3

pipe from one closed, pressurized tank to another as

shown in Figure 3. The pump adds 4.0kW to the

water and the head loss of the flow is 10m.

Determine the velocity of the water leaving the pipe.

4

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

EXAMPLE 4

Figure 4

Figure 4. Is the flow up or down? Explain.

5

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

PIPE FLOW

General Characteristic of Pipe Flow

Figure 1

system are shown in Figure 1.

connect the individual pipes to form the desired

system, the flowrate control device or valves, and the

pumps or turbines that add energy to or remove

energy from the fluid.

1

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

Figure 2

pipe flow is in the fundamental mechanism that

drives the flow.

force – the water flows down a hill.

need not be horizontal), but the main driving force is

likely to be a pressure gradient along the pipe.

this pressure difference, P1- P2.

2

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

Figure 3

it may be turbulent flow.

and mathematician, was the first to distinguish the

difference between these two classifications of flow

by experimental.

streakline) will remain as a well-defined line as it

flows along, with only slight blurring due to

molecular diffusion of the dye into the surrounding

water. It is called laminar flow.

3

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

in time and space, and intermittent burst of irregular

behavior appear along the streak. It is called

transitional flow.

immediately becomes blurred and spreads across the

entire pipe in a random fashion. It is called turbulent

flow.

parameter was introduced by Osborne Reynolds,

called the Reynolds number, Re.

viscous effects in the flow. It is written as ;

ρVD

Re =

µ

ρ : Density (kg/m3)

V : Average velocity in pipe (m/s)

D : Diameter of pipe (m)

µ : Dynamic viscosity (Ns/m2)

flow and its dependence on an appropriate

dimensionless quantity was first appointed out by

Osborne Reynolds in 1883.

4

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

transitional or turbulent pipe flows are obtained

cannot be precisely given.

may take place at various Reynolds numbers,

depending on how much the flow is disturbed by

vibration of pipe, roughness of the entrance region

and other factors.

values are appropriate :

number is less than approximately 2100.

2. The flow in a round pipe is turbulent if the

Reynolds numbers is greater that approximately

4000.

3. For Reynolds number between these two limits,

the flow may switch between laminar and

turbulent conditions in an apparently random

fashion.

5

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

Figure 4

pipe is termed the entrance region.

whether the flow is laminar or turbulent, as does the

length of the entrance region, l e

6

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

correlates quite well with the Reynolds number.

Typical entrance lengths are given by ;

le

= 0.06(Re ) (for laminar flow)

D

and

le 1

= 4.4(Re )6 (for turbulent flow)

D

fully developed flow.

7

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

Figure 5

occur than laminar flow in practical situation.

8

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

be greater than approximately 4000 for turbulent

flow.

laminar and turbulent flow occurs at a Reynolds

number of approximately 500,000.

ρVL

Reflat plate =

µ

9

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

PIPE FLOW

Losses in Pipe

that occur in a pipe flow so that the energy equation,

can be used in the analysis of pipe flow problems.

the head loss due to viscous effects in the straight

pipes, termed the major loss and denoted hL-major.

minor loss and denoted hL-minor.

That is ;

hL = hL-major + hL-minor

do not necessarily reflect the relative importance of

each type of loss.

and a relatively short length of pipe, the minor loss

may actually be larger than the major loss.

1

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

Major Losses

l V2

hL −major = f

D 2g

where f is friction factor.

Darcy-Weisbach equation. It is valid for any fully

developed, steady, incompressible pipe flow, whether

the pipe is horizontal or on hill

64

f =

Re

chart.

relative roughness influence the friction.

ρVD

Reynolds number, Re =

µ

ε

Relative roughness D =

2

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

3

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

fully developed, incompressible pipe flows.

the entire non-laminar range of the Moody chart. It is

called Colebrook formula.

⎛ε ⎞

= −2.0 log⎜ D + ⎟

1 2.51

f ⎜ 3.7 Re f ⎟

⎝ ⎠

4

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

Minor Losses

add to the overall head loss of the system, which is

turn alters the losses associated with the flow through

the valves.

V2

hL − minor = KL

2g

where KL is the loss coefficient.

loss coefficient.

5

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

A1 A1

Condition: =0 or =∞

A2 A2

6

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

A1 A1

Condition: =0 or =∞

A2 A2

7

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

diameter

2 2 2

⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞

K L = ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜1 − ⎟⎟

⎝ A1 ⎠ ⎝ Ac ⎠ ⎝ C c ⎠

8

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

2

⎛ A1 ⎞

K L = ⎜1 − ⎟⎟

⎜

⎝ A2 ⎠

9

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

EXAMPLE 1

Figure 1

tank shown in Figure 1. Determine the flowrate if the

loss coefficient for the nozzle (based on upstream

conditions) is 0.75 and the friction factor for the

rough hose is 0.11.

10

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

EXAMPLE 2

Figure 2

shown in Figure 2. If flowrate is 0.011m3/s, what is

the maximum length inlet pipe, l, that can be used

without cavitations occurring.

11

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

EXAMPLE 3

Figure 3

galvanized iron pipe system shown in Figure 3 at rate

6x10-4m3/s. Your boss suggests that friction losses in

the straight pipe sections are negligible compared to

losses in the threaded elbows and fittings of the

system. Do you agree or disagree with your boss?

Support your answer with appropriate calculations.

12

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

13

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

PIPE FLOW

A pipe system which has only one pipe line is called

single pipe system.

involved, and this mechanism is called multiple pipe

systems.

pipe system; however, because of the numerous

unknowns involved, additional complexities may

arise in solving for the flow in these systems.

1

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

Figure 1

containing pipes in series, as shown in Figure 1.

passes through each of the pipes.

in each pipe, and the head loss from point A to point

B is the sum of the head losses in each of the pipes.

Q1 = Q2 = Q3

and

hL ( A− B ) = hL1 + hL 2 + hL 3

2

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

Figure 2

in parallel, as shown in Figure 2.

may take any of paths available, with the total

flowrate equal to the sum of the flowrates in each

pipe.

traveling between these two locations is independent

of the path taken.

Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3

and

hL1 = hL 2 = hL 3

3

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

Figure 3

Figure 3.

sum of the flowrates through pipes (2) and (3), or

Q1 = Q2 + Q3

reservoir, the head loss for pipe (2) must equal that

for pipe (3), even though the pipe sizes and flowrates

may be different for each.

4

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

PA V A2 PB VB2

+ + zA = + + z B + hL1 + hL 2

ρg 2 g ρg 2 g

PA V A2 PB VB2

+ + zA = + + z B + hL1 + hL 3

ρg 2 g ρg 2 g

hL 2 = hL 3

5

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

Three-reservoir system

Figure 4

problem shown in Figure 4.

obvious which direction the fluid flows.

reservoir A because the other reservoir levels are

lower.

6

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

EXAMPLE 1

The pipe diameter changes to 0.75m through a

sudden expansion. Determine the pressure rise across

this expansion. Explain how there can be a pressure

rise across the expansion when there is an energy loss

(KL > 0)

EXAMPLE 2

640m, 545m and 580m respectively. A 0.45m

diameter pipe, 3.2km long runs from reservoir A to a

node at an elevation of 610m, where the 0.3m

diameter pipes each of 1.6km length branch from the

original pipe and connect reservoirs B and C. If the

friction factor for each pipe is 0.020, determine the

flowrate in each pipe.

7

Chapter 8 – Pipe Flow

EXAMPLE 3

Figure 5

connected by pipes as indicated. If minor losses are

neglected, determine the flowrate in each pipe.

8

Chapter 9 – Buckingham Pi Theorem

BUCKINGHAM PI THEOREM

Dimensional Analysis

conditions of the equations.

For example;

F=ma

F=MLT-2

Unit : F=kg.m/s

1

Chapter 9 – Buckingham Pi Theorem

Buckingham Pi Theorem

homogeneous, it can be reduced to a relationship

among k – r independent dimensionless products,

where r is the minimum number of reference

dimensions required to describe the variables.

Or

π1=G(π2, π3, π4, ……., πk-r)=0

as “pi terms”, and the theorem is called the

Buckingham Pi Theorem.

dimensionless product, and this notation is commonly

used.

2

Chapter 9 – Buckingham Pi Theorem

a dimensional analysis using the method of repeating

variables are as follows :

problem.

Step2 Express each of the variables in terms of

basic dimensions.

Step 3 Determine the required number of pi terms.

Step 4 Select a number of repeating variables,

where the number required is equal to the

number of reference dimensions. (usually the

same as the number of basic dimensions)

Step 5 Form the pi term by multiplying one of the

nonrepeating variables by the product of

repeating variables each raised to an

exponent that will make the combination

dimensionless.

Step 6 Repeat step 5 for each of the remaining

nonrepeating variables.

Step 7 Check all the resulting pi terms to make sure

they are dimensionless.

Step 8 Express the final form as a relationship

among the pi terms and think about what it

means.

3

Chapter 9 – Buckingham Pi Theorem

Selection of Variables

applying dimensional analysis to any given problem

is the selection of the variables that are involved.

outside fluid mechanics), pertinent variables can be

classified into three groups – geometry, material

properties and external effects.

Geometry :

The geometry characteristics can be usually be

described by a series of lengths and angles.

Example: length [L]

Material properties :

More relates to the kinematic properties of fluid

particles.

Example: velocity [LT-1]

External effects :

This terminology is used to denote any variable that

produces, or tends to produce, a change in the system.

For fluid mechanics, variables in this class would be

related to pressure, velocities, or gravity.

(combination of geometry and material properties)

Example: force [MLT-2]

4

Chapter 9 – Buckingham Pi Theorem

5

Chapter 9 – Buckingham Pi Theorem

items Problems

Flow through rivers or open

conduits.

Pressure difference between two

points.

Surface tension problems.

6

Chapter 9 – Buckingham Pi Theorem

aircraft, ships, rivers, harbor, and so on, frequently

involve the used of models.

physical system that may be used to predict the

behavior of the system in some desired respect.

be made is called the prototype.

Therefore, it is more easily handled in the laboratory

and less expensive to construct and operate than a

large prototype.

advantageous to have a model that is larger than a

prototype so that it can be more easily studied.

7

Chapter 9 – Buckingham Pi Theorem

8

Chapter 9 – Buckingham Pi Theorem

9

Chapter 9 – Buckingham Pi Theorem

Models are widely used in fluid mechanics.

aircrafts, ships, rivers, harbor, and so on, frequently

involve the use of models.

may be used to predict the behavior of the system in

some desire respect.

be made is called the prototype.

1

Chapter 9 – Buckingham Pi Theorem

Theory of Models

using the principles of dimensional analysis.

Π1 = φ (Π 2 , Π 3 ,......, Π n )

particular prototype, a similar relationship can be

written for a model of this prototype, that is,

Π1m = φ (Π 2 m , Π 3m ,......, Π nm )

prototype.

variables or pi terms.

variable that is to be predicted from observations

made on the model. Therefore, if the model is

designed and operated under the following

conditions,

Π2m=Π2 , Π3m=Π3 , …, Πnm=Πn …… Eq.(1)

same for model and prototype, it follows that,

Π1=Π1m …… Eq.(2)

2

Chapter 9 – Buckingham Pi Theorem

indicates that the measured value of Π1m obtained

with the model will be equal to the corresponding Π1

for the prototype as long as the other pi terms are

equal.

model design conditions, also called similarity

requirements or modeling laws.

3

Chapter 9 – Buckingham Pi Theorem

Model scales

prototype value as the scale.

1

For example, as 1:10 or as a 10

scale model.

one-tenth the size of the prototype, and the tacit

assumption is that all relevant lengths are scaled

accordingly, so the model is geometrically similar to

the prototype.

Vm

Velocity scale, V

ρm

Density scale, ρ

µm

Viscosity scale, µ

And so on.

4

Chapter 9 – Buckingham Pi Theorem

requirements are not satisfied are called distorted

models.

are called true models.

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